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St. Tikhon’s University Review . Series V: Problems of History and Theory of Christian Art

St. Tikhon’s University Review V :4 (16)

ARTICLES

Ivanova Svetlana

The "Resurrection" image (Anastasis) in Byzantine manuscripts of the IX±XIVth centuries

Ivanova Svetlana (2014) "The "Resurrection" image (Anastasis) in Byzantine manuscripts of the IX±XIVth centuries ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia V : Voprosi istorii i teorii hristianskogo iskusstva, 2014, Iss. 16, pp. 7-18 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturV201416.7-18
The «Resurrection» image (Anastasis) appears in manuscript illustrations of the IX–XIVth centuries, Gospels (Lectionarier) and on the margins of Psalters. The article examines the position of these images in the manuscripts and their relation to the verses in the Psalms. The images drawn are defined as «Ressurection». These observations, yet again, confirm the image's exclusively Easter meaning.
Easter icon, The Resurrection, Byzantine manuscripts, Psalter, illuminated Psalters, miniature, Anastasis.

1. Baranov V. A. 2002 “Iskusstvo posle buri — bogoslovskaja interpretacija nekotoryh izmenenij v posleikonoborcheskoj ikonografii Voskresenija” (Art after Storm — Theological Interpretation of Some Changes in Iconography of Resurrection after Iconoclasm), in Zolotoj, serebrjanyj, zheleznyj: mifologicheskaja model' vremeni i hudozhestvennaja kul'tura, Kursk, 2002, pp. 34–49.
2. Grabar A. Imperator v vizantijskom iskusstve (Emperor in Byzantine Art), Moscow, 2000.
3. Ivanova S. V. 2010 “«Soshestvie vo ad» ili «Voskresenie»?” (“Descending to Hell” or “Resurrection”?), in Kul'tura. Istorija. Sovremennost'. Sbornik kafedry istorii zapadnoevropejskoj i russkoj kul'tury SPbGU, Saint-Petersburg, 2010. vol. 8, pp. 36–61.
4. Ilarion (Alfeev), arhiepiskop. Hristos — pobeditel' ada (Christ — Victor of Hell), Saint-Petersburg, 2009.
5. Oreckaja I. A. 2002 “Eshhe neskol'ko zamechanij po povodu vizantijskih psaltirej IX veka” (Some More Notices on Account of Byzantine Psalters of IX Century), in Vizantijskij vremennik, 2002, vol. 61, pp. 151–171.
6. Oreckaja I. A. 2012 “Rukopisi s miniatjurnymi figurkami” (Manuscripts with Miniature Figures), in Popova O. S., Zaharova A. V., Oreckaja I. A. Vizantijskie miniatjury vtoroj poloviny X–XI veka, Moscow, 2012, pp. 332–423.
7. Lopuhin A. P. Tolkovaja Biblija (Explanatory Bible), Saint-Petersburg, 1904, vol. 1.
8. Pokrovskij N. V. Evangelie v pamjatnikah ikonografii (Gospel in Iconography Memorials), Moscow, 2001.
9. Florenskij P. 1972 “Ikonostas” (Iconostasis), in Bogoslovskie trudy, Moscow, 1972, vol. 9, pp. 83–148.
10. Shhepkina M. V. Miniatjury Hludovskoj Psaltyri. Grecheskij illjustrirovannyj kodeks IX veka (Miniatures of Hludovskaja Psalter. Greek Illustrated Codex of IX Century), Moscow, 1977.
11. Grabar A. Byzantine Painting, Geneva, 1953.
12. Isar N. 2003 “The Dance of Adam: Reconstructing the Byzantine Coros”, in Byzantinoslavica, 2003, vol. 61.
13. Kartsonis A. D. Anastasis: The Making of an Image, Princeton, New Jersey, 1986.
14. Loerke M.-М.-О. Höllenfahrt Christi und Anastasis. Ein Bildmotiv im Abendland und im christlichen Osten. Inaugural-Dissertation zur Erlangung der Doktorwurde der Philosophischen. Fakultat I (Philosophie, Sport, Kunstwissenschaften) der Universität Regensburg, Regensburg, 2003.
15. Anderson J. F. 1997 “Manuscripts”, in The Glory of Byzantium. Art and of Middle Byzantine Era. 843–1261. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, 1997.
16. Restle M. Die Byzantinische Wandmalerei in Kleinasien, Recklingshausen, 1967, vol. 2.
17. Weitzmann K. Studies in Classical and Byzantine Manuscript Illumination, Chicago, 1971.

Ivanova Svetlana

Oretskaia Irina

Iconography of the mosaics of the cathedral San Giusto in Trieste: preliminary notes

Oretskaia Irina (2014) "Iconography of the mosaics of the cathedral San Giusto in Trieste: preliminary notes ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia V : Voprosi istorii i teorii hristianskogo iskusstva, 2014, Iss. 16, pp. 19-29 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturV201416.19-29
Two side apses of the cathedral of San Giusto in Trieste were decorated with mosaics by Byzantine artists in the late 11th — early 12th century. In the north apse the image of Theotokos flanked by two archangels is placed in the upper part of the conch, and twelve apostles are depicted standing and communicating in the lower part. The conch is framed in a band with the God’s Hand, six portraits of angels, chalices, censers etc. In the south apse Christ accompanied by martyrs Justus and Servulus is represented trampling down áspis and basilisk. The mosaicists used mostly schemes widespread in the art of the 11th and 12th centuries known to us both from the monuments created by artists of the Macedonean and Comnenean époques and from the mosaics of the Early-Byzantine time preserved mainly in Rome and Ravenna. In the mosaic of the north apse there are the motives, both Byzantine (Theotokos with archangels) and Western, met in the Italian monuments (the row of apostles, the God’s Hand with laurel wreath at the top of the conch). The only unique part of the mosaics from the point of view of their iconography is the band framing the conch of the north apse; its motives adhere to a theme of liturgy, which usually took place in the altar of the church (now the chapel of Santissimo Sacramento).
San Giusto in Trieste, mosaic, Byzantine art, iconography, art of the Middle-Byzantine period, image

1. Andreescu Treadgold I. 1972 “Torcello. I. Le Christ Inconnu. II. Anastasis et Jugement Dernier: Têtes vraies, Têtes fausses“, in DOP, 1972, vol. 26, pp. 185–223.
2. Andreescu Treadgold I. 1998 “The real and the fake: two mosaics from Venice in American collections”, in Studi veneziani, 1998, vol. 36, pp. 279–300.
3. Andreescu Treadgold I. 1997 (1999) “Giovanni Moro and a New Apostle Head from Torcello”, in Arte medieval, 1997 (1999), vol. 11/1/2, pp. 199–214.
4. Cozzi E. 2004 “La fortuna iconografica di San Giusto nella produzione artistica medieval”, in Cuscito G. (ed.) San Giusto e la tradizione martiriale tergestina nel XVII centenario del martirio di San Giusto e per il Giubileo d'oro sacerdotale di Mons. E. Ravignani Vescovo di Trieste. Centro di Antichità Alto Altoadriatiche, Trieste, 2005, pp. 269–310.
5. Demus O. The Mosaic Decoration of San Marco, Venice, Chicago, 1988.
6. Jestaz B. La chapelle Zen à Saint-Marc de Venise, Stuttgart, 1986.
7. Lidova M. 2010 “The Earliest Images of Maria Regina in Rome and the Byzantine Imperial Iconography”, in Nish i Vizantija. Zbornik radova VIII, Nish, 2010, pp. 231–243.
8. Luca G. Le aule di San Giusto a Trieste: dall'alto Medioevo al romanico, Trieste, 2005.
9. Mason M. 2005 “Il complesso cattedrale di San Giusto a Trieste e la sua decorazione musiva”, in Cuscito G. (ed.) San Giusto e la tradizione martiriale tergestina nel XVII centenario del martirio di San Giusto e per il Giubileo d'oro sacerdotale di Mons. E. Ravignani Vescovo di Trieste. Centro di Antichità Alto Altoadriatiche, Trieste, 2005, pp. 311–342.
10. Mason M. I mosaici parietali della cattedrale di San Giusto a Trieste. Tesi di Dottorato in Storia dell’arte, Università Ca’ Foscari, Venezia, 2004.
11. Noga-Banai G. 2008 “Time and Again in Poreč: a Note on the Decoration Program of the Apse in Basilica Eufrasiana”, in Ikon, 2008, vol. 1, pp. 79–90.
12. Parovel P.G. Trieste: la chiesa nella grotta a San Servolo e la setta esorcistica dell’inglese ‘reincarnato’, in http://www.lavoceditrieste.net/2011/06/27/6782/.
13. Šonje A. 1983 “I maici parietali del complesso architettonico della basilica Eufrasiana di Parenzo”, in Atti del Centro di Ricerche Storiche, Rovigno, 13.1982/83, Rovigno, 1983, pp. 65–138.

Oretskaia Irina

Makii Irina

The potential of geopolitical factors in the successful stylistic analysis and dating of the Romanesque portal in Egischem

Makii Irina (2014) "The potential of geopolitical factors in the successful stylistic analysis and dating of the Romanesque portal in Egischem ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia V : Voprosi istorii i teorii hristianskogo iskusstva, 2014, Iss. 16, pp. 30-54 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturV201416.30-54
This article considers the dating a portal of the Romanesque period located within the French province of Alsace. Specifically in relation to the role of geopolitical factors in the dating process given the lack of documentary evidence relating to monumental sculpture of this era. Considering the monument in the light of local geopolitical realities helps to displace the existing dating and correlates with the European trends in sculpture of the early 13th century. As an additional element of stylistic analysis geopolitical context opens up the possibility of a new view of both the historical and artistic value of the monument.
portal, Romanesque, sculpture, Alsace, St. Paul, dating

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Starikova Irina

On the Question of the Authorship of ‘Pevchaya Psaltyr’ (Chant Psalter) in the Old Russian tradition

Starikova Irina (2014) "On the Question of the Authorship of ‘Pevchaya Psaltyr’ (Chant Psalter) in the Old Russian tradition ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia V : Voprosi istorii i teorii hristianskogo iskusstva, 2014, Iss. 16, pp. 55-62 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturV201416.55-62
The paper deals with the problem of the traditional attribution of psalmodic chant in the Old Russian tradition. According to the majority of researchers the most probable author of the psalmodic models was Markell, abbot (hegumen) of the Khutyn monastery near Novgorod. This view is based on the claim of the 17 century treatise ‘Predislovie, otkudu i ot koego vremeni nachasya byti v nashej rustej zemli osmoglasnoe penie’ (‘Introduction on the reason and origin of the eight-mode chant in our land’), where the author of ‘Pevchaya Psaltyr’ was identified as a monk Markell Bezborodyj. However, the comparative analysis of the different documents referring to the activity of abbot Markell as well as about 200 chant books with notated psalmody leads to reasonable doubts on the correctness of this attribution. The nickname ‘Bezborodyj’ (breadless) is mentioned only in ‘Predislovie’, while abbot Markell is not referred to by this nickname in any surviving document. In chant manuscripts there are no remarks concerning the authorship of the psalmodic models. Moreover, the whole cycle of the psalmodic models known as ‘Pevchaya Psaltyr’ appeared in manuscripts only about half a century after the last known date of Markell’s activity. For this reason the attribution of the psalmody to abbot Markell cannot be considered as reliable, and the question of the authorship of ‘Pevchaya Psaltyr’ still requires more clarity.
old-Russian chant tradition, znamenny chant, psalmody, ‘Pevchaya Psaltyr’, authorship, Markell Bezborodyj, Father Superior of Novgorod-Khutyn monastery Markell.

1. Dmitrieva R. P. 1989 “Markell”, in Lihachev D. S. (ed.) Slovar' knizhnikov i knizhnosti Drevnej Rusi, Leningrad, 1989, vol. 2/2: Vtoraja polovina XIV–XVI vv., pp. 103–104.
2. Kazanceva T. G. 2010 “Tradicii Novgorodskoj shkoly cerkovno-pevcheskogo iskusstva v bogosluzhebnoj praktike sovremennogo sibirskogo staroobrjadchestva (nekotorye nabljudenija nad ispolneniem kafizm utreni u staroverov-strannikov)” (Traditions of Novgorodskaja School of Church-Singing Art in Service Practice of Modern Siberian Old Belivers), in Osipov V. I., Sokolova E. I. (eds.) Staroobrjadchestvo: Istorija, kul'tura, sovremennost': mat-ly IX nauch. konf., Velikij Novgorod, 2010, pp. 336–351.
3. Parfent'ev N. P. Drevnerusskoe pevcheskoe iskusstvo v duhovnoj kul'ture Rossijskogo gosudarstva XVI−XVII vv. (Old Russian Singing Art in Spiritual Culture of Russian State of XVI–XVII Cent.), Sverdlovsk, 1991.
4. Parfent'eva N. V. Tvorchestvo masterov drevnerusskogo pevcheskogo iskusstva XVI–XVII vv. (Creativity of Masters of Old Russian Singing Art of XVI–XVII Cent), Cheljabinsk, 1997.
5. Protopopov V. V. Russkaja mysl' o muzyke v XVII veke (Russian Thought about Music in XVII Century), Moscow, 1989.
6. Parfent'ev N. P., Parfent'eva N. V. 2006 “«Preslavnyj pevec» i raspevshhik Login Shishelov (um. 1624), ego proizvedenija i ih issledovanie metodom strukturno-formul'nogo analiza (na primere stihir v chest' sv. Nikolaja)” (“Glorious Singer” and Chanter Login Shishelov (Died 1624), His Works and Their Study by Method of Structural-Formula Analysis), in Tradicii i novacii v otechestvennoj duhovnoj kul'ture, Cheljabinsk, 2006, pp. 15–32.
7. Pozhidaeva G. A. Pevcheskie tradicii Drevnej Rusi: Ocherki teorii i stilja (Singing Traditiona of Old Rus’: Essays on Theory and Style), Moscow, 2007, vol. 1/4: Monodija. Osnovnye struktury prostrannogo penija: Demestvennyj raspev (Monodia. Main Structures of Space Singing: Demestvennyj Chant).
8. Ramazanova N. V. 2003 “Drevnerusskij rospevshhik za chteniem Psaltiri” (Old Russian Chanter by Reading of Psalter), in Lozovaja I. E. (ed.) Gimnologija, Moscow, 2003, Vyp. 3: Cerkovnoe penie v istoriko-liturgicheskom kontekste: Vostok–Rus'–Zapad, pp. 170–185.
9. Leonid, arhim. (ed.) Sistematicheskoe opisanie slavjano-rossijskih rukopisej sobranija grafa A. S. Uvarova (Systematic Description of Slavic-Russian Manuscripts of Collection of Count A. S. Uvarov), Moscow, 1894, vol. 4.
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11. Undol'skij V. 1846 “Zamechanija o cerkovnom penii” (Notices in Church Singing), in Chtenija v obshhestve istorii i drevnostej rossijskih, 1846, vol. 3.
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Starikova Irina

Shumilova Khristina

Novgorodian Royal Gates of XV-XVIIth centuries with depictions of the Annunciation and two saint bishops

Shumilova Khristina (2014) "Novgorodian Royal Gates of XV-XVIIth centuries with depictions of the Annunciation and two saint bishops ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia V : Voprosi istorii i teorii hristianskogo iskusstva, 2014, Iss. 16, pp. 63-84 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturV201416.63-84
The main purpose of this work is to get an overview of number and safe state of Novgorodian Royal Gates of XV–XVIIth centuries with depictions of the Annunciation and two saint bishops — Basil the Great and John Chrysostom — from the collections of Russian museums as well as to analyze the iconography, to review variations of forms within the established cannon and to reveal specific features of Novgorodian icon-painting. Nineteen monuments which are kept in the Hermitage, the Russian Museum, the Tret΄yakov Gallery, the Andrej Rublyov Museum, the State History Museum, the State Novgorod Museum, the Museum of Fine Arts of Republic of Karelia, the Pskov State Museum, the Vologda State Museum, the «Kolomenskoe» Museum-Reserve and private collections are reviewed in this article. As the result of the analysis of the group of Royal Gates in review following conclusions can be made: more than half of Royal Gates from this group have intricate and exquisite shape of the finial. As usual a finial has six blades with scallops — the shape which reminds its antitype — the shell a the symbol of the Virgin Mary. In fi nials the Annunciation is always depicted in two iconographic versions. On the leaves of Gates we see full length figures of saint bishops. Such depiction carries on Byzantian tradition — large scale and monumentality of the image. St. Basil the Great is depicted on the left leaf, and st. John Chrysostom — on the right one. Figures are placed symmetrically but not mirror-like, heads are inclined, bodies are three-quarter turned; saint bishops stare ahead, rarely on the viewer. On the most of the monuments garments are similar and vary only in color. In the hands of saint bishops there are scrolls with different liturgical texts. Based on investigation of this group of Royal Gates it can be concluded that this iconographic type was quite spread in the churches of Novgorod. Formed in the mid-XVth century this type survived without significant changes until the beginning of the XVIIth century.
the Old Russian art, Art of Veliky Novgorod, icon-painting, the Royal Gates, saint bishops, saint Basil the Great, saint John Chrysostom, the Annunciation, iconography.

1. Alpatov M. V. Sokrovishha Russkogo iskusstva XI–XVI vv. (Zhivopis') (Treasures of Russian Art of XI–XVI Cent. (Painting)), Leningrad, 1971.
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11. Sechin A. G. 2014 “Mnimoe odinochestvo kanona: «Dorifor» Polikleta v kontekste dialektiki edinichnogo i mnozhestvennogo” (Imaginary Solitude of Canon: “Dorifor” of Polyclete in Context of Dialectics of Single and Plural), in Fenomen odinochestva. Aktual'nye voprosy gigieny kul'tury, Saint-Petersburg, 2014, pp. 99–110.
12. Sizonenko T. D. 2000 “O vethozavetnoj simvolike carskih vrat drevnerusskogo ikonostasa” (About Old Testament Symbolic of Royal Door of Old Russian Iconostasis), in Ikonostas: Proishozhdenie — razvitie — simvolika, Moscow, 2000, pp. 502–517.
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18. Manson Chr. The George R. Hann Collection. Auction Catalogue, New York, 1980.

Shumilova Khristina

Lebedeva-Emelina Antonina

Bondman-composer Leo Gurilev and his sacred music

Lebedeva-Emelina Antonina (2014) "Bondman-composer Leo Gurilev and his sacred music ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia V : Voprosi istorii i teorii hristianskogo iskusstva, 2014, Iss. 16, pp. 85-112 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturV201416.85-112
Leo Gurilev (1770–1844) is a well-known composer, who lived during Catherine II regency. He was Vladimir Orlov’s bondman. Vladimir Orlov is a brother of Grigory Orlov, favorite Catherine II. The life in homestead Semenovskoe-Otrada is being described in article, also destiny of musician and his duty of service. The supplement of article is music sheets for choral concert “During divine guard” for two chorus.
Leo Gurilev, Russian choral music of the XVIIIth century, the sacred concert, the publication of a music, V. G. Orlov’s bondman-composer, homestead Semenovskoe-Otrada

1. Alekseev A. D. Russkaja fortepiannaja muzyka (Russian Piano Music), Moscow, 1963.
2. Drozdov A., Trofimova T. Russkaja starinnaja fortepiannaja muzyka (Russian Old Piano Music), Moscow, Leningrad, 1946.
3. Lebedeva-Emelina A. V. Russkaja duhovnaja muzyka jepohi klassicizma (1765–1825) (Russian Spiritual Music of Classicism Epoch (1765–1825)), Moscow, 2004.
4. Lebedeva-Emelina A. V. Horovaja kul'tura ekaterininskoj jepohi (Choir Culture of Ekaterina Epoch), Moscow, 2009.
5. Natanson V. I. Proshloe russkogo pianizma (Past of Russian Pianism), Moscow, 1960.
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Lebedeva-Emelina Antonina

Shekhovtsova Irina

Greek musical manuscripts in the collecting activity of Antonin Kapustin

Shekhovtsova Irina (2014) "Greek musical manuscripts in the collecting activity of Antonin Kapustin ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia V : Voprosi istorii i teorii hristianskogo iskusstva, 2014, Iss. 16, pp. 113-142 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturV201416.113-142
This article considers the collecting activity of Antonin Kapustin, an outstanding byzantinist and Church and political figure of the 19th century. According to modern studies his collection contains 95 Greek manuscripts, 5 church-singing notation manuscripts in the storages of Kiev (1), St. Petersburg (3) and Moscow (1). The most valuable are the passage from the 10th century Irmologion and Stichirarion 1106 form the Russian National Library, and Stichirarion with miniatures of the second half of the 13th century, which is now in the collection of the State Historical Museum (SHM). The study of Antonin Kapustin gathering of this kind of manuscripts had showed his close relationship with the history of Russian musical Byzantinistic, including the names of V. Stasov, D. Razumovsky, Azariya, kn. Volkonsky, P. I. Sevast΄yanov. The study involved data archival sources: letters, diaries and notes of Antonin Kapustin, including previously unpublished. At the same time this article considers Antonins opinion of the modern Greek singing, which he was familiar with during many years of service — in Greece and the Holy Land. Special attention is paid to the problems of existence and study of Greek sing manuscripts from the collection of Antonin Kapustin in Russia and particularly the Stichirarion of the second half of XIII century from the Muzejskoe collection of SHM (Muz. 3674). Destiny of the manuscript, presented by Antonin Kapustin in 1864 year to Moscow Society of Lovers of spiritual enlightenment, can be traced back to over 150 years of her stay in Russia The study includes a detailed codicological description of Stichirarion from the collection of the State Historical Museum, and detailed catalog data for all studied handwritten sources.
Byzantine music, Greek singing books, catalog of chant manuscripts, Antonin Kapustin.

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Shekhovtsova Irina

Posternak Ol'ga

About the history of establishing and consecration of Golitsynsky hospital church of the crown prince St. Dimitry

Posternak Ol'ga (2014) "About the history of establishing and consecration of Golitsynsky hospital church of the crown prince St. Dimitry ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia V : Voprosi istorii i teorii hristianskogo iskusstva, 2014, Iss. 16, pp. 143-161 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturV201416.143-161
This article deals with the history of the initial consecration of Golitsynsky hospital church of the crown prince St. Dimitry in Moscow in 1801, which was considered a significant event of the Russian society of that time. At the beginning of the XIX century Golitsynsky hospital became one of the major places of interest of the ancient capital of Russia. This article determines the dates commemorating the 100th anniversary of Golitsynsky hospital which was celebrated twice in 1901–1902. This article also gives a thorough review of the contribution of Dimitry and Aleksandr Golitsyn to the establishment of the hospital.
Golitsynsky hospital, church of the crown prince Dimitry, the Golitsyn family, Dimitry Mikhajlovich Golitsyn, Aleksandr Mikhajlovich Golitsyn

1. Arhitektor M. F. Kazakov. Ansambl' Golicynskoj bol'nicy. Pamjatniki russkoj arhitektury (Kazakov. Ensemble of Golicynskaja Hospital. Memorials of Russian Architecture), Moscow, 1955.
2. GMII im. A. S. Pushkina. Katalog kartinnoj galerei (A. S. Pushkin State Museum of Arts. Catalogue of Painting Gallery), Moscow, 1986.
3. Demskaja A. A. 1990 “Istorija odnogo zabytogo zaveshhanija” (History of One Forgotten Testament), in Pamjatniki kul'tury. Novye otkrytija, 1990, Moscow, 1992.
4. Dolgova S. R. 1996 “Sud'ba rodovyh arhivov Golicynyh v RGADA” (Destiny of Family Archives of Golicyny in RGADA), in Hozjaeva i gosti usad'by Vjazemy. Materialy III Golicynskih chtenij 20–21 janvarja 1996, Bol'shie Vjazemy, 1996.
5. Ivanova E. Ju. 1982 “Portrety XVIII — nachala XIX veka. Iz sobranija A. M. Golicyna — Olsuf'evyh v dome na Devich'em pole“ (Portraints of XVIII — Begin of XIX Centuries. From Collection of A. M. Golicyn and Olsuf'evy in House in Devich'e Pole), in Sojuz hudozhnikov SSSR pokazyvaet sobranie kartin XVIII–XIX vekov iz Zarajskogo muzeja. Restavracija, atribucija, issledovanija. Katalog, Moscow, 1982.
6. Maloletkov S. L. Dobroe delo knjazej Golicynyh. K stoletiju otkrytija Moskovskoj Golicynskoj bol'nicy (1892–1902) (Good Deed of Princes Golicyny. To 100 Anniversary of Opening of Moscow Golicynskaja Hospital (1892–1902)), Moscow, 1902.
7. Palamarchuk P. G. Sorok sorokov (Four Fourties), Moscow, 1995, vol. 3.
8. Petrov P. N. Istorija rodov russkogo dvorjanstva (History of Families of Russian Nobility), Moscow, 1991, vol. 1.
9. Polunina N., Frolov A. Kollekcionery staroj Moskvy. Illjustrirovannyj biograficheskij slovar' (Collectors of Old Moscow. Illustrated Biographical Dictionary), Moscow, 1997.
10. Savinskaja L. Ju. 2004 “Katalog knjazja Golicyna” (Catalogue of Prince Golicyn), in Nashe nasledie, 2004, vol. 71.
11. Sejdeler I. Moskovskaja Golicynskaja bol'nica v rjadu evropejskih bol'nic (Moscow Golicynskaja Hospital among European Hospitals), Moscow, 1865–1869, vol. 1–2.
12. Selinova T. A. 2006 “Portretnaja galereja knjazej Golicynyh v Kuz'minkah. Sobranie GIM“ (Portrait Gallery of Princes Golicyny in Kuz'minki. Collection of GIM), in Pamjatniki kul'tury. Novye otkrytija. 2004, Moscow, 2006.
13. Sto let Golicynskoj bol'nicy v Moskve (Hundred Years of Golicynskaja Hospital in Moscow), Moscow, 1902.
14. Tret'jakova N. E. Ot kartinnoj galerei Golicynskoj bol'nicy do Golicynskogo muzeja na Volhonke. Hudozhestvennye sobranija knjazej Golicynyh vtoroj poloviny XVIII — XIX vekov: avtoref. dis. … kand. Iskusstv. (From Painting Gallery of Golicynskaja Hospital to Golicynskij Museum in Volhonka. Art Collections of Princes Golicyny of 2nd Half of XVIII — XIX Centuries: Dissertation Abstract), Moscow, 2005.
15. Hodasevich V. F. Derzhavin, Moscow, 1988.

Posternak Ol'ga

Korpelainen Elizaveta

Luterans-iconographers in Peterburg in the XIXth century

Korpelainen Elizaveta (2014) "Luterans-iconographers in Peterburg in the XIXth century ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia V : Voprosi istorii i teorii hristianskogo iskusstva, 2014, Iss. 16, pp. 162-170 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturV201416.162-170
The author in this article considers process of transformation of religious painting in the icon, occurring in the XIXth eyelid in Sankt-Petersburg. The Valaam icon of the Mother of God can serve as an example of such transformation. The icon was painted by the monk Alipy in the Valaam Monastery in 1878. The future monk studied in Academy of Arts in Sankt-Petersburg for some time. Most likely as a sample for the Valaam icon the monk Alipij choosed the Kostomarovsky icon of the Mother of God, that was painted by the academician of the Moscow Academy of Arts by V. V. Shokarev. The icons of this kind were created at that time in the abundance and as a pattern for them served diff erent Madonna paintings of the Middle Ages. But the «academic» icons of Sankt-Petersburg differed a lot from Catholic religious images with their dynamics, emotional outburst and intensity, with their emphasized tragic element. On the contrary in the icons, painted by academic artists in the Orthodox style, there were restraint, balance, symmetry, tranquility and romanticism. All these features we can find in the Valaam icon. In this image of the Mother of God we can notice a strong influence of pietism («religion of the heart»), Protestant mystical movement of the late XVIIth — early XVIIIth centuries. Ideas of the German pietists were very demanded and very popular in Russia in the XIXth century. The pietism penetrated into the Russian culture as a whole, it had also strong impact on the icon-painting of that time. Dialogue with the Lutheran world proved to be viable, sincere and deep. We can talk about the formation of the phenomenon of «lutheran icons» in nineteenth-century Russia. In its best samples «lutheran» icons, and the Valaam icon among them, preserved the orthodox image of Divine love.
Russian icon, dialogue of cultures, the Valaam icon of the Mother of God, the icon-painting of Sankt-Petersburg, the Imperial Academy of arts, pietism, Lutheran icon.

1. Korzun S. G. Bor'ba protestantov i katolikov za vlijanie na russkuju pravoslavnuju cerkov' v jepohu rannego Prosveshhenija. Slavjanskij al'manah: 2011 (Struggle of Protestants and Catholics for Influence on Russian Orthodox Church in Epoch of Early Enlightenment . Slavic Almanac: 2011), Moscow, 2012.
2. Kutkovoj V. S. O Valaamskoj ikone Bozhiej Materi (About Valaam Icon of God Mother), in http://www.pravoslavie.ru/put/1665.htm.
3. Pestrecov A. F. Genezis russkogo nacional'nogo samosoznanija v duhovnoj kul'ture Rossii: dis. ... kand. filos. nauk: 24.00.01 (Genesis of Russian National Consciousness in Spiritual Culture of Russia: Dissertation), Nizhnij Novgorod, 2009.
4. Bouyer L. Orthodox Spirituality and Protestant and Anglican Spirituality, London, 1959.
5. Yannaras Ch. The Freedom of Morality, Crestwood, 1984.

Korpelainen Elizaveta

Rybakova Nadezhda

The issue of the Russian style's formation in the spiritual music at the end of the XIXth century ± beginning of the XXth century

Rybakova Nadezhda (2014) "The issue of the Russian style's formation in the spiritual music at the end of the XIXth century ± beginning of the XXth century ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia V : Voprosi istorii i teorii hristianskogo iskusstva, 2014, Iss. 16, pp. 171-181 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturV201416.171-181
This article is examining the process of the Russian style's origin in the spiritual music. The Russian style had been formed within many decades and displayed itself in the musical compositions of the New Course at the turn of the XIX–XX centuries. The beginning of Russian style was due to the fact that singing in Russian Orthodox Churches was unsatisfactory, as it was influenced by western-European instrumental music. The search for the national style, which could correspond with the “spirit” and nature of Russian Church singing, led composers and cultural workers to the idea that the national style needed to be based on the ancient church melodies. Metr. Filaret (Drozdov), duke V. F. Odoevsky, M. J. Glinka, archpriest D. Razumovsky and many others talked about it throughout the 19th century. In the attempts to create musical language, corresponding to the ancient melodies, the composers used the idea of its similarity with Russian folk songs, quite often borrowing the principles of their harmonic organization and polyphonic processing. These principles presented themselves in the musical works of the outstanding representative of the New Course, Kastalsky, as he based them on polyphony. The similar style of harmonization of church melodies was taken in by other representatives of the New Course, who assimilated it and used in their own spiritual and musical compositions at the turn of the XIX–XX centuries.
church singing, Russian style, New Course, ancient church melodies, harmonization, spiritual music, Kastalsky.

1. Artemova E. G. Peterburgskaja vetv' v Novom napravlenii: N. I. Kompanejskij, M. A. Lisicyn, S. V. Panchenko: dis. … kand. iskusstv. (Petersburg Branch in New Direction: N. I. Kompanejskij, M. A. Lisicyn, S. V. Panchenko: Dissertation), Moscow, 2003.
2. Gardner I. A. Bogosluzhebnoe penie Russkoj Pravoslavnoj Cerkvi (Service Singing of Russian Orthodox Church), Moscow, 2004, vol. 2.
3. Preobrazhenskij A. V. Kul'tovaja muzyka v Rossii (Cult Music in Russia), Leningrad, 1924.

Rybakova Nadezhda

Klimin Evgenii

Timbral classification of historical Russian bells

Klimin Evgenii (2014) "Timbral classification of historical Russian bells ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia V : Voprosi istorii i teorii hristianskogo iskusstva, 2014, Iss. 16, pp. 182-203 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturV201416.182-203
Traditional Russian chimes compose from sounds of bells, which are diff erent both by pitch and timbre. This means that we have no unified ideal type of bells in Russia, like in Europe, but there’s diversity of timbres. Overwhelmed majority of historical bells was melted in Soviet times and ringing was suppressed by 70 years. As result, we lost an idea of traditional bell’s sounds and their types. Studying of main types of bell timbers is one of the first we need for full-fledged restoration of Russian chimes in the present. Characteristic of bell’s sound in this case have to take into account many parameters: chord of basic spectral tones, amplitude ratio for single overtones and their groups, character of attack, timbre mutations in decay, common intensity of decay and other. It has also to be based both by audition and objective acoustic data. Proceed from these 118 historical bells was divided into two classes, named class A and class B with some groups inside each of them. Bells of A class are typical for XVI — fi rst half XVII cent. Sound of these bells is muffl ed, not too long, with distinct dissonance between overtones. Some bells close to them by sound were casted in XVIII century and later with geometrical shapes, typical for class B. This mean, fi rstly, that one spectral type can be reached by different ways in accordance with mathematical theories. Secondly that this timbre type could be stayed actual for Russian chimes many centuries in spite of craft evolution. Sound of B class bells is bright, long, melodious, with reach ting modulation. This is classical type for orthodox chimes, native for Russia from the second half of XVII century up to present. Detailed classifi cation is based on chord of lowest tones, well audible middle overtones and character of attack. Present article suggest also some ideas about European and local issues of Russian bell’s types.
bells, campanology, Russian chimes, Russian bells, Pskov bells, Moscow bells, acoustics of bells, spectral analysis, history of bell casting, M. P. Musorgsky.

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Klimin Evgenii