The article, which is a continuation of the author's publications about the Assumption Cathedral of the Pyukhtitsky Monastery, examines the architectural and artistic history of the monastery as a whole in the context of the change of forms of the Russian style in the domestic church architecture of the late XIX-early XX centuries. The monastery ensemble, the largest in the Baltic States both in terms of the number of buildings and the occupied area, was created by the works of the Governor of Estonia, Prince S. V. Shakhovsky and Princess E. D. Shakhovskaya, on the revival of an ancient Orthodox shrine in an unfriendly non-Orthodox environment. It includes buildings within the boundaries of the monastery fence and beyond: the most important historical shrine-the place of the appearance of the Mother of God and Her icon, a cemetery and a Holy spring, a chapel. Most of the ensemble was built in the Moscow-Yaroslavl version of the Russian style, in a short period of time and according to the plan of one architect – M. T. It is distinguished by its integrity, harmonious inclusion in the natural environment and hilly terrain, a variety of types of structures: "big cathedral", stone, "semi-stone" and wooden (cage and tent) churches, small forms (chapels), residential, economic, educational, medical and other civil buildings. During the construction, both natural local granite stone was used (which anticipated its use in the northern Art Nouveau of the early twentieth century), and building materials produced at the monastery or in the Baltic provinces. Russian Russian architecture gives a local flavor to the architecture of the monastery, especially the cathedral, designed by the Russian-Estonian architect A. A. Poleshchuk, which makes it possible to consider the buildings of Pyukhtitsa as works of not only "imperial" Russian, but also Estonian architecture. The construction of the monastery was carried out in the late Soviet period, under Abbess Varvara (Trofimova), when it was actually banned everywhere in the USSR, and with the preservation of historical stylistics and on the basis of the first "master plan" (monastery walls and towers). Currently, the ensemble is being completed with the construction of an almshouse, the project of which is also based on the drawings of Preobrazhensky. Thus, the Pyukhtitsky monastery, which has never been closed, still preserves local architectural and construction traditions, as well as interiors in the Russian style. They give an idea of the style of the works of famous masters at the beginning of the twentieth century, other works of which were lost during the persecution of the Church in the USSR.
Russian style, Moscow-Yaroslavl style, Russian monastic church building, architect M. T. Preobrazhensky, Estonian governor Prince S. V. Shakhovskaya, Princess E. D. Shakhovskaya, Abbess Varvara (Blokhina), Abbess Varvara (Trofimova)
- Alexy II (Ridiger) (1999), Patriarch of Moscow and All Russia. Pravoslavie v Estonii [Orthodoxy in Estonia]. Moscow.
- Bertash A., archpriest (2021) “Inter′er Uspenskogo sobora Piukhtitskogo monastyria i ego mastera S. A. i P. S. Abrosimovy i F. E. Egorov” [The interior of the Assumption Cathedral of Pühtitsa Monastery and its masters S.A. and P.S. Abrosimov and F. E. Egorov]. Vestnik PSTGU. Seriia V: Voprosy istorii i teorii khristianskogo iskusstva, no. 42, pp. 60–78 (in Russian).
- Bertash A., archpriest (2021) “Uspenskii sobor Piukhtitskogo monastyria v Estonii kak pamiatnik retrospektivnogo russkogo stilia, ego stroiteli i zhertvovateli” [The Assumption Cathedral of Pühtitsa Monastery in Estonia as a monument of the retrospective Russian style, its builders and donors]. Vestnik PSTGU. Serĳ a V: Voprosy istorii i teorii hristianskogo iskusstva, 41, pp. 132–152 (in Russian).
- Bertash A., archpriest (2020) “Piukhtitskii v chest′ Uspeniia Presviatoi Bogoroditsy zhenskii stavropigial′nyi monastyr′” [Pühtitsa Holy Dormition Monastery], in Pravoslavnaia entsiklopediia [Orthodox encyclopaedia], vol. 59. Moscow, pp. 107–124 (in Russian).
- Bertash A. (2019) “Sokolov Nikolaj Matveevič”, in Allgemeines Künstlerlexikon. Die Bildenden Künstler aller Zeiten und Völker, Bd. 104. Berlin; Boston, S. 460.
- Bertash A., archpriest (2018) “Arkhitektor Mikhail T. Preobrazhenskii i ego nasledie v stranakh Baltii i Vostochnoi Evropy” [Architect Mikhail T. Preobrazhensky and his legacy in the Baltic countries and Eastern Europe]. Sztuka Europy Wschodniej — The Art of Eastern Europe. T. 6. Polscy i rosyjscy architekci w XIX i XX wieku. Warszawa; Toruń, 2018, pp. 61–76 (in Russian).
- Bertash A., archpriest (2018) “Tserkovnyi zodchii M.T. Preobrazhenskii i ego raboty v Estliandskoi gubernii” [Church architect M. Preobrazhensky and his works in Estland], in Sed′mye Piukhtitskie chteniia. Materialy mezhdunarodnoi nauchno-prakticheskoi konferentsii [Seventh Pühtitsa Readings. Materials of the international conference], Kuremiae, 2018, pp. 116–124 (in Russian).
- Buseva-Davydova I. (2000) “Russkoe tserkovnoe iskusstvo X–XX vv. 1. Arkhitektura pravoslavnogo khrama. X–XX vek” [Russian church art of the 10th — 20th centuries. The architecture of an Orthodox church. 10th — 20th centuries], in Pravoslavnaia entsiklopediia [Orthodox encyklopaedia], Moscow, pp. 519–537 (in Russian).
- Filareta (Kalacheva), nun (2019) Put′, istina i zhizn′ [Path, truth and life]. Moscow (in Russian).
- Filareta (Kalacheva), nun, Tikhona (Pronenko), nun, Timkina V. (eds) (2016) Obitel′ Bozhiei Materi. 125 let Piuhtickomu Uspenskomu stavropigial′nomu zhenskomu monastyriu [Abode of Theotokos. 125th Anniversary of Pühtitsa Assumption Convent]. Kuremäe (in Russian).
- Filareta (Kalacheva), abbess (compiled), Tikhona (Pronenko), nun (compiled), V. A. Timkina (compiled). Igumenĳa za svjatoe poslushanie (Abbess for holy obedience). Kuremäe, 2013.
- Frolov V. (2014) “Sotsial′nye, etnokul′turnye i konfessional′nye osobennosti arkhitekturnogo naslediia monastyrei” [Social, ethnocultural and confessional features of the architectural heritage of monasteries]. Vestnik MGSU, no. 6, pp. 35–43 (in Russian).
- Kolycheva E. (2002) “Pravoslavnye monastyri vtoroi poloviny XV–XVI veka” [Orthodox monasteries of the second half of the 15th — 16th centuries], in Monashestvo i monastyri v Rossii. XI–XX veka [Monasticism and monasteries in Russia. 11th — 20th centuries]. Moscow (in Russian).
- Malkov I. (1997) Drevnerusskoe dereviannoe zodchestvo [Old Russian wooden architecture]. Moscow (in Russian).
- Nezhnyi A. (2018) Poslushnitsa Materi Bozhiei [Novice of the Mother of God]. Moscow (in Russian).
- Pamiatniki arkhitektury Kostromskoi oblasti (1997) [Architectural monuments of Kostroma region], issue 1, part 2. Kostroma (in Russian).
- Piuhtitskaia obitel′ i ee sed′maia nastoiatel′nitsa skhiigumeniia Varvara (Trofimova) (2015) [Pühtitsa monastery and its seventh abbess Varvara (Trofi mova)]. Kuremäe (in Russian).
- Plaat J., Maasik A. (2011) Pravoslavnye tserkvi, monastyri i chasovni v Estonii [Orthodox churches, monasteries and chapels in Estonia]. Tallinn (in Russian).
- Shchenkov A. (ed.) (2002) Pamiatniki arkhitektury v dorevoliutsionnoi Rossii [Architectural monuments in pre-revolutionary Russia]. Moscow (in Russian).
- Varvara (Trofi mova), nun, Timkina V. (eds) (2017) Letopis′ tserkvi Uspeniia Presviatyia Bogoroditsy na Bogoroditskoi gore, pod nazvaniem Piuhtitskoi…, sostavlennaia v 1887–1892 godakh [Chronicle of the Church of the Dormition of Theotokos on the Bogoroditskaya Mountain, called Pühtitsa..., compiled in 1887–1892]. Kuremäe (in Russian).
Bertash Alexander, archpriest Academic Degree:
Candidate of Sciences*
in Art Criticism; Academic Degree:
Candidate of Sciences*
in Theology; Place of work:
Church of the Holy Royal Passion-bearers in Bremen, Berlin-German Diocese; Kleine Westerholz Strasse, 17, 28309, Bremen, BRD; The limited liability company Architectural Bureau «Liteynaya chast-91»; St.-Petersburg, Russian Federation; Post:
rector of the churc, ancient guardian of the diocese; leading art critic; ORCID: 0000-0003-3486-0490
*According to the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) 2011, the degree of Candidate of Sciences (Cand.Sc.) belongs to ISCED level 8 — "doctoral or equivalent", together with PhD, DPhil, D.Lit, D.Sc, LL.D, Doctorate or similar.