/

Golubeva Irina

From Сhrist Pantokrator to Salvator Mundi: the development of the iconography of the savior in Italian panel painting of the 13th — 15th centuries


Golubeva Irina (2023) "From Shrist Pantokrator to Salvator Mundi: the development of the iconography of the savior in Italian panel painting of the 13th — 15th centuries ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia V : Voprosi istorii i teorii hristianskogo iskusstva, 2023, vol. 51, pp. 54-67 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturV202351.54-67

Abstract

The iconography of Jesus Christ is one of the most relevant and, at the same time, the most difficult subjects to study. The formation of stable iconographic types of the Savior’s image went through a complicated path, going through various transformations, mainly related to the practical or liturgical function of icons. One of the most popular type, Pantokrator, has been realized in the panel painting of the Italian central region from the earliest times in the copies of the main Roman relic - Acheropita (Greek: Αχειροποίητα, the Image of Christ Not Made by Human Hands), which, as believed, had the same miraculous and protective power as an ancient icon. These copies, representing the image of the Savior on the throne (sometimes flanked by the parts of a triptych with the praying Virgin Mary and Saint John depicted) were largely produced for the churches of Rome and Lazio until the end of the 15th century. In the Renaissance, with its focus on individual religious practice, there is an increasing demand for small altars for home prayer, where artists implemented a new type of iconography, Veronica (Latin: Vera Icona, True Face), which (as well as Acheropita) was associated with the legend of the miraculous discovery of a relic and also endowed with a special protective power. Various interpretations of the illustrative images of the True Face in Italy and the artistic solutions found by the painters of Northern Europe finally lead to the formation and wide circulation in the Renaissance art of another iconographic variation - the Savior of the World (Latin: Salvator Mundi). This article discusses the pictorial and textual sources that determined the completion of the main iconographic types of Jesus Christ in Italian panel painting of the 13th – 15th centuries and with many of attracted samples studies the development of Savior’s iconography.

Keywords

Iconography of Jesus Christ, Iconography of the Savior, Salvator Mundi, Italian Art, Religious Art, Renaissance Art, Art of 13th-15th century.

References

  1. Andaloro M. (2018) “Dal ritratto all’icona”, in Andaloro M., Romano S. (eds) Arte e iconografia a Roma. Da Costantino a Cola di Rienzo. Milan, pp. 31–69.
  2. Bacci M. (2006) “Epigoni orientali e occidentali dell’immagine di Cristo ‘non fatta da mano d’uomo’”, in Frommel C. L., Wolf G. (eds) L’immagine di Cristo: dall’acheropita alla mano d’artista. Dal tardo medioevo all’età barocca. Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana, pp. 43–60.
  3. Belting H. (2002) Image and Cult. The History of Image before the Epoch of Art. Moscow (Russian translation).
  4. Dijk A. van (2013) “The Veronica, the Vultus Cristi and the Veneration of Icons in the Medieval Rome”, in McKitterick R. (ed.) Old Saint Peter’s, Rome. Cambridge, pp. 229–256.
  5. Golahny A. (2013) “Italian Art and the North Exchanges, Critical Reception and Identity, 1400– 1700”, in Bohn B., Saslow J. M. (eds) A Companion to Renaissance and Baroque Art. New York.
  6. Hand J. O. (1992) “Salve sancta facies: Some Thoughts on the Iconography of the Head of Christ by Petrus Christus”, in Metropolitan Museum Journal: Essays in Memory of Guy C. Bauman, vol. 27, pp. 7–19.
  7. Harley-McGowan F. (2018) “Salvator Mundi: Visualizing Divine Authority”, in Berger T. (ed.) Full of Your Glory: Liturgy, Cosmos, Creation. Papers from 5th Yale ISM Liturgy Conference, June 18–21, 2018. Collegeville (Minnesota), pp. 88–115.
  8. Kessler H. (2017) “The Literary Warp and Artistic Wet of Veronica’s Cloth”, in The European Fortune of the Roman Veronica in the Middle Ages. Exchanges and Interactions in the Arts of Medieval Europe, Byzantium, and the Mediterranean, pp. 12–31.
  9. Kessler H., Zacharias J. (2000) Rome 1300: On the Path of the Pilgrim. London.
  10. Parlato E. (2018) “Le icone in processione”, in Andaloro M., Romano S. (eds) Arte e iconografia a Roma. Da Costantino a Cola di Rienzo. Milan, pp. 69–92.
  11. Romano S., Andaloro M. (2017) Pittura medievalе a Roma: 321–1431. Vol. 6. Apogeo e fine del Medioevo: 1288–1431. Milan. Stainer-Hutchins K., Watney S., Platt H. (2010) “A Rediscovered Prototype by Quinten Metsys: Christ Blessing with the Virgin in Adoration”. The Burlington Magazine, vol. 2, pp. 76–81.
  12. The Great Italian Painters from the Gothic to the Renaissance. Duccio, Simone Martini, Pietro and Ambrogio Lorenzetti, Masaccio, Fra Angelico, Filippo Lippi, Benozzo Gozzoli. Complete Monographs. Florence, 2003.
  13. Marchand E., Wright A. (eds) With and Without Medici: Studies in Tuscan Art and Patronage, 1434–1530. Aldershot.
  14. Wolf G. (2000) “Dal volto all’immagine, dall’immagine al volto”, in Morello G., Wolf G. (eds) Il volto di Cristo. Milan, pp. 19–25.
  15. Zchomelidse N. (2000) “The Aura of the Numinous and Its Reproduction: Medieval Paintings of the Savior in Rome and Latium”. Memoirs of the American Academy in Rome, vol. 55, pp. 221–263.

Information about the author

Golubeva Irina


Student status: Graduate student;
Place of study: Art and Architecture Department, Russian Institute of Art History; St. Petersburg, Russia, 190000, Isaakievskaya pl. 5;
ORCID: 0000-0003-0983-1292;
Email: igolubeva@yandex.ru.