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St. Tikhon’s University Review . Series V: Problems of History and Theory of Christian Art

St. Tikhon’s University Review V :26

ARTICLES

Antipov Il'ia

Staircases in Novgorod buildings of the 11th and the first half of the 13th centuries

Antipov Il'ia (2017) "Staircases in Novgorod buildings of the 11th and the first half of the 13th centuries ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia V : Voprosi istorii i teorii hristianskogo iskusstva, 2017, Iss. 26, pp. 9-23 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturV201726.9-23
This article deals with main types of staircases leading to choir galleries (catechumena) of Novgorod churches of pre-Mongol period. These types include: 1) a spiral staircase in the tower, either adjacent to the side facade of the church, or built into the western gallery; 2) spiral staircase built into the corner compartment of the church; 3) inner staircase in the western wall; 4) wooden staircase (attached or permanent). On the whole, the chronological range of these staircases in Novgorod architecture coincides with the chronology of changes in types of staircases in the architecture of pre-Mongol period, the main peculiarity being the construction of stair towers in some churches of the second half of the 12th century. Inner staircases in western walls are closely connected with the building structure. Their location depends on the size and type of portals, wooden ties inside the walls, the level of catechumena. The paper analyses basic parameters of stairs (width, height of footsteps, type of ceiling), as well as the source of lighting. Using spiral staircases in church towers one can go up to the roof of a church building; access to the roof was on the top of the stairs. In the middle and second half of the 13th century, additional wooden stairs leading out onto the roof through a special door in catechumena were arranged. The space at the top of the stair towers often had a liturgical function, as the chapels were situated there. The staircases turned into a purely supplementary element of the building in the mid – 12th and the fi rst half of the 13th century.
Old Russian architecture, Pre-Mongol Rus’, staircases, building constructions, Novgorod the Great, construction technology

Bulkin Val. A., Turova E. A., “Tserkov' Fedora Stratilata na Sofi iskoi storone v Novgorode. Arkhitekturno-arkheologicheskie issledovaniia 1988–1991 gg.”, in: Pamiatniki stariny. Kontseptsii. Otkrytiia. Versii, 1, 1997, 118–120.
Gladenko T. V., Krasnorech'ev L. E., Shtender G. M., Shuliak L. M. “Arkhitektura Novgoroda v svete poslednikh issledovanii”, in: Novgorod: K 1100-letiiu goroda: Sbornik statei, 1964, 183–263.
Iadryshnikov V. A., “Tserkov' Spasa v Staroi Russe — sovremennitsa Nereditskogo khrama”, in: Novgorodskii istoricheskii sbornik, issue 8 (18), 2000, 158–181.
Karger M. K., “Pamiatniki drevnerusskogo zodchestva”, in: Vestnik AN SSSR, 9, 1970, 79–85.
Kovalenko O. N., Markova L. G., “Tserkov' Andreia Stratilata v Novgorodskom kremle. Proektnye issledovaniia i restavratsiia”, in: Arkhitektura i arkheologiia Drevnei Rusi (Trudy Gosudarstvennogo Ermitazha XLVI), 2009, 286–300.
Lalazarov S. V., “Arkhitektura tserkvi sv. Georgiia”, in: Tserkov' sv. Georgiia v Staroi Ladoge: Istoriia, arkhitektura, freski, 2002, 69–124.
Mikhailov S. P., “Issledovanie sobora Ioanna Predtechi v Pskove”, in: Kratkie soobshcheniia Instituta arkheologi, 172, Arkheologiia i arkhitektura, 1982, 74–79.
Mikhailov S. P., “Pervonachal'noe ubranstvo inter'era sobora Ioannovskogo monastyria vo Pskove”, in: Drevnerusskoe iskusstvo. Khudozhestvennaia kul'tura X – pervoi poloviny XIII v., 1988, 95–100.
Mil'chik M. I., ed., Arkhitekturnoe nasledie Velikogo Novgoroda i Novgorodskoi oblasti. Katalog, St. Petersburg, 2008.
Nikitin V., Golubeva I., “Edinstvennyi na Rusi. Istoriia sozdaniia, zhizni i restavratsii Spaso- Preobrazhenskogo sobora Mirozh skogo monastyria. Chast' pervaia. XII vek”, in: Pskovskaia guberniia, 33 (454), 2009, 02–08, sentiabria, available at: URL: http://gubernia.pskovregion.org/number_454/07.php.
Novoselov N. V., Ot Blagoveshcheniia do Blagoveshcheniia. Stroitel'noe proizvodstvo Novgorodskoi zemli v period slozheniia mestnoi arkhitekturnoi shkoly, St. Petersburg, 2002.
Peskova A. A., Rappoport P. A., Shtender G. M., “K voprosu o slozhenii novgorodskoi arkhitekturnoi shkoly”, in: Sovetskaia arkheologiia, 3, 1982, 35–46.
Popov V. A., “Arkhitekturno-arkheologicheskie issledovaniia Spaso-Preobrazhenskogo sobora v Staroi Russe”, in: Novgorodskii istoricheskii sbornik, 8 (18), 2000, 182–184.
Rappoport P. A., Stroitel'noe proizvodstvo Drevnei Rusi (X–XIII vv.), St. Petersburg, 1994.
Rappoport P. A., Russkaia arkhitektura XI– XIII vv. Katalog pamiatnikov, 1982.
Saksa L. A., “Tserkov' Petra i Pavla na Sil'nishche i novgorodskoe zodchestvo kontsa XII veka: Predvaritel'nye itogi issledovaniia”, in: Arkhitekturnoe nasledstvo, 56, 2012, 56.
Sarab'ianov V. D., “Pomeshcheniia vtorogo etazha v drevnerusskikh tserkvakh, ikh funktsiia i ikonografi ia”, in: V sozvezdii L'va. Sbornik statei po drevnerusskomu iskusstvu v chest' L'va Isaakovicha Lifshitsa, Moscow, 2014, 407–417.
Sarab'ianov V. D., “Sobor Rozhdestva Bogomateri Antonieva monastyria 1125 g.”, in: Lifshits L. I., Sarab'ianov V. D., Tsarevskaia T. Iu., Monumental'naia zhivopis' Velikogo Novgoroda. Konets XI – pervaia chetvert' XII v., St. Petersburg, 2004, 531–789.
Sarab'ianov V. D., “Rospis' severo-zapadnoi bashni Georgievskogo sobora Iur'eva monastyria”, in: Drevnerusskoe iskusstvo. Rus' i strany vizantiiskogo mira. XII vek, St. Petersburg, 2002, 365–398.
Sarab'ianov V. D., Sobor Rozhdestva Bogomateri Antonieva monastyria v Novgorode, Moscow, 2002.
Sedov Vl. V., “Arkhitekturno-arkheologicheskie issledovaniia tserkvi Blagoveshcheniia na Gorodishche bliz Novgoroda v 2000 i 2012 godakh”, in: Novgorod i Novgorodskaia zemlia. Istoriia i arkheologiia, 28, 2014, 77–93.
Sedov Vl. V., “Novyi tip khor v drevnerusskoi arkhitekture XII v.”, in: Tserkov' Spasa na Nereditse: ot Vizantii k Rusi. K 800-letiiu pamiatnika, Moscow, 2005, 67–92.
Sedov V. V., Vdovichenko M. V., Merzliutina N. A., Pezhemskii D. V., “Arkheologicheskie raskopki Blagoveshchenskogo  monastyria bliz Novgoroda v 2006 g.”, in: Novgorod i Novgorodskaia zemlia. Istoriia i arkheologiia, 21, 2007, 53–61.
Sekretar' L. A., Monastyri Velikogo Novgoroda i okrestnostei, Moscow, 2011.
Sekretar' L. A., “K istorii izucheniia tserkvi Andreia Stratilata v Novgorodskom detintse”, in: Arkhitektura i arkheologiia Drevnei Rusi (Trudy Gosudarstvennogo Ermitazha XLVI), St. Petersburg, 2009, 277–285.
Shtender G. M., “Pervichnyi zamysel i posleduiushchie izmeneniia galerei i lestnichnoi bashni Novgorodskoi Sofi i”, in: Drevnerusskoe iskusstvo: Problemy i atributsii, Moscow, 1977, 30–54.
Voronin N. N., Zodchestvo Severo-Vostochnoi Rusi, Moscow, 1961, 1.

Antipov Il'ia

Pozdneva Polina

Windows in Novgorod architecture of the Pre-Mongolian period

Pozdneva Polina (2017) "Windows in Novgorod architecture of the Pre-Mongolian period ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia V : Voprosi istorii i teorii hristianskogo iskusstva, 2017, Iss. 26, pp. 24-39 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturV201726.24-39
This article presents the fi rst outline of typology, building techniques and construction technology of window openings in pre-Mongolian church architecture in Novgorod, Pskov and Old Ladoga (11th–13th centuries). It introduces several classifi cations of windows according to the following features: location, layout of the window opening, form of exterior contour and construction technology. The main conclusions of the article are as follows: 1) among the seven types distinguished, the most wide-spread form of the window exterior contour is a rectangular framed by a semicircular arch; 2) in the course of time, the variety of window opening layouts increased (on the whole, the 11th and the fi rst third of the 13th centuries saw nine types of layout); 3) one can trace a certain evolution in the building technique (constructors of the 11th and the fi rst half of the 12th centuries used two wooden centerings to construct a window opening, while in mid-12th century a more complicated window layout brought about the addition of the third centering); 4) the centerings were placed either on the wall beams incorporated into the masonry of the platbands or directly on the platband of the window; 5) alongside the brick construction of the arches in Sophia Cathedral, the platbands and arches of window and door openings were more frequently built in the opus mixtum technique.
pre-Mongolian architecture, Novgorod, Pskov, Old Ladoga, window, building technique

Afanas'ev K. N., “O glavakh Georgievskogo sobora Iur'eva monastyria v Novgorode”, in: Kul'tura Srednevekovoi Rusi, Leningrad, 1974, 101–102.
Komech A. I., “Kompozitsiia fasadov novgorodskikh tserkvei XII– XIII vv.”, in: Drevnerusskoe iskusstvo. Khudozhestvennaia kul'tura X- pervoi poloviny XIII veka, Moscow, 1988, 101–111.
Lalazarov S. V., “Arkhitektura tserkvi sv. Georgiia”, in: Tserkov' sv. Georgiia v Staroi Ladoge: Istoriia, arkhitektura, freski, Moscow, 2002, 69–124.
Lalazarov S. V., “Plinfa tserkvi Georgiia v Staroi Ladoge”, in: Arkhitekturno-arkheologicheskii seminar: Iz istorii stroitel'noi keramiki srednevekovoi Vostochnoi Evropy, St. Petersburg, 2003, 76–85.
Mikhailov S. P., “Issledovanie sobora Ioanna Predtechi v Pskove, in: Kratkie soobshcheniia instituta arkheologii”, in: Arkheologiia i arkhitektura, 172, Moscow, 1982, 74–79.
Mikhailov S. P., “Pervonachal'noe ubranstvo inter'era sobora Ioannovskogo monastyria vo Pskove”, in: Arkhitekton, 1–2, Ekaterinburg, 1998, 87–92.
Mil'chik M. I., Shtender G. M., “Zapadnye kamery sobora Mirozhskogo monastyria vo Pskove. (K voprosu o pervonachal'noi kompozitsii khrama)”, in: Drevnerusskoe iskusstvo. Khudozhestvennaia kul'tura X– pervoi poloviny XIII veka, Moscow, 1988, 77–94.
Nikitin V., Golubeva I., Edinstvennyi na Rusi. Istoriia sozdaniia, zhizni i restavratsii Spaso- Preobrazhenskogo sobora Mirozhskogo monastyria, available at: URL:http://gubernia.pskovregion.org/number_454/07.php
Saksa L. A., “Tserkov' Petra i Pavla na Sil'nishche i novgorodskoe zodchestvo kontsa XII veka: Predvaritel'nye itogi issledovaniia”, in: Arkhitekturnoe nasledstvo, 56, 2012, 38–59.
Sedov Vl. V., Skriptsova E. V., “Zakladka okon Nikolo-Dvorishchenskogo sobora v Novgorode v nachale XIII v.”, in: Novgorodskie drevnosti, 5, 2000, 5–10.
Shtender G. M., “Pervichnyi zamysel i posleduiushchie izmeneniia galerei i lestnichnoi bashni Novgorodskoi Sofi i”, in: Drevnerusskoe iskusstvo: Problemy i atributsii, Moscow, 1977, 30–54.

Pozdneva Polina

Shvets Tat'iana

Menologia in Old Russian Kondakaries

Shvets Tat'iana (2017) "Menologia in Old Russian Kondakaries ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia V : Voprosi istorii i teorii hristianskogo iskusstva, 2017, Iss. 26, pp. 40-56 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturV201726.40-56
The Menologion is a system of fi xed church feasts arranged according to the calendar sequence from September to August. The section of the Menologion that contains kontakia (or kontakia and oikoi) dedicated to Saints constitutes the most signifi cant part of the singing book Kondakar (Russ. кондакарь). This article for the fi rst time presents an integrated comparative study of all extant menologia from Russian Kondakars. The main results of the study are as follows: 1) full index of feasts contained in all Kondakar menologia; 2) index of feasts, which form a certain “liturgical nucleus” of the singing book in question; 3) register of unique feasts located in only one MS; 4) corrections in dating of some MSs.
Kondakar, Menologion, propria of Menaia, church feasts, “liturgical nucleus” of the Menologion

Golyshenko V. S. Paleografi cheskoe opisanie Tipografskogo Ustava, in: Tipografskii Ustav: Ustav s kondakarem kontsa XI – nachala XII veka, 3. Moscow, 2006, 11–35.
Gorskii A. V., Nevostruev K. I. Opisanie slavianskikh rukopisei Moskovskoi Sinodal'noi biblioteki, 3-2.. Moscow, 1917.
Loseva O. V. Russkie mesiatseslovy XI–XIV vekov. Moscow, 2001.
Pentkovskii A. M. Tipikon patriarkha Aleksiia Studita v Vizantii i na Rusi. Moscow, 2001.
Sedova R. A. Maloizvestnyi pamiatnik pevcheskogo iskusstva Drevnei Rusi, in: Muzykal'naia akademiia, 1. Moscow, 1996, 185–187.
Sergii (Spasskii), arkhiepiskop. Polnyi mesiatseslov Vostoka., 1. Vladimir, 1901.
Shekhovtsova I. P. Predvaritel'nyi spisok k katalogu grecheskikh pevcheskikh rukopisei moskovskikh sobranii, in: Muzykal'naia arkheografiia. Moscow, 2013, 172–220.
Shvets T. V. Drevnerusskaja pevcheskaja kniga Kondakar': nachal'nyi etap izucheniia, in: Vestnik Iuzhno-Ural'skogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. Seriia: Sotsial'no-gumanitarnye nauki, 16-2. Cheljabinsk, 2016, 98–105.
Shvets T. V., Pletneva E. V. “Notirovannye fragmenty Kondakaria Obshchestva istorii i drevnostei rossiiskikh,” in: Traditsionnye muzykal'nye kul'tury na rubezhe stoletii: problemy, metody, perspektivy issledovaniia: Materialy Mezhdunarodnoi nauchnoi konferentsii. Moscow, 2008, 375–390.
Smolenskij S. V. “Neskol'ko novykh dannykh o tak nazyvaemom kondakarnom znameni”, in: Russkaja muzykal'naja gazeta, 45, 1008–1010. St.Petersburg, 1913.
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Tikhomirov N. B. Katalog russkikh i slavianskikh pergamennykh rukopisei XI–XII vekov, khraniashchikhsia v Otdele rukopisei Gosudarstvennoi biblioteki SSSR im. V. I. Lenina, in: Zapiski otdela rukopisei [RGB], Moscow, 1965, 27, 93–148; 30, 87–156.

Shvets Tat'iana

Tuminskaia Olga

The images of St. Basil The Great and St. Basil Fool for Christ in integrated iconographic compositions

Tuminskaia Olga (2017) "The images of St. Basil The Great and St. Basil Fool for Christ in integrated iconographic compositions ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia V : Voprosi istorii i teorii hristianskogo iskusstva, 2017, Iss. 26, pp. 57-75 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturV201726.57-75
This article studies the pair composition of St. Basil the Great and St. Basil Fool for Christ. The iconographic composition of these two saints came to be wide-spread in icons with the aim of conveying an important point of dogmatic Orthodoxy, namely the sanctity of martyrs. The paper considers the established scheme of placing St. Basil the Great on the left and St. Basil Fool for Christ on the right; they are praying to the Trinity above. This scheme was incorporated in the iconographic practice in Moscow after St. Basil’s Fool for Christ consecration (1588), and already by the late 16th and early 17th centuries it represented an established iconographic image, which was rendered not only in icons but also in other spheres of church art, e.g. served as a pattern in gold-embroidery shops.
image of St. Basil the Great, image of St. Basil Fool for Christ, iconographic composition of holy martyrs, semantics, embroidered veil, Synodicon, Missal

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Busewa-Dawydowa J. L., “Obraz mira v ikonakch stroganovskoi schkoly”, in: Drevnerusskoe iskusstvo: issledovanij a i restavratsija. Pamjati N. N. Pomerantzeva, Moscow, 2001, 120–122.
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Tuminskaia Olga

Grigor'eva Veronika

New data on early (relative) marks (based on the material of ordinary singing manuscripts of the first half of the 17th century from St. Petersburg collections)

Grigor'eva Veronika (2017) "New data on early (relative) marks (based on the material of ordinary singing manuscripts of the first half of the 17th century from St. Petersburg collections) ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia V : Voprosi istorii i teorii hristianskogo iskusstva, 2017, Iss. 26, pp. 76-95 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturV201726.76-95
This paper presents data on early vermilion marks in ordinary singing manuscripts. These data are obtained from the analysis of manuscripts from the Russian National Library, namely РНБ Быстр. № 17 and РНБ НСРК. Q.14. These MSs contain a wide range of such marks with various meanings. Their full list exceeds the total number of marks cited in relevant manuals on musicology. The most frequent are marks which specify the direction and forms of melodic movement. According to principles and specifi cs of sound pitch designation, and also with the aim of distinguishing them from another type of marks, we off er to refer to the marks in question as to “relative”.
early marks, relative marks, Old Russian music theory

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Grigor’yeva V. Y., Kniga inoka Iosifa Lovzunskago. Ego znameniya i pomety. Pevcheskie Prazdniki XVII veka. Publikaciya i issledovanie pam’yatnika, Moscow, 2014.
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Churchill W. A., Watermarks in paper, Amsterdam, MCMXXXV.

Grigor'eva Veronika

Guseinova Zivar

The data on church music theory in the manuscript of Archpriest Methodius (1647)

Guseinova Zivar (2017) "The data on church music theory in the manuscript of Archpriest Methodius (1647) ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia V : Voprosi istorii i teorii hristianskogo iskusstva, 2017, Iss. 26, pp. 96-108 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturV201726.96-108
The aim of this article is to present the theoretical codex included in hooked notation manuscript written by Archpriest Methodius in 1647 in Kashira. In the history of Russian musical theory, manuscripts of the mid-17th century manifest the wish of masters of singing to validate traditional phenomena in singing, to systematise existing techniques and to integrate purely theoretical information into the context of historical and pedagogical precepts. The note manuscript Ф. 229 № 154 (collection of N.S. Tihonravov) of the Russian State Library contains a theoretical codex that sets out both established and non-traditional fragments supplemented by literary and philosophical statements using cryptography (Russ. простая литорея). The bulk of materials on musical theory is related to the form of dvoznamenniki (“double sign”), where lines are written in putnaya and znamennaya notations (putnaya in vermilion, znamennaya in black ink). The codex also contains a fragment of the famous “Preface” to the collection of note sticherons (Russ. нотный Стихирарь) and the ABC-enumeration Имена столповому знамени. The fact that Archpriest Methodius included such changes into traditional manuals serves as a sign of his own creative work. As a result, the author of the manuscript acts as an experiences connoisseur of church singing rather than a mere copyist.
Archpriest Methodius, manuscript, codex of musical theory, putny and znamenny notations

Bogomolova M. V., Znamennaja monodij a i bezlinejnoe mnogogolosie na primere velikoj panihidy, Moscow, 2006.
Brazhnikov M. V., Drevnerusskaja teorij a muzyki, Leningrad,1972.
Kondrashkova L. V., “Troestrochnye popevki (na materiale pevcheskoi knigi ‘Prazdniki’)”, in: Vestnik PSTGU, 2013, V, 11, 50–95.
Lukashevich A. A., “Printzipy izlozhenij a materiala v putevykh (kazanskikh) Soglasnikakh”, in: Vestnik PSTGU, 2014, V, 14, 83–104.
Nasonov A. N., Istoriya russkogo letopisaniya XI–XVIII vv, Moscow, 1969.
Protopopov V. V., Russkaja mysl' o muzyke v XVII veke, Moscow, 1989.
Spasskij F. G.,Russkoe liturgicheskoe tvorchestvo, Moscow, 2008.

Guseinova Zivar

Shehovtsova Irina

In the wake of P. I. Sevastyanov’s Athos expedition

Shehovtsova Irina (2017) "In the wake of P. I. Sevastyanov’s Athos expedition ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia V : Voprosi istorii i teorii hristianskogo iskusstva, 2017, Iss. 26, pp. 109-130 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturV201726.109-130
This article deals with materials of the Athos expedition (1859–1860) made by the famous traveller, collector and researcher of Christian antiquities P.I. Sevastyanov. These materials include photocopies of outstanding monuments of Byzantine churchsinging tradition. As a result, almost 300 images from 27 Greek notated manuscripts, that refl ect the tradition of church singing from eight Athos monasteries, were brought to Russia, namely 6 codes (9th–11th centuries) with ekphonetic musical signs and 21 manuscripts (11th–19th centuries) with neumen-notation. A signifi cant proportion of photocopies allows us to compare the notation of the same chants in their dynamics (from the 11th to the 18th centuries). Particularly valuable are the copies of 8 sources (from the 15th to the 19th centuries) that are theoretical textbooks for the study of notation. In general, during the expedition focused on copying important sections of the most representative and codes that bear a date. All this testify to the highest level of the organisation of the expedition and its objective to achieve the best scientifi c results possible. This was due not only to a good selection of the participants, but also to the involvement of such outstanding authorities as monk Azariah (Poptsov), Archimandrite Antonin (Kapustin), Bishop Porphiry (Uspensky), V. V. Stasov, Prince M. D. Volkonsky, Revd. D. V. Razumovsky as assistants, supervisors, consultants and researchers. The article also includes a full roster of those images of Greek musical manuscripts that were made by Sevastyanov’s expedition.
Greek musical manuscripts, Athos expedition, P. I. Sevastyanov, monk Azariah, Antonin Kapustin, Porphiry Uspensky, V. V. Stasov, M. D. Volkonsky, D. V. Razumovsky

Antonin (Kapustin), Archimandrite, Zametki poklonnika Sviatoi Gory, Мoscow, 2013.
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Shehovtsova Irina

Kazantseva Tatiana

Unknown notation in an Old Believers’ manuscript from the Hermitage library of Tomsk state university collection

Kazantseva Tatiana (2017) "Unknown notation in an Old Believers’ manuscript from the Hermitage library of Tomsk state university collection ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia V : Voprosi istorii i teorii hristianskogo iskusstva, 2017, Iss. 26, pp. 131-151 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturV201726.131-151
This article examines a previously unknown type of non-lined notation which was discovered in two late Old Believers’ manuscripts kept in a collection of the Scientifi c Library of Tomsk State University. They originate from wanderers’ hermitages of Tomsk-Chulym taiga. We include this notation in the category of “experimental” notation, known by several Old Believers’ copies of the late 18th and the 19th centuries. Its peculiarity is made up by the superfl uity of elements and by the absence of strict links between melodic tunes and graphic marks. The identifying of melodic and rhythmical content of the notation signs demanded a reconstruction of oral versions of the tunes. The reconstruction made possible to establish graphic variants of the same sign, as well as to group various signs that denote identical or similar melodic tunes. As a result, it is concluded that this notation constitutes a primitive way of fi xing musical material previously learned by ear. The elements of this notation are not systematised. However, despite all its naivety it is more adequate as to the specifi cs of Znamenny chant than earlier-known universal “experimental” notations.
Znamenny chant, experimental notations, Old Believers’ singing manuscripts, wanderers, Hermitage Library, Tomsk-Chulym taiga

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Kazantseva Tatiana

Kritskii Boris

Choirmaster and Precentor: facets of professional skills

Kritskii Boris, Drambian Aelita, (2017) "Choirmaster and Precentor: facets of professional skills ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia V : Voprosi istorii i teorii hristianskogo iskusstva, 2017, Iss. 26, pp. 152-161 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturV201726.152-161
This article analyses the choirmaster’s and precentor’s professional activity from the point of view of the style. The activity of the “choir conductor” and “precentor” are similar in meaning, whereas the stylistic content of this activity remains dissimilar. The comparison of secular and church-singing choral art allows us to defi ne the term “performing style”, explore the links of vocal and choral intonation with religious experience of believers as a characteristic feature of the church style of choral singing. The authors identify the pedagogical function of the precentor, draw attention to the spiritual and practical side of stylistic attribution, which is based on the interaction between various sensory modalities that form multi-level connections and relationships.
choirmaster, precentor, church-singing style, traditions, religious experience, the word in church-singing vs. secular vocal and choral intonation, sound space, pedagogical functions of precentor, sensory modalities

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Kritskii Boris