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St. Tikhon’s University Review . Series V: Problems of History and Theory of Christian Art

St. Tikhon’s University Review V :3 (15)

ARTICLES

Solov'eva Larisa

Sienese enamel art of the fi rst half of the XIVth century

Solov'eva Larisa (2014) "Sienese enamel art of the fi rst half of the XIVth century ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia V : Voprosi istorii i teorii hristianskogo iskusstva, 2014, Iss. 15, pp. 9-20 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturV201415.9-20
The article is devoted to the goldsmiths´ art of Siena of the first half of the XIVth century. At that time, the French Gothic style had maintained a profound infl uence over the fine arts of Italy. This influence, exercised mainly through manuscripts, made itself especially felt in the goldsmiths´ art. The XIVth century saw the prosperity of Siena Commune, which gave an extraordinary development of fine arts, especially goldsmiths´ art. Siena became an important centre for working in precious metals. At that end of the XIIIth century the goldsmiths of Siena invented a new technique of enamel - translucent enamel upon silver relief, famous for its color values. Translucent enamel medallions were used as decoration and as illustrations of iconography programs of the ecclesiastical items. Translucent enamel reached its zenith in the middle of the XIVth century. At that time the goldsmiths managed to enrich the range of enamel colors and tried to use translucent enamel as painting. In the middle of the XIVth century the goldsmiths created interconnected pieces of art, which combined jewellery art with painting, sculpture and architecture. For example, The Reliquary of the Holy Corporal from Orvieto Cathedral, made by Ugolino di Vieri, is formed like a miniature facade of Gothic cathedral. It is decorated with sculptured figures and 32 scenes given in translucent enamel. The Reliquary of the Orvieto Cathedral is a unique piece of art, where enameling is connected with sculpture and small architecture. Of interest, that Siena painting by Duccio and Ambrogio Lorenzetti influenced at art of enameling. Коды
Sienese decorative art, translucent enamel, medieval chalice, reliquary, Gothic art, jeweler, ecclesiastical item, technique

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Solov'eva Larisa

Matveeva Iuliia

Variations of Byzantine Church Curtains (from texts and iconography)

Matveeva Iuliia (2014) "Variations of Byzantine Church Curtains (from texts and iconography) ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia V : Voprosi istorii i teorii hristianskogo iskusstva, 2014, Iss. 15, pp. 21-41 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturV201415.21-41
This article will examine an early Byzantine Greek text witch mentions several kinds of church textiles, which were donated by Constantius II along with several liturgical church vessels to Hagia Sophia in Constantinople in year 360 AD. A new translation of the text will be re-analized in order to clarify what kind of textiles are mentioned. As result of the analysis, curtains are revealed for: ciborium, church doors and church pylons. Each textile is considered as a prototype of similar curtains in iconography and a real object in the everyday life of the church, this is reflected in the symbolic images depicted on the textiles. The article will also analyze the influence of the Old Testament and late antique tradition of church curtains, using the symbolism, topography and functions of hanging textiles, in practice of the Christian church during the early Byzantine period.
katapetasma, curtain, ciborium, church doors, pylons of church, iconography, symbolism, topography, function

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Matveeva Iuliia

Grigor'eva Veronika

The Early Theory of marks in the Old Russian musical-theoretical handbooks

Grigor'eva Veronika (2014) "The Early Theory of marks in the Old Russian musical-theoretical handbooks ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia V : Voprosi istorii i teorii hristianskogo iskusstva, 2014, Iss. 15, pp. 42-76 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturV201415.42-76
In the article the terminology and the basic concepts of the early theory of marks are considered on a material of Old Russian musical-theoretical handbooks. It is traced the continuity of the early theory from kruk alphabets-interpretations, the detailed classification of singing values of marks is spent. On the basis of the analysis of handbooks of the early theory it is concluded that the predominating value have the index marks and the sound pitch of the church chantings is displayed with the sound pitch and the index marks. For the first time it is established that the early theory where the marks fi x the relative areas of the sound pitch and a direction of melodic movement, as a matter of fact, continues the principles of record of tunes, typical for znamennaya notation without marks. In the plane of fixing of the sound pitch the early theory of marks does not deduce the znamennaya notation on qualitatively new level in comparison with the outmarks period. Nevertheless, the way of recording of the sound pitch with the kinovarnye marks has been used further in the theory of the stepennye marks for fi xing the steps of the scale.
the early theory of marks, an early marks, the Old Russian musicaltheoretical handbooks, Old Russian church singing

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Grigor'eva Veronika

Semenova Elizaveta

Monastic theme in paintings of the northern gallery of the church of the Holy Virgin (Ljeviška) in Prizren

Semenova Elizaveta (2014) "Monastic theme in paintings of the northern gallery of the church of the Holy Virgin (Ljeviška) in Prizren ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia V : Voprosi istorii i teorii hristianskogo iskusstva, 2014, Iss. 15, pp. 77-95 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturV201415.77-95
The Cathedral Church of the Holy Virgin Ljeviška in Prizren is the unique monument of the medieval architecture and painting. In 2004, during the exacerbation of the ethnic conflict in Kosovo, the unprotected church was exposed to devastation and fl ames. The interior of the church was severely damaged, the frescoes were covered with soot. The urgent protection measures taken in 2005 saved the paintings of the church. Today we can view the images of the monks in the northern gallery, among them St. Pachomius and the venerable Mary of Egypt. In this article we examine these images in the waste context of the byzantine wall painting. Obviously, we are talking about the existence of the side-chapel in the church of Ljeviška, dedicated to the reverend monks.
church of the Holy Virgin Ljeviška, Prizren, the cathedral church, St. Pachomius, Mary of Egypt, Zosima, monks, entombments

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Semenova Elizaveta

Voronova Ariadna

The tower above the crossing and the “altar bell tower”. Possible architectural connections and Parallels

Voronova Ariadna (2014) "The tower above the crossing and the “altar bell tower”. Possible architectural connections and Parallels ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia V : Voprosi istorii i teorii hristianskogo iskusstva, 2014, Iss. 15, pp. 96-114 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturV201415.96-114
In this article the author considers the special kind of Western European Romanesque architecture - churches with the altar bell tower (germ. - “Chorturm”; fr. - “tour chevet”). The basis of these ones is the altar space. Most of all these churches are common in the areas that located on the border between Slovenia (area named Koroshko) and Austria (area named Karnten) as well as in Southern and Western Germany (Thuringia, Alsace) and Nordic countries. This is the separate architectural type generally occurring in small rural churches and representing regional specifi c group. The volume of the bell tower could be opened the full height and then the rope from the bells were freely hanging down at the altar. In some other cases bell tower had a celling with a hole for the rope. This allowed employees in the altar to call a certain moments of liturgical events. Genesis of this architectural type is now understudied. The volume of the altar bell is usually compared with a square or rectangular tower in plan above the crossing in medieval churches as the Byzantium and the West. In these cases special attention is paid to the equivalents in the architecture of medieval Serbia and Dalmatia. In our opinion these compositional Parallels could be explained by Byzantine stylistic sway on slovenian and european architecture from behind their antic continuitet and Mediterranean communication. Mentioned architectural Parallels allow saying about genetic ties between the tower above the crossing and the altar bell tower forcing to recollect the idea of a common root with respect to Romanesque and Byzantine architecture.
altar bell tower, tower above the crossing, the medieval architecture of Europe, Dalmatia, Rash’s school, Byzantine art, romanic

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Voronova Ariadna

Guseinova Zivar

Singing cycle of ≪Tsar feasts fotagogicas≫

Guseinova Zivar (2014) "Singing cycle of ≪Tsar feasts fotagogicas≫ ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia V : Voprosi istorii i teorii hristianskogo iskusstva, 2014, Iss. 15, pp. 115-124 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturV201415.115-124
The article describes one of the types of Old Russian melismatic chant - Svetilens (Eksapostilaria or Fotagogica) on diff erent holidays. They were rarely included in the Church books and were singing in style of “bolshoj raspev” (great chant). Svetilens are executed after the 9th songs of canons, the main theme is “light”, which is revealed in all the hymns. The author explores the cycles of Svetilens in two manuscripts of the 17th century Kirillo-Belozersky collection in the National Library of Russia (no. 642/899 and no. 638/895). They have an unique shaped and structured contents of poetic texts, diff erent techniques of melodic organization, as well as the link between the melody of svetilens, which should be recognized as a special song cycle.
Svetilen, manuscript, cycle, great chant, text, National Library of Russia, Kirillo-Belozersky collection

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5. Tjurina O. V. 2008 “Ob odnom obrazce drevnerusskoj melizmatiki: cikl Svetil'nov voskresnyh” (About One Specimen of Old Russian Melizmatics: Cycle of Sunday Exapostilaria), in Vestnik PSTGU. Serija V, 2008, vol. 2/3, pp. 7–22.

Guseinova Zivar

Olekhnovich Elena

The Dvoznamennaya singing book the Holidays as a type of singing book of end XVIIth -beginning XVIIIth centuries

Olekhnovich Elena (2014) "The Dvoznamennaya singing book the Holidays as a type of singing book of end XVIIth -beginning XVIIIth centuries ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia V : Voprosi istorii i teorii hristianskogo iskusstva, 2014, Iss. 15, pp. 125-135 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturV201415.125-135
The article is devoted to the special form of manuscripts of singing book the Holidays. These manuscripts include 2 types of musical notation: znamennaya (“hook”) notation and kievsky notation. So, a melody in the manuscripts is fixed simultaneously by 2 types of musical notation. This type of manuscripts is named a “dvoznamennik”. This type of manuscripts is very rare. Only few manuscripts of this type have survived. This type of manuscripts was used at the period of the end XVIIth - beginning XVIIIth centuries. In the article there are research of features of composition dvoznamennaya singing book the Holidays and studying of some sticheras with different melodys (poly-melody). The dvoznamennaya singing book the Holidays is compare with earlier manuscripts and contemporary for it manuscripts of the Holidays. In the article there are fi ndings about main tasks of creation of dvoznamenniks. The first task is to fixed simultaneously by 2 types of musical notation a comprehensive list of Holidayses sticheras. The next task is to fixed in the dvoznamennaya forma typical composition of the singing book the Holidays, that was using in the end of XVIIth century. The third task is to comprehension the 12 main liturgical Holidays as a musical cycle. The material used in the study there are manuscripts of the XVIIth - XVIIIth centuries.
Dvoznamenniks, Holidays, stichera, poly-melody, razdelnorechie, istinnorechie, itinerary tune, large tune, demestvenny tune, znamenny tune, znamennaya notation, staff notation

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13. Pozhidaeva G. A. Leksikologija demestvennogo penija (Vocabulary of Demestvennoje Singing), Moscow, 2010.
14. Razumovskij D. V. Cerkovnoe penie v Rossii (Opyt istoriko-tehn. izlozhenija) (Church Singing in Russia (Experience of Historical-Technical Explanation)), Moscow, 1867–1869.
15. Skaballanovich M. N. Tolkovyj tipikon: Ob’jasnitel'noe izlozhenie Tipikona s istoricheskim vvedeniem (Explanatory Typikon: Explanatory Account with Historical Introduction), Kiev, 1910.
16. Smoljakov B. G. 1992 “Popevochnyj razdel «Kljucha razumenija» kak vazhnyj informativnyj svod raspevov znamen” (Popevka Chapter of “Key of Understanding” as Important Information Code of Znamena Chants), in Vladyshevskaja T. (ed.) Muzykal'naja kul'tura Srednevekov'ja, Moscow, 1992, vol. 2, pp. 80–83.
17. Uspenskij N. D. Drevnerusskoe pevcheskoe iskusstvo (Old Russian Singing Art), Moscow, 1971.
18. Frolov S. V. 1983 “Mnogoraspevnost' kak tipologicheskoe svojstvo drevnerusskogo pevcheskogo iskusstva” (Polychantness as Typological Property of Old Russian Singing Art), in Belonenko A. S. (ed.) Problemy russkoj muzykal'noj tekstologii: (Po pamjatnikam rus. horovoj lit. XII–XVIII vekov): Sb. nauch. tr., Leningrad, 1983, pp. 12–47.
19. Holopov Ju. N. 1987 “«Strannye bemoli» v svjazi s modal'nymi funkcijami v russkoj monodii“ (“Stange Flats” in Connection with Modal Functions in Russian Monodia), in Kravchenko S. P., Kruchinina A. N. (eds.) Problemy deshifrovki drevnerusskih notacij: Sb. nauch. tr., Leningrad, 1987, pp. 106–129.

Olekhnovich Elena

Valiavin Dmitrii

Imperial Palace in the Moscow Kremlin before the Napoleonic invasion. Unrealized project of the architect N. A. Lvov

Valiavin Dmitrii (2014) "Imperial Palace in the Moscow Kremlin before the Napoleonic invasion. Unrealized project of the architect N. A. Lvov ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia V : Voprosi istorii i teorii hristianskogo iskusstva, 2014, Iss. 15, pp. 136-153 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturV201415.136-153
The article brought to your attention is devoted to a little-known episode from the history of the Moscow Kremlin: to design and construction of the new Kremlin palace for the Emperor Paul I by the architect Nikolaj L´vov. It is an attempt to detect the ideas, that the architect tried to incarnate in the project, make clear the semantics of forms of this building, set the architectural constructions that served as prototypes for the L´vov’s project on the whole, so as for its separate elements. The structure of the palace complex included the Candlemas Church of the Ivan’s the Terrible times, which was supposed to be converted into a royal home church and a hanging garden raised on the substruction.
architecture, classicism, Palladian (architecture), gardening, Moscow Kremlin, Kremlin Palace, N. A. L´vov, Paul I, the home church

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Valiavin Dmitrii

Maslov Konstantin

Towards a History of Byzantinesque Revival in Russian Church Paintings. I. M. Snegiryov

Maslov Konstantin (2014) "Towards a History of Byzantinesque Revival in Russian Church Paintings. I. M. Snegiryov ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia V : Voprosi istorii i teorii hristianskogo iskusstva, 2014, Iss. 15, pp. 154-164 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturV201415.154-164
The article is devoted to the sources of Neo-Byzantinism in Russian church paintings of the XIXth century. It is pointed out that while Byzantinesque-Russian style was developed in church arhitecture since early 1830-s, church paintings were designed after the Italian school, and the attitudes of the educated class to archaizing stylization were generally negative. The only person who in 1830-s responded to the contrast between Byzantinesque-Russian style in church architecture and academic church painting was I. M. Snegiryev - a scholar of Russian antiquities. The analysis of 1834 article «On the Style of Byzantine Art, in Particular in Sculpture and Paintings, and Its Relation to Russian Art» written by I. M. Snegiryev shows that seeking to prove the significance of Byzantine art for modern church art practice the author used the ideas of K. W. F. Schlegel and F. W. J. Schelling. At the time he wrote the article I. M. Snegiryev's call to turn to national art tradition met no response. Fifteen years later, however, with the upspringing interest towards Russian antiquities, his ideas were received with interest. Main conclusions of Snegiryev's new article «On the Significance of Russian Icon-Paintings» were, on one hand, an affirmation of the value of traditional icon-painting and of the importance of its conservation, and, on the other hand, a call for revival of icon-paintings on the basis of academic art school, with Karl Bryullov's works viewed as an example. Коды

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Maslov Konstantin

Artemova Evgeniia

The sacred-choral life in St. Petersburg at the turn of XIX-XX centuries

Artemova Evgeniia (2014) "The sacred-choral life in St. Petersburg at the turn of XIX-XX centuries ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia V : Voprosi istorii i teorii hristianskogo iskusstva, 2014, Iss. 15, pp. 165-178 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturV201415.165-178
The article reveals the particular of the sacred-musical life in St. Petersburg in the late XIX - early XX century. The period, when the church singing was one of the main means of public enlightenment and has gone beyond the temples, on concert stages, marked by the growth of author's works on church texts and chant, intensive development of many sacred-musical processes in society, strengthening of the role of church music in the cultural space of the country, process of its popularization. The article highlights the various aspects of sacred-musical life of the capital: church singing training in various educational institutions, regency and singing education, development of special societies and fraternities, the work of professional congresses, education and the development of new concert choirs.
church singing, regency education, church-singing society, choirs, sacred- musical life, concerts, programs

1. Gardner I. A. Bogosluzhebnoe penie russkoj pravoslavnoj cerkvi (Service Singing of Russian Orthodox Church), Sergiev Posad, 1998.
2. Petrovskaja I. F. Muzykal'nyj Peterburg, 1801–1917. Jenciklopedicheskij slovar'-issledovanie (Musical Petersburg, 1801–1917. Encyclopedical Dictionary-Study), Saint-Petersburg, 2009–2010.

Artemova Evgeniia

Guvakova Elena

E. S. Ovchinnikova - the Keeper of the unigue temple in Moscow

Guvakova Elena (2014) "E. S. Ovchinnikova - the Keeper of the unigue temple in Moscow ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia V : Voprosi istorii i teorii hristianskogo iskusstva, 2014, Iss. 15, pp. 179-196 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturV201415.179-196
Art-critic E. S. Ovchinnikova more than fifty years was working in Historical Museum, she was responsible for the conservation of the Trinity Cathedral in Nikitniki (another its name - ex-Georgian Our Lady churches, named after miracle famous icon). She managed not only to safe (in the atheistic soviet period) frescos interior and unique iconostasis, but also to fulfi ll significant renovation work receiving the title of honored worker of culture. She has dedicated her life to the Museum service, so she hade done a tremendous work on studying and popularization of this monument painting and architecture of the XVIIth century.
Soviet period, Historical Museum, Temple of the Trinity in Nikitniki, museum keeping and renovation, Tsar’s artists, unique frescos interior

1. Beljovceva N. A. Glazami aktrisy (By Eyes of Actress), Moscow, 1979.
2. Guvakova E. V. 2012 “Ikona v Istoricheskom muzee: 1918-1930 gg.” (Icon in Historical Museum: 1918-1930), in Istorija sobiranija, hranenija, restavracii pamjatnikov drevnerusskogo iskusstva. Sb. statej po materialam nauchnoj konferencii (25–28 maja 2010 goda), Moscow, 2012, pp. 461–494.
3. Zhurnal «Muzej». Sbornik, posvjashhennyj 70-letiju GMII im. A. S. Pushkina (Journal “Museum“. Collection, Dedicated to 70 Anniversary of A. S. Pushkin GMII), 1992, vol. 3.
4. Kyzlasova I. L. Aleksandr Ivanovich Anisimov (1877–1937), Moscow, 2000.
5. Reformatskaja M. A. 1993 “Junye gody rovesnikov veka” (Young Years of Age Coevals), in Chelovek, 1993, vol. 3.
6. Sterligova I. A. 2001 “O Marine Mihajlovne Postnikovoj-Losevoj” (About Marina Mihajlovna Postnikova-Loseva), in Iskusstvo hristianskogo mira. Sb. st., Moscow, 2001, vol. 5, pp. 339, 341.

Guvakova Elena

CHRONICLE

Baikova Elena

To the 85th anniversary of Vladimir Minin

Baikova Elena (2014) "To the 85th anniversary of Vladimir Minin ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia V : Voprosi istorii i teorii hristianskogo iskusstva, 2014, Iss. 15, pp. 199-205 (in Russian).

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Baikova Elena