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St. Tikhon’s University Review . Series V: Problems of History and Theory of Christian Art

St. Tikhon’s University Review V :40

ARTICLES

Voronova Ariadna

Diocletian's palace and early christian Salona: NOVA POST VETERA

Voronova Ariadna (2020) "Diocletian's palace and early christian Salona: NOVA POST VETERA ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia V : Voprosi istorii i teorii hristianskogo iskusstva, 2020, Iss. 40, pp. 9-33 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturV202040.9-33
The article is devoted to the issue of transforming the late ancient palace of Diocletian into an early medieval city and transferring there the continuity of the nearby ancient metropolis Salona which became an infl uential Christian centre. Along with many early Christian buildings of Salona, its urban core was formed by a monumental complex of double churches (with a baptistery), one of which was intended for worship, the other for storing relics of local martyrs that were being transposed from suburban cemeteries. The architecture of the memorial structures of these necropoleis had a significant impact on the development of early medieval construction in the region. After the fall of Salona (as a result of the barbarian invasions of the 7th century), the residents of the city took refuge in the palace of Diocletian, its ancient structures having beem adapted for new functions. Churches were built over the city gates of the powerful defensive walls. The Mausoleum of Diocletian was converted into the Cathedral of Martyr St. Domnius, the fi rst bishop of Salona, where his relics were laid, together with those of Martyr Anastasius. In various rooms of the palace of Diocletian in the 8th — 9th centuries, many churches were built, and the towers of the palace became the residences of lay and church-related nobility. The rest of the city-forming elements of the medieval Split also received further development of the palace and its infrastructure. The structure of the imperial residence was completely transformed into a city network, partly preserving the ancient urban planning tradition, on which basis new medieval planning principles of spacial organisation were developed.
Diocletianэs palace, Salonа, early Christian architecture, transformation of ancient buildings, adaptation for Christian worship
  1. Akimova O. (ed.) Foma Splitskii. Istоria аrkhiеpiskоpоv Sаlоny i Splitа [Thomas of Split. History of archbishops of Salona and Split]. Мoscow (in Russian).
  2. Babić I. (2009) “The tower of Split cathedral as a stone monument collection”, in Dioklecijan, tetrarhija i Dioklecijanova palača. O 1700. Obljetnici postojanja. Zbornik radova s međunarodnog simpozija održanog od 18. do 22. rujna 2005. u Splitu. Split.
  3. Belamarić J.(1991) Gospe od Zvonika u Splitu. Zagreb.
  4. Bužančić R. (2009) “Diocletian’s Palace”, in Dioklecijan, tetrarhija i Dioklecijanova palača. Split.
  5. Cambi N. (2002) “Kiparstvo”. Longae Salonae, I. Split.
  6. Dyggve E. (1996) Povijest salonitanskog kršćanstva. Split.
  7. Gračanin H. (2009) “The role of Illyricum in the tetrarchic wars”, in Dioklecijan, tetrarhija i Dioklecijanova palača. Split.
  8. Grant М. (1998) Rimskiie impеrаtоry [The Roman emperors]. Мoscow (in Russian).
  9. Jeličić-Radonić J. (2009) “Diokletian and the Salona urbs orientalis”, in Dioklecijan, tetrarhija i Dioklecijanova palača. Split.
  10. Jeremić M. (2009) “The Sirmium imperial palace complex, in light of the recent archaelogical investigations”, in Dioklecijan, tetrarhija i Dioklecijanova palača. Split.
  11. Karaman Lj. (1940) О pоčеcimа srednjovjekovnog Splita dо gоdinе 800. Zаgrеb.
  12. Koch G. (2009) “Paläste und Villen der Spärtanike in Kleinasien. Ein Überblick”, in Dioklecijan, tetrarhija i Dioklecijanova palača. Split.
  13. Коrоlеv А. “Iоаnn Rаvеnnsky” [John of Ravenna], available at https://www.pravenc.ru/text/471466.html (in Russian).
  14. Krauthajmer R., Ćurčić S. (2008) Ranohrišćanska i vizantijska arhitektura. Belgrade.
  15. Kuhoff W. (2009) “Das tetrarchhische Herrschaftssystem und seine Darstellung in der Architektur: Herrscherrisidenzen und Altersruhesize als Ausdrucknkaiserlicher Regierung und Repräsentation”, in Dioklecijan, tetrarhija i Dioklecijanova palača. Split.
  16. Marasović T. (1994) Graditeljstvo starohrvatskog doba u Dalmaciji. Split.
  17. Marasović T. (2008) Dalmatia praeromanica. Ranosrednjovjekovno graditeljstvo u Dalmaciji. 1. Rasprava. Split; Zagreb.
  18. Marasović T. (2009) “Diciassette secoli di ricerche e restauri nel palazzo di Diocleziano a Spalato”, in Dioklecijan, tetrarhija i Dioklecijanova palača. Split.
  19. Marasović T. (2011) Dalmatia praeromanica. Ranosrednjovjekovno graditeljstvo u Dalmaciji. 3. Korpus arhitekture. Srednja Dalmacija. Split; Zagreb.
  20. Marin E. (1992) Starohrvatski Solin. Split.
  21. Matetić-Poljak D. (2009) “Les chapiteaux du Palais de Dioclétien”, in Dioklecijan, tetrarhija i Dioklecijanova palača. Split.
  22. Perojević S., Marasović K., Marasović J. (2009) “Istraživanja Dioklecij anove palace od 1985. do 2005. godine”, in Dioklecijan, tetrarhija i Dioklecijanova palača. Split.
  23. Posavec V. (2007) Dalmacija u vrijeme Marcelina i Julija Nepota. Split.
  24. Rapanić Ž. (2007) Od carske palače do srednjovjekovne općine. Split.
  25. Rendić-Miočević D. (2011) “Antička Salona (Salonae) — povij esno-urbanistički i spomenički fenomen (S.O.S. za baštinu)”, in Dalmatia christiana — Opera omnia. Zagreb; Split.
  26. Stefanidou-Tiveriou T. (2009) “Die Palastanlage des Galerius in Thessaloniki Planung und Datiarung”, in Dioklecijan, tetrarhija i Dioklecijanova palača. Split.
  27. Suić M. (2003) Antički grad na istočnom Jadranu. Zagreb.
  28. Tomović M. (2009) “Šarkamen (Eastern Serbia). An imperial tetrarchic palace, mausoleum and memorial complex”, in Dioklecijan, tetrarhija i Dioklecijanova palača. Split.
  29. Verzár-Bass M. (2009) “Riflessioni sulle mensole figurate del Palazzo di Diokleziano a Spalato, con particolare attenzione alla figura di Acheloos”, in Dioklecijan, tetrarhija i Dioklecijanova palača. Split.
  30. Voronova А. (2011) “Split i Dubrovnik: goroda s prervannim i vosstanovlennim arkhitekturnim kontinuitetom” [Split and Dubrovnik: cities with interrupted and restored architectural continuity]. Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia V: Voprosy istorii i teorii khristianskogo iskusstva, 3 (6) (in Russian).
  31. Watkin D. (1986) A History of Western Archutecture. London.
  32. Wilkes J. (2009) “Diocletian and Dalmatia: an enigma of identity”, in Dioklecijan, tetrarhija i Dioklecijanova palača. Split.
  33. Zekan M. (2009) “Krunidbena bazilika hrvarskih kraljeva (kralja Zvonimira) u Solinu (Šuplja crkva)”. Obavijesti. Hrvatsko arheološko društvo. Godina XLI — broj 1. Zagreb.
  34. Živkov S. (2009) “Varia Diocletianea”, in Dioklecijan, tetrarhija i Dioklecijanova palača. Split.

Voronova Ariadna


Academic Degree: Candidate of Sciences* in Art Criticism;
Place of work: St. Tikhon’s University for the Humanities; 6/1 Likhov pereulok, Moscow, 127051, Russian Federation;
Post: Associated Professor;
ORCID: 0000-0002-5702-3719;
Email: variadna2@yandex.ru.

*According to the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) 2011, the degree of Candidate of Sciences (Cand.Sc.) belongs to ISCED level 8 — "doctoral or equivalent", together with PhD, DPhil, D.Lit, D.Sc, LL.D, Doctorate or similar.

Kovalevskaya Svetlana

The initial in the prayer "Vere Dignum" in latin liturgical scrolls of Southern Italy: its typology and evolution

Kovalevskaya Svetlana (2020) "The initial in the prayer "Vere Dignum" in latin liturgical scrolls of Southern Italy: its typology and evolution ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia V : Voprosi istorii i teorii hristianskogo iskusstva, 2020, Iss. 40, pp. 34-53 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturV202040.34-53
The article studies the typology and evolution of the initial in the prayer Vere Dignum. It draws on the material of Southern Italian liturgical scrolls. The chronological scope of the study is limited to the period from the second half of the 10th century to the end of the 11th century, which was when all three types of initials emerged. A specifi c political and art-related situation that prevailed in Southern Italy at that time was a fertile soil which gave rise to such peculiar cultures as Lombard principalities, Greek Bari and the Montecassino Abbey of the time of the reign of Abbot Desiderius. Three main types of initials and of their development have been identifi ed, described and analysed. The fi rst type, i.e. the monogram VD, found its way to the decoration of Southern Italian scrolls from Carolingian sacramentaries, having inherited the symbolic meaning of the monogram from its source. The second type, the letter V that has an outline of the inverted Greek letter Omega, indicates a conscious attempt to give a “Greek” appearance to the Latin liturgical scroll. This is related to the peculiarities of the territory of Bari that had both Latin and Greek clergy and churches in its territory for a long time. The third type, the letter V, is used in manuscripts of Montecassino scriptorium during the reign of Abbot Desiderius. The peculiarities of decoration of this type of initials demonstrate a desire to combine features of various decorative traditions (in particular, to combine the local Montecassino art tradition with Ottonian and Byzantine art). This desire to create new — and international — art that would go beyond the local art tradition is related, among other things, to the strengthening of the role of Montecassino abbots in the subordination of the territories of Southern Italy to the papal throne and to the orientation towards a wider range of art sources. Overall, this article reveals the links between a certain type of initial and the cultural environment that gave rise to it, which allows one to see more clearly the general patterns in the art development in Southern Italy.
liturgical rolls, Southern Italy, medieval manuscripts, Exultet, illustration, Montecassino, Benevento, iconography, initial, monogram
  1. Avery M. (1936) The Exultet Rolls of South Italy. Princeton.
  2. Avery M. (1946) “The relation of the Casanatense Pontifi cal (MS.Casanat.724 B I 13) to 10 century changes in the ordination rites at Rome”. Studie testi. Miscellanea Giovanni Mercati, 6, p. 258–271.
  3. Babudri F. (1957) “L’Exultet di Bari del sec.XI”. Archivio Storico Pugliese 10, 1957, p. 8–169.
  4. Baldass P. (1954) ”Die Miniaturen zweier Exultet-Rollen, London add. 30337; Vat. Barb. lat. 592”. Scriptorium, 8, p. 75–88; 205–219.
  5. Belting H. (1968) “Studien zur Beneventanischen Malerei”. Forschungen zur Kunstgeschichte und christlichen Archäologie, VII.
  6. Brenk B. (1992) “Bischofl iche und monastische “Committenza” in Suditalien am Beispiel der Exultetrollen”. Committenti e produzione artistico-letteraria nell’alto Medioevo occidentale (4–10 aprile 1991), Spoleto 1992 (Settimane di studio del Centro italiano di studi sull’alto Medioevo, 39), I, p. 275–300.
  7. Calderoni Masetti A. (1984) “L’Exultet duecentesco del Museo Nazionale di Pisa”. Studi di storia dell’arte in memoria di Mario Rotili. Napoli. P. 211–220.
  8. Calderoni Masetti A., Fonseca C., Cavallo G. (1989) L’Exultet “beneventano” del Duomo di Pisa. Galatina.
  9. Carucci A. (1971) Il rotolo salernitano dell’Exultet. Salerno.
  10. Carucci A. (1990) L’Exultet salernitano. Marigliano.
  11. Cavallo G. (1973) “La genesi dei rotoli liturgici beneventani alla luce del fenomeno storico-librario in Occidente ed Oriente”. Miscellanea in memoria di Giorgio Cencetti. Torino. P. 213–222.
  12. Cavallo G. (1973) Rotoli di Exultet dell’Italia meridionale. Bari.
  13. Cavallo G. (ed.) Exultet, rotoli liturgici del medioevo meridionale. Roma.
  14. Cavallo G., d’Aniello A. (1993) L’Exultet di Salerno. Roma.
  15. Evseeva L. (2004) “Problema obraztsov v vizantiiskom iskusstve i rukopisi Montekassino okolo 1072 g.” [The problem of models in Byzantine art and manuscripts of Montecassino about 1072], in Drevnerusskoe iskusstvo. Iskusstvo rukopisnoi knigi. Vizantiia. Drevniaia Rus [Old Russian art. Art of a hand-written books. Byzantium. Ancient Rus’]. St. Petersburg. P. 107–128 (in Russian).
  16. Grabar A. (1954) “Un rouleau liturgique constantinopolitain et ses penture”. Dumbarton Oaks Papers. 8, p. 161–199.
  17. Gyug R. (1990) “A Fragment of a Liturgical Roll at Montecassino (Compactiones XVI)”. Medieval Studies, 52, p. 268–277.
  18. Kelly Th. (1989) The Beneventan Chant. Cambridge.
  19. Kelly Th. (1996) The Exultet in Southern Italy. Oxford.
  20. Kovalevskaya S. (2016) “Liturgicheskii svitok iz Bari. Grecheskoe i latinskoe v Iuzhnoi Italii 11 veka” [Liturgical roll from Bari. The Greek and the Latin in South Italy in the 11th century]. Iskusstvoznanie, 1–2, p. 244–265.
  21. Kovalevskaya S. (2015) “Latinskie liturgicheskie svitki Iuzhnoi Italii kak osobyi tip illiustrirovannoi rukopisi” [Liturgical rolls of Southern Italy as a special type of illuminated manuscript]. Aktual'nye problemy teorii i istorii iskusstva, 5, p. 383–391.
  22. Ladner G. (1942) “The «Portraits» of Emperors in Southern Italian Exultet Rolls”. Speculum, 17, p. 181–200.
  23. Maniaci M., Orofi no G. (2012) “Les ‘rouleaux d’Exultet’ du Mont Cassin (techniques de fabrication, caractéristiques matérielles, décoration, rapports avec les rouleaux grecs”. in Les Cahiers de Saint-Michel de Cuxa. Gestes et techniques de l’artiste à l’époque romane (Actes de XLIIIes Journées romanes de Cuxa, 6-13 juillet 2011). XLIII, p. 71–82.
  24. Micunco G. (2011) Exultet I di Bari. Parole e immagini alle origini della letteratura in Puglia. Bari.
  25. Orofi no G. (1994–2006) I codici decorati dell’Archivio di Montecassino.
  26. Paht O. (1984) Buchmalerei des Mittelalters. Munchen.
  27. Speciale L. (1991) Montecassino e la Riforma Gregoriana: L'Exultet Vat.Barb.lat.592. Roma.
  28. Speciale L. (2000) “Liturgia e potere. Le commemorazioni fi nali nei rotoli dell’Exultet”. Melanges de l’Ecole francaise de Rome. Moyen-Age, Temps modernes, 112, 1, p. 191–224.
  29. Speciale L. (2000) “The Salerno Exultet: a Historical Overview”. Quinio, 2, p. 159‒188.
  30. Speciale L. (1982–83) Un contributo cassinese alla Riforma Gregorian: L’Exultet Vat.Barb.lat.592. Roma.
  31. Tsuji S. (1982) “Analyse iconographique de quelques miniatures des rouleaux d’Exultet dans leurs rapports avec le texte”, in Problems in the Relation between Text and illustration. Osaca. P. 15–28.
  32. Zuccaro R. (1978) “Les miniatures des rouleaux liturgiques, L’illustration de la prose “Exultet””, in Bertaux E. L’art dans l’Italie meridionale. Aggiornamento dell’opera di Emile Bertaux, 4. Roma. P. 423–466.

Kovalevskaya Svetlana


Place of work: St. Tikhon’s Orthodox University for Humanities; 6 Likhov pereulok, Moscow, 15184, Russian Federation;
Post: lecturer;
ORCID: 0000-0002-1576-0956;
Email: svk542@yandex.ru.
Lapshina Tatiana

Architectural features of the refectory complexes of the 16th century monasteries of Russian North

Lapshina Tatiana (2020) "Architectural features of the refectory complexes of the 16th century monasteries of Russian North ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia V : Voprosi istorii i teorii hristianskogo iskusstva, 2020, Iss. 40, pp. 54-76 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturV202040.54-76
Old Russian monasteries of the 16th represented architectural complexes that comprised churches, cells for the brethren, and such household buildings as e.g. refectories. Depending on the region, refectories could include not only the refectory halls and rooms for the cellarer, but a church and sometimes a belfry. Of particular interest are refectory complexes of monasteries of the 16th century located in the Russian North. These territories in diff erent periods belonged to both Novgorod and Rostoc lands. The aim of this article is to identify the main architectural features of refectory complexes of monasteries of the Russian North of the 16th century. The article studies only refectory complexes of the following churches: church of the Introduction of Kirillo-Belozersky Monastery, church of Annunciation of Ferapontov Monastery, church of Dormition of Pavlo-Obnorsky Monastery, church of Anthony of Kornilievo-Komel’sky Monastery, church of Introduction of Spaso-Prilutsky Monastery, church of Theotokos Hodegetria of Goritsky Monastery, church of Dormition of Spaso-Kamenny Monastery, church of Dormition of Solovetsky Monastery, church of St. Sergiy of Radonezh of Kirillo- Belozersky Monastery. The article employs the method of integrated source criticism, the comparative method, the method of typological and iconographic analysis of main architectural features of refectory complexes. The article gives an outline of preceding studies. It also gives detailed descriptions of architectural features of refectory complexes as well as refectory halls belonging to them, refectory churches, cellarer rooms. The result of the study is the conclusion that refectory complexes of monasteries of the Russian North of the 16th century have embodied several characteristic features of both Novgorod and Moscow architectural schools.
refectory complexes, monasteries of Russian North, architecture of 16th century, refectory hall, refectory church, one-column hall, room for cellarer
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  3. Beliaev L. (1991) “Materialy k arkheologii Ferapontova monastyria” [Materials for the archeology of Ferapontov Monastery”]. Ferapontovskii sbornik, 3, p. 141–166 (in Russian).
  4. Domashnev L., Drozdova T. (1985) Severnoe chudo — Solovetskaia krepost’ [Solovetskaya fortress as a Northern miracle]. Moscow (in Russian).
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  6. “Letopis’ Goritskogo monastyria” [The chronicle of Goritsky Monastery]. Kirillov: Istorikokraevedcheskii al’manakh, 1994, 1, p. 288–355 (in Russian).
  7. Loevskaia M. (2017) “Trapeza v Solovetskom monastyre: ot drevnosti do nashikh dnei” [The meal in Solovetsky monastery: from antiquity to the present day]. Vestnik Moskovskogo universiteta, Seria 19, 2, p. 174–197 (in Russian).
  8. Mel’nik A. (1991) “K voprosu o proiskhozhdenii trekhchastnoi osevoi arkhitekturnoi kompozitsii (tserkov' — trapeznaia — kolokol'nia)” [To the question of the origin of a three-part axial architectural composition (church — refectory — belfry)]. Pamiatniki istorii i kultury Verkhnego Povolzh’ia, p. 210–215 (in Russian).
  9. Mel’nik A. (1994) “Ob inter'erakh nekotorykh khramov Belozer'ia kontsa XV — pervoi poloviny XVI vv.” [On the interiors of some churches in Belozerye of the late 15th — fi rst half of the 16th centuries]. Istoriia i kul’tura Rostovskoi zemli [History and culture of the land of Rostov]. P. 93–101 (in Russian).
  10. Mel’nik A. (2000) Ansambl’ Solovetskogo monastyiria v ХV–ХVII vekakh [The ensemble of Solovetsky Monastery in the 15th — 17th centuries]. Yaroslavl’ (in Russian).
  11. Miloradovich A. (1994) “Novgorodskii master Ignatii Salka” [Ignaty Salka, the Novgorod master”]. Solovetskii sbornik. Materialy i issledovaniia, 1, p. 67–86 (in Russian).
  12. Petrov D. (1992) “Pamiatniki XV–XVI vv. v Nikolo-Viazhishchskom monastyre. Na osnove analiza starinnoi gollandskoi graviury” [Monuments of the 15th — 16th centuries in Nikolo-Vyazhishchsky Monastery. On the basis of the analysis of an ancient Dutch engraving]. Arkhitektura i stroitel’stvo Rossii, 3, p. 22–23 (in Russian).
  13. Petrov D. (2000) “Master Ignatii” [Master Ignaty Salka]. Novgorodskie drevnosti, 5, p. 121–158 (in Russian).
  14. Pod”yapol’skii S. (1963) Putevoditel’ po arkheologicheskim pamiatnikam Kirillo-Belozerskogo i Ferapontova monastyirei [A guide to archaeological sites of Kirillo-Belozersky and Ferapontov monasteries]. Vologda (in Russian).
  15. Pod”yapol’skii S. (1966) “K kharakteristike kirillovskogo zodchestva XV–XVI vekov” [On the characteristic of Kirillov architecture of the 15th — 16th centuries]. Sovetskaia arkhitektura, 2, p. 75–95 (in Russian).
  16. Pod”yapol’skii S. (1970) “Arkhitekturnye pamiatniki Spaso-Kamennogo monastyria (XV–XVI v.)” [Architectural monuments of Spaso-Kamenny Monastery (15-16th centuries)”]. Drevnerusskoe iskusstvo: khudozhestvennaia kul’tura Moskvy i prilegayushchikh k ney kniazhestv XIV–XVI vv. P. 437–457 (in Russian).
  17. Pod”yapol’skii S. (1988) “Kamennoe zodchestvo Kirillo-Belozerskogo monastyria v ego otnoshenii k stroitel'stvu Troitse-Sergieva monastyria” [Stone architecture of Kirillo-Belozersky Monastery in its relation to the construction of Troitse-Sergiev Monastery]. Drevnerusskoe iskusstvo. Khudozhestvennaia kul’tura X — pervoi poloviny XIII v. P. 310–319 (in Russian).
  18. Pod”yapol’skii S. (1989) “Sobor Belozerskogo Goritskogo monastyria” [The Cathedral of the Belozersky Goritsky Monastery”]. Drevnerusskoe iskusstvo: khudozhestvennye pam’iatniki Russkogo Severa. P. 334–339 (in Russian).
  19. Sarab’ianov V. (1991) “Istoriia arkhitekturnykh i khudozhestvennykh pamiatnikov Ferapontova monastyria” [The history of architectural and art monuments of Ferapontov Monastery]. Ferapontovskii sbornik, 3, p. 37–118 (in Russian).
  20. Savitskaya O. (2009) “Issledovanie trapeznoi Solovetskogo monastyria” [The study of the refectory of Solovetsky monastery]. Restavratsiia i issledovaniia pamiatnikov kul'tury, 1, p. 168–176 (in Russian).
  21. Savitskaya O. (2009) Arkhitektura Solovetskogo monastyiria [The architecture of Solovetsky Monastery]. Moscow (in Russian).
  22. Sedov V. (1996) Pskovskaia arkhitektura XVI v. [Pskov architecture of the 16th century]. Moscow (in Russian).
  23. Serebriakova M. (1994) “Pamiatniki arkhitektury Ferapontova monastyria po arkhivnym dokumentam XVII–XIX vekov” [Monuments of architecture of Ferapontov monastery according to archival documents of the 17–19th centuries”]. Kirillov: Istoriko-kraevedcheskii al’manakh, 1, p. 187–213 (in Russian).
  24. Skopin V., Shchennikova L. (1982) Arkhitekturno-khudozhestvennyi ansambl' Solovetskogo monastyria [Architectural ensemble of Solovetsky monastery]. Moscow (in Russian).
  25. Turova E. (1992) “Trapeznye XVI veka” [Refectories of the 16th century]. “Okhraniaetsia gosudarstvom”. Sbornik materialov 1-oi Rossiiskoi konferentsii. Programma «Khram», 1, p. 31–33 (in Russian).
  26. Vygolov V. (1988) Arkhitektura Moskovskoi Rusi serediny XV v. [The architecture of Moscow Rus’ in the middle of the 15th century]. Moscow (in Russian).

Lapshina Tatiana


Student status: Graduate student;
Student status: Graduate student;
Place of study: St. Petersburg State University; 7/9 Universitetskaia naberezhnaa, 199034, St. Petersburg, Russia;
ORCID: 0000-0003-2862-3747;
Email: kuz114@mail.ru.
Grigorjeva Veronika

The “Sepulchral” Trisagion and the stichera “Come to please Joseph” in russian liturgical tradition

Grigorjeva Veronika (2020) "The “Sepulchral” Trisagion and the stichera “Come to please Joseph” in russian liturgical tradition ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia V : Voprosi istorii i teorii hristianskogo iskusstva, 2020, Iss. 40, pp. 77-99 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturV202040.77-99
The article is devoted to two chants of Good Friday and Holy Saturday which are termed “Sepulchral” (Rus. Надгробные) in Old Russian MSs. These are the Trisagion and the stichera Come to please Joseph. The article examines the rites associated with these chants, i.e. the removal, burial and kissing of the Shroud, the Gospel and the image of the “Position in the Sepulchre”. A review of various sources has shown that throughout the entire period of the Jerusalem Charter in Russia, these rites did not receive a full reglamentation and in practice allow variants that fi t into two main types, i.e. the one of the monastery (монастырский) and of the cathedral (соборный). Moreover, in all cases there are strong ties between the “Sepulchral” chants and the rites in that the Trisagion accompanies the exit with the Gospel and the Shroud and the burial of the latter, while the stichera Come to please Joseph accompanies the order of kissing the Shroud and the image “Position in the grave”. It is interesting that despite its Greek origin, it is only in the Russian tradition that the stichera Come to please Joseph occupies a particularly important and significant place in the church service of Holy Saturday. The exceptional signifi cance of the “Sepulchral” Trisagion and the stichera in Russia was expressed, in particular, in the fact that there developed specific “Sepulchral” chants of the Trisagion for the exit in the matins. For the stichera Come to please Joseph, a tradition of singing in two diff erent voices was formed, i.e. in the 5th and the 8th, which correlates with the monastery and cathedral types of the Holy Saturday rites. Other singing versions of this stichera are also known. A common feature of the “Sepulchral” chants is its rather slow tempo, which is due to the fact that both the exit and procession with the Gospel and the Shroud, and the order of kissing the Shroud or the icon take quite a long time.
“Sepulchral” Trisagion, stichera Come to please Joseph, exit, burial, kissing, Shroud, “Position in the grave”, Old Russian church singing, Old Believers’ singing traditions
  1. Panchenko F. (2001) Pevcheskie knigi vygoleksinskogo pis’ma. XVIII — pervaia polovina XIX v. [Chanting books of Vygoleksinskoe version. 18th — fi rst half of the 19th centuries]. St. Petersburg (in Russian).
  2. Zheltov M., Tkachenko A. (2004) “Velikaia Subbota” [Holy Saturday], in Pravoslavnaia entchiklopediia [Orthodox Encyclopaedia], vol. 7, pp. 431–443 (in Russian).

Grigorjeva Veronika


Academic Degree: Candidate of Sciences* in Art Criticism;
Place of work: St. Tikhon’s Orthodox University for the Humanities; 6/1 Likhov Pereulok, Moscow, 127052, Russian Federation;
Post: Associate Professor, Department of Precentor Training;
ORCID: 0000-0002-0934-792X;
Email: veronikagrigorjevaveronika@yandex.ru.

*According to the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) 2011, the degree of Candidate of Sciences (Cand.Sc.) belongs to ISCED level 8 — "doctoral or equivalent", together with PhD, DPhil, D.Lit, D.Sc, LL.D, Doctorate or similar.

Gerasimova Irina

The plot of “Adam’s expulsion from Paradise” in part-song concertos of the late 17th — first quarter of the 18th centuries: liturgical texts and author’s interpretations

Gerasimova Irina (2020) "The plot of “Adam’s expulsion from Paradise” in part-song concertos of the late 17th — first quarter of the 18th centuries: liturgical texts and author’s interpretations ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia V : Voprosi istorii i teorii hristianskogo iskusstva, 2020, Iss. 40, pp. 100-131 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturV202040.100-131
This article analyses liturgical texts and musical and poetic compositions of Baroque concertos written with the plot of “Adam’s expulsion from paradise” and kept in Russian manuscripts of the late 17th — fi rst quarter of the 18th centuries. The study is based on the four one-choir part-song concertos, i.e. one 3-voice and two 4-voice concertos with the text Седе Адам прямо рая of the Syropustnaya Week, as well as a 4-voice anonymous concerto from the same service “Увы мне!” — Адам рыданием возопи. The study has shown that the 3-voice concerto Седе Адам прямо раю from the section “концерты на три голоса. Бас М. Д.” (by Mikola Dyletsky) was probably based on a text of a spiritual poem existing in Kiev Metropoly. The composer shortened the textual “Kievan” version of the poem and concentrated on the demonstration of Adam’s emotional state. Combining the 4-voice harmonisation of this spiritual poem on the one hand and certain motifs of the 3-voice concerto on the other, a new work with elements of polyphony was created. It was discovered by L. V. Kondrashkova in a Russian MS of the late 17th century with Kazan notation. Vasily Titov’s 4-voice concerto Седе Адам прямо рая contains a textual version of Postnaya Triod’ of 1663 from Moscow. Written in the major scale, this work demonstrates Adam’s sweet sorrow. This way the composer entered into polemics with N. Diletsky, who in the treatise Идея грамматики мусикийской (1679) cited a fragment from the stichera Седе Адам прямо рая as a first example of sad music. The concerto Увы мне! — Адам рыданием возопи containes a mixed version of the text which was partly amended according to the Moscow Postnaya Triod’ of 1663. In its style, the musical and poetic composition reminds of N. Diletsky’s alrge-scale concertos written for line-ups А, Т, B I, B II. The form is made coherent by a repeated refrain and the alternation of bi- and triparticity. The appendix to the article contains N. Diletsky’s (?) 4-voice concerto Увы мне!” — Адам рыданием возопи published for the fi rst time.
part-song concerto, Adam’s expulsion from paradise, Bible, Baroque era, Nikolai Diletsky, Vasily Titov
  1. Frolov S. (1993) “Stikh-starina” za monastyrskim pivom” [“Stikh-Starina” with monastery beer]. Trudy otdela drevnerusskoi literatury, 48, p. 196–204.
  2. Gatovskaia E. (2016) “Kontserty Vasiliia Titova na 4 golosa: novyie otkrytiia” [Vasily Titov’s 4-voice concertos: new discoveries]. Vestnik PSTGU, Seriia V: Voprosy istorii i teorii khristianskogo iskusstva, 2 (22), p. 90–104 (in Russian).
  3. Gerasimava I. (2018) “Tsytavanne iak sposab atrybutsyi trokhgalosnykh kantsertau Mikoly Dyletskaga” [Citation as a way of attribution of three-voice concertos by Mikola Dyletskiy], in V. Antonov, N. Nikolayev (eds) Belorusskii sbornik. Stat’i i materialy po istorii i kulture Belorussii [Belorussian collection. Articles and materials on history and culture of Belarus], 7, p. 15–28 (in Belorussian).
  4. Gerasimova I. (2019) “Molitva Manassii v partesnykh sochineniiakh 2-oi poloviny XVII v.: teksty, redaktsii i interpretatsii” [Prayer of Manasseh in part-song works of the second half of the 17th c.: texts, editions, interpretations]. Starinnaia muzyka, 3–4, p. 18–35 (in Russian).
  5. Gierasimova I. (2018) ‘Wpływ wczesnobarokowego koncertu kościelnego na styl muzyczny Mykoły Dyleckiego”. Universalia et particularia. Ars et praxis Societatis Jesu in Polonia, Fontes Musicae in Polonia, vol. B/III. Warszawa. P. 199–222.
  6. Gerasimova-Persidskaya N. (2012) Muzyka. Vremia. Prostranstvo [Music. Time. Space]. Kiev (in Ukrainian).
  7. Jasiński T. (2009) Polska barokowa retoryka muzyczna. Lublin.
  8. Tsalai-Iakimenko O. (ed.) (1970) M. Diletskiy. Grammatika muzikalna. Fotokopiia rukopisu 1723 roku [N. Diletsky. Musical Grammar. Photocopy of the manuscript of 1723]. Kiev (in Ukrainian)
  9. Gerasimova I. (ed.) (2018) Nicolaus Dylecki. Vesperaye, Liturgia, Concertos quatrum vocum, Fontes musica in Polonia, vol. C/IX. Warsaw.
  10. Gerasimova-Persidska N., Ignatenko E. (eds) (2006) Partesnі kontserti XVII‒XVIII st. z Kiivskoi kolektsii [Part-sonf contertos of the 17th — 18th centuries from Kiev collection]. Kiev (in Ukrainian and English).
  11. Gerasimova-Persidska N. (ed.) (1976) Partesnii kontsert: Materіali z іstorіi ukrainskoi muziki: partitura [Part-song concerto: materials from Ukrainian music history: a score]. Kiev (in Ukrainian).
  12. Plotnikova N. (2016) “Kontserty Nikolaia Diletskogo na tri golosa: voprosy atributsii, zhanra i stilia” [Nikolay Diletsky’s 3-voice concertos: problems of attribution, genre and style]. Muzyka i vremia, 8, p. 11–32 (in Russian).
  13. Protopopov V. (ed.) (1980) N. Diletskiy. Ideia grammatiki musikiiskoy [Idea of the musical grammar]. Pamiatniki russkogo muzykal’nogo iskusstva, 7. Moscow (in Russian)
  14. Terentieva P. (2012) “Stikhi Umilennyia”. Russkie dukhovnye stikhi pis’mennoi traditsii XVI–XIX vekov s raspevami po znameni i na lineinoi note [“Poems of pious tenderness”: Russian spiritual poems of the written tradition of the 16th — 19th cc. with chants according to “Znamya” and to five-line notation]. Moscow (in Russian).

Gerasimova Irina


Academic Degree: Candidate of Sciences* in History;
Academic Degree: Candidate of Sciences* in Art Criticism;
Place of work: Pskov State University; 2 Lenina Sq., 180000, Pskov, Russian Federation;
Post: Associate professor;
ORCID: 0000-0003-4740-4750;
Email: bazylek@yandex.ru.

*According to the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) 2011, the degree of Candidate of Sciences (Cand.Sc.) belongs to ISCED level 8 — "doctoral or equivalent", together with PhD, DPhil, D.Lit, D.Sc, LL.D, Doctorate or similar.

The article was prepared as part of a research project supported by financial supportRussian Foundation for the research (project 19-012-00174/19 "Russian spiritual music of the Baroque era: an incipient catalog").
Kolbasova Tatiana

Icons and paintings by N. M. Safonov in Leontyevsky chapel of Dormition Cathedral in Rostov

Kolbasova Tatiana (2020) "Icons and paintings by N. M. Safonov in Leontyevsky chapel of Dormition Cathedral in Rostov ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia V : Voprosi istorii i teorii hristianskogo iskusstva, 2020, Iss. 40, pp. 132-148 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturV202040.132-148
On June 11, 1884, when replacing the old cast-iron fl oor in the chapel of St. Leontius, located in the southern part behind the main iconostasis, a cave temple was discovered under the fl oor in Rostov Dormition Cathedral. Soon, a special commission chaired by Yaroslavl Governor V. D. Levshin and consisting of Archbishop Jonathan of Yaroslavl and Rostov and members of the Imperial Moscow Archaeological Society living in Rostov and Yaroslavl, i.e. I. A. Vakhromeev, D. A. Bulatov, Revd.. I. Mansvetov, I. A. Shlyakov, and A. A. Titov, began work on restoring the Leontyevsky side-chapel. Restoration of the chapel of St. Leontius was carried out according to the project of the Chairman of Moscow Achitectural Society N. V. Nikitin. Icons in the iconostasis and the Tsar’s gate, frescoes of the side chapel were painted by the head of one of the most famous icon painting and restoration workshops at that time, N. M. Safonov. Information about Safonov’s work in Leontyevsky side-chapel was very limited. The minutes of the Commission on the restoration of Leontyevsky side-chapel, the correspondence between the Commission’s Chairman V. D. Levshin and I. A. Shlyakov (who was directly responsible for the restoration), the letters of N. M. Safonov to I. A. Shlyakov signifi cantly complete the information known to date about the tasks assigned to the artist, and about the procedure for performing the works assigned to him. These documents also allowed us to reconstruct the iconographic programme of the paintings and iconostasis in Leontievsky side-chapel. This side-chapel of Rostov Dormition Cathedral is one of the most interesting examples of restoration and reconstruction of an ancient cathedral, a signifi cant contribution to the restoration made by N. M. Safonov.
Rostov the Great, Dormition Cathedral, architectural restoration of late 19 century, Commission for Restoration of ancient Kremlin buildings in Rostov the Great, I. A. Shlyakov, N. M. Safonov, icons, wall paintings
  1. Alitova R., Nikitina T. (2008) Tserkovnye stennye rospisi Rostova Velikogo i Rostovskogo uiezda XVIII — nachala XX veka. Katalog [Church wall paintings in Rostov Veliky and Rostov uyezd of the 18th — early 20th centuries. Catalogue]. Moscow. (in Russian).
  2. Kuznetsov A. (1975) “Sposob montirovki sniatoi so steny freskovoi zhivopisi” [Method of fi xing the fresco painting removed from the wall]. Restavratsiia i issledovaniia pamiatnikov kul’tury, 1, p. 232–234 (in Russian).
  3. Leontyev A., Ioannisyan O. (2008) “Pogrebeniia XI v., tserkov’ Ioanna Predtechi v Rostove i istoriia sarkofaga sv. Leontiia Rostovskogo” [Burials of the 11th century, the church of John the Baptist in Rostov and the history of the sarcophagus of St. Leonty Rostovsky], in Moskovskaia Rus': problemy arkheologii i istorii arkhitektury. K 60-letiiu Leonida Andreievicha Beliaieva [Muscovy: problems of archeology and history of architecture. 60th anniversary of Leonid Andreevich Belyaev]. Moscow. P. 43–51 (in Russian).
  4. Melnik A. (2012) Khramovye ikonostasy kontsa XVII–XIX veka Rostova Velikogo. Katalog [Church iconostases of the late 17th — 19 centuries of Rostov the Great. Catalogue]. St Petersburg (in Russian).
  5. Melnik A. (1998) Ikonografiia Rostovskikh sviatykh. Katalog vystavki [Iconography of the saints of Rostov. Exhibition catalogue]. Rostov (in Russian).
  6. Shchenkov A. (ed.) Pamiatniki arkhitektury v dorevoliutsionnoi Rossii. Ocherki istorii arkhitekturnoy restavratsii [Monuments of architecture in pre-revolutionary Russia. Essays on the history of architectural restoration]. Moscow. P. 263 (in Russian).

Kolbasova Tatiana


Place of work: State Museum-Reserve “Rostov Kremlin”; Kremlin, Museum, 152151, Rostov, Russian Federation;
Post: Head of Art Gallery;
ORCID: 0000-0002-4181-4989;
Email: tvkrost@mail.ru.
Plotnikova Natalia; Zolotova Ekaterina

“Strict style of harmony” by V. M. Metallov: the author’s intention and critical reviews

Plotnikova Natalia, Zolotova Ekaterina (2020) "“Strict style of harmony” by V. M. Metallov: the author’s intention and critical reviews ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia V : Voprosi istorii i teorii hristianskogo iskusstva, 2020, Iss. 40, pp. 149-165 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturV202040.149-165
The book of the priest, music historian and theorist, medievalist Revd. Vasily Mikhailovich Metallov (1862–1926) The Strict Style of Harmony: An Attempt at Presenting the Foundations of the Strict and Strict-Church Style of Harmony was completed in 1894, approved by the Study Committee of the Holy Synod as a textbook for church singing in theological seminaries in 1895 and was published in 1897. As a result of studying Metallov’s correspondence with the director of the Synodal School of Church Singing S.V. Smolensky, the authors of this article came to the conclusion that Metallov’s work, conceived as a fairly traditional textbook on harmony, under the infl uence of Smolensky’s criticism acquired a new meaning and became the fi rst theoretical work on a strict style in Russian church singing. The second part of the book, “Strict Church Style of Harmony”, where Metallov writes about the church diatonic scale, about scales in the strict church style, examines the types and forms of cadences, and pays special attention to contrapuntal voice leading and contrapunctal work of church melody, has become truly innovative. At the same time, the author’s conception turned out to be insuffi ciently holistic, the boundaries of the strict style in general and the strict church style, in particular, were not clearly defi ned both in historical and theoretical terms. These shortcomings, as well as some inaccuracies in the interpretation of harmonic rules and terms as well as its unsystematic presentation, became an object of criticism in the reviews of priest M.A. Lisitsyn in Прибавления к Церковным ведомостям (“Additions to Church Gazette”) and Yu. V. Kurdyumov in Русская музыкальная газета (“Russian Musical Newspaper”). The purpose of this paper is to reveal the main provisions of the book by V. M. Metallov and expose some ideas of critical reviews, with an emphasis on their role in the history of Russian church singing.
V. M. Metallov, S. V. Smolensky, M. A. Lisitsyn, Yu. V. Kurdyumov, strict style of harmony, Russian church singing
  1. Kartsovnik V. (2006) “Grigorianskoe penie” [Gregorian singing], in Pravoslavnaia entsiklopediia [Orthodox Encyclopaedia], vol. 12. Moscow. P. 461–471 (in Russian).
  2. Lokotianova D. (2017) “Tsetsilianstvo i Brukner” [Cecilianism and Bruckner]. Zhurnal Obshchestva teorii muzyki, 1 (17), p. 8–25 (in Russian).
  3. Plotnikova N. (2002) “K probleme strogogo stilia v russkoi dukhovnoi muzyke vtoroi poloviny XIX veka” [On the problem of strict style in Russian spiritual music of the second half of the 19th century], in Russkaya kniga o Palestrine. K 400-letiiu so dnia smerti [Russian book about
  4. Palestrina. The 400th anniversary of death]. Moscow. P. 225–239 (in Russian).
  5. Plotnikova N. (1998) “Opyty i zamysly M. I. Glinki v russkoi dukhovnoi muzyke” [Experiments and plans of M. I. Glinka in Russian spiritual music], in Dni slavianskoj pis'mennosti i kul'tury [Days of Slavonic booklore and culture]. Vladivostok. P. 142–149 (in Russian).
  6. Rakhmanovа M., Naumov A. (eds) (2010) “Russkaia dukhovnaia muzyka v dokumentakh i materialakh [Russian spiritual music in documents and materials]. Vol. 6. S. V. Smolenskii i ego korrespondenty: perepiska s S. S. Volkovoi, D. V. Razumovskim, A. V. Preobrazhenskim, V. M. Metallovym, S. I. Taneevym, P. I. and M. I. Tchaikovskimi. Pis’ma k S. V. Smolenskomu rasnych lits [S. V. Smolensky and his correspondents: correspondence with S. S. Volkova, D. V. Razumovsky, A. V. Preobrazhensky, V. M Metallov, S. I. Taneev, P. I. and M. I. Tchaikovsky. Letters to S. V. Smolensky of various persons], book 2. Moscow (in Russian).

Plotnikova Natalia


Academic Degree: Doctor of Sciences* in Art Criticism;
Academic Rank: Associate Professor;
Place of work: Tchaikovsky Moscow State Conservatory" 13/6 Bolshaya Nikitskaya Street Moscow, 125009, Russian Federation; St. Tikhon’s Orthodox University for Humanities; 4 str. 2, 1-y Novokuznetskiy pereulok, Moscow 115184, Russian Federation;
Post: Professor of Music Theory Division; Professor of History and Theory of Music Division;
ORCID: 0000-0001-7406-7740;
Email: n_y_plotnikova@mail.ru.

*According to ISCED 2011, a post-doctoral degree called Doctor of Sciences (D.Sc.) is given to reflect second advanced research qualifications or higher doctorates.


Zolotova Ekaterina


Student status: Graduate student;
Place of study: St. Tikhon’s Orthodox University for Humanities; 6/1 Likhov pereulok, 127051, Moscow, Russian Federation;
ORCID: 0000-0001-7035-0397;
Email: zolotovaeka@mail.ru.
Nikolaeva Elena

Moscow school today: «Echoes of a bygone age» by Iraida Yusupova

Nikolaeva Elena (2020) "Moscow school today: «Echoes of a bygone age» by Iraida Yusupova ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia V : Voprosi istorii i teorii hristianskogo iskusstva, 2020, Iss. 40, pp. 166-181 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturV202040.166-181
Revival of the tradition of Moscow Synodal school at the turn of the 20th — 21st centuries has become a noticeable development in the present-day choral music. Iraida Yusupova’s multimedia cycle Отзвуки ушедшего века (“Echoes of a bygone age”, 2008–2017) is a sui generis mirror that captures the perspectives of perception of spiritual music of the past that are typical of our time. The latest media technologies allow us to organically combine distant fi gurative spheres and contrasting stylistic phenomena in a single concept full of deep spiritual and philosophical meaning.
Moscow Synodal school, spiritual music of New Russia, Iraida Yusupova, mediaopera, multimedia genres, Echoes of a bygone age, Tchaikovsky Moscow State Conservatory
  1. Mikita A. O problemakh sovremennoi russkoi dukhovnoi muzyki. Tezisy [Problems of present-day Russian spiritual music. An outline], available at http://www.churchcomposer.ru (in Russian).
  2. Nikolaeva E. (2011) Mediaopera: mezhdu proshlym i budushhim. Pamyati E.V. Nazaikinskogo. Interv’iu, stat’ii, vospominaniia [Mediaopera: between the past and the future. In memory of E. V. Nazaykinsky. Interviews, articles, memoirs] Moscow. Pp. 140–159 (in Russian).
  3. Nikolaeva E. (2013) “Khudozhestvennie promysly Dmitriia A. Prigova i Iraidy Yusupovoi” [Artistic crafts of Dmitry A. Prigov and Iraida Yusupova], in M. Katunian (ed.) Sto let russkogo avangarda [One hundred years of Russian avantgarde]. Moscow. P. 445–453 (in Russian).
  4. Nikolaeva E. (2019) Tserkovnyi kompozitor: Moskovskaia shkola segodnia [Church composer: Moscow school today], in XXIX Ezhegodnaia bogoslovskaia konferentsiia PSTGU. Materialy [XXIX Annual Theological Conference of St. Tikhon Orthodox University. Materials]. Moscow. P. 267–269 (in Russian).
  5. Yusupova I. (2007) “Kompozitor dolzhen umet’ vsio”: Interv’iu s E. Nikolaevoi [A composer should be able to do everything: an interview with E. Nikolaeva]. Muzykal’naia akademiia, 2, p. 16–21 (in Russian).

Nikolaeva Elena


Academic Degree: Candidate of Sciences* in Art Criticism;
Academic Rank: Associate Professor;
Place of work: Moscow Tchaikovsky Conservatory; 13/6 Bol’shaia Nikitskaia Str., Moscow, 125009, Russian Federation;
Post: Associate professor, Department of Music Theory;
ORCID: 0000-0002-3160-7804;
Email: elenvox@mail.ru, e-nikola@yandex.ru.

*According to the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) 2011, the degree of Candidate of Sciences (Cand.Sc.) belongs to ISCED level 8 — "doctoral or equivalent", together with PhD, DPhil, D.Lit, D.Sc, LL.D, Doctorate or similar.

BOOK REVIEWS

Zemskova Vera

Rev. of Ендольцева Е. Ю. Архитектурная пластика Абхазии в период Абхазского царства (VIII–XI вв.). М.: ИВ РАН, 2020. 432 с.

Zemskova Vera (2020) Rev. of Endolytseva E. Yu. Arhitekturnaia plastika Abhazii v period Abhazskogo tsarstva (VIII–XI vv.). M.: IV RAN, 2020. 432 s., Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia V : Voprosi istorii i teorii hristianskogo iskusstva, 2020, Iss. 40, pp. 185-188 (in Russian).

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Zemskova Vera


Academic Degree: Candidate of Sciences* in Philosophy;
Place of work: Library of the Russian Academy of Sciences; 1 Birzhevaya liniya, 199034, St. Petersburg, Russian Federation;
Post: Chief Librarian;
Email: byzros@gmail.com.

*According to the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) 2011, the degree of Candidate of Sciences (Cand.Sc.) belongs to ISCED level 8 — "doctoral or equivalent", together with PhD, DPhil, D.Lit, D.Sc, LL.D, Doctorate or similar.

Endoltseva Ekaterina

Rev. of Иванова С. В. Воскресение и Сошествие во ад: история двух сюжетов в христианском искусстве. СПб.: Российский институт истории искусства, 2019. 398 с.

Endoltseva Ekaterina (2020) Rev. of Ivanova S. V. Voskresenie i Soshestvie vo ad: istoriia dvuh syuzhetov v hristianskom iskusstve. SPb.: Rossiyskiy institut istorii iskusstva, 2019. 398 s., Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia V : Voprosi istorii i teorii hristianskogo iskusstva, 2020, Iss. 40, pp. 189-191 (in Russian).

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Endoltseva Ekaterina


Academic Degree: Candidate of Sciences* in Art Criticism;
Place of work: Institute of Oriental Studies of the Russian Academy of Sciences; 12/1 Rozhdestvenka Str., Moscow, 107031, Russian Federation;
Post: Senior Researcher;
ORCID: 0000-0002-8133-6379;
Email: kendoltseva@ivran.ru.

*According to the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) 2011, the degree of Candidate of Sciences (Cand.Sc.) belongs to ISCED level 8 — "doctoral or equivalent", together with PhD, DPhil, D.Lit, D.Sc, LL.D, Doctorate or similar.