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St. Tikhon’s University Review . Series V: Problems of History and Theory of Christian Art

St. Tikhon’s University Review V :47

ARTICLES

Ovcharova Olga

Saint Anargyroi in the programmes of Middle Byzantine churches with burials

Ovcharova Olga (2022) "Saint Anargyroi in the programmes of Middle Byzantine churches with burials ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia V : Voprosi istorii i teorii hristianskogo iskusstva, 2022, Iss. 47, pp. 9-33 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturV202247.9-33
The article discusses the tendency to depict the saints anargyroi near the burial places in Byzantine churches. The purpose of the study is to establish possible factors in the formation of such programs. The methodology is comprehensive: the results of iconographic analysis are compared with data gleaned from historical researches and liturgical studies. In the previous literature, the iconographic tendency under study was considered mainly on the basis of Serbian monuments of the 13th to 14th centuries and in the light of literary sources relating the facts of miraculous healings at tombs. In the present study, attention shifts to the ensembles of the period of the Komnenoi and the Angeloi — from the frescoes of Bachkovo to the murals of Panagia Krena in Chios (1197). It is suggested that the inclusion of the images of saintly healers in the decorations of burial sites was stimulated by the texts of the funeral services, such as the ancient prayer Ὁ θεὸς τῶν πνευμάτων καὶ πάσης σαρκός (God of the spirits and of all flesh), on the one hand, and the participation of physicians from the hospital at the Pantokrator monastery in Constantinople in the posthumous commemorations on the tombs of John II Komnenos (1118–1143) and members of his family, on the other. The last factor seems to be most important, and it is given special attention. It is shown that the participation of doctors in memorial services in the monastery of Christ Pantokrator was the result of the intersection in this place of two initially unrelated trends — the growing interest in medicine and increased attention to burials and funeral rites on the part of Komnenian ktetors. In turn, this concern in regard to death and posthumous commemorations is linked to certain aspects of the so-called Evergetine reform movement.
anargyroi, the depictions of saintly healers, iconographic programs of Byzantine funerary churches, paintings in arcosolia, Pantokrator monastery in Constantinople, funeral rites, commemorations at tombs
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Ovcharova Olga


Academic Degree: Candidate of Sciences* in Art Criticism;
Place of work: The State Institute for Art Studies;
Post: Senior Researcher;
ORCID: 0000-0001-5074-8082;
Email: o_ovtcharova@yahoo.com.

*According to the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) 2011, the degree of Candidate of Sciences (Cand.Sc.) belongs to ISCED level 8 — "doctoral or equivalent", together with PhD, DPhil, D.Lit, D.Sc, LL.D, Doctorate or similar.

Endoltseva Ekaterina

Snake and fish in the architectural decoration of the Christian the churches in Caucasus in medieval period: some observations

Endoltseva Ekaterina (2022) "Snake and fish in the architectural decoration of the Christian the churches in Caucasus in medieval period: some observations ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia V : Voprosi istorii i teorii hristianskogo iskusstva, 2022, Iss. 47, pp. 34-52 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturV202247.34-52
The article deals with the images of fish and snake in the architectural decoration of the Christian churches in Caucasus in 10 – 14 centuries. The theme of the dragon fighters is not in the focus of the research. The research is dedicated to the images of snake (without paws and fangs, in contrast to dragon-snake) when represented in heraldic position, in the scenes of the prophet Jonas devoured by the sea-monster and in isolated position. It is also dedicated to the image of the fish. The earliest representations of the snakes and dragon-snakes appear on the facades of the Christian churches in Caucasus as early as the Xth century on the territory of the Northern Caucasus and Georgia. Later they are turned in hybrid creatures, dragon-snake (with paws and fangs, sometimes covered with fish scales). Two heads of snake on the earliest representations as well as cirсles on its body underline the apotropaic meaning of the image. The appearance of the snake (not the dragon-snake) on the territory in question could be explained by the influence of the local archaeological culture (Cobano-Colchis). Being represented on the facades of the Christian churches they function as apotropaia. The appearance of the isolated images of fishes in the architectural decoration could also be influenced by the local archaeological culture. The way of the sketching the scales on its body (on the relief from Anacopia) proves its biological identification as trout (the widest spread fish in the mountains of Caucasus). The image of the fish carved on the facades of the Christian churches could also have apotropaic function.
apotropaia, architectural decoration, snake, dragon-snake, relief, Caucasus
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Endoltseva Ekaterina


Academic Degree: Candidate of Sciences* in Art Criticism;
Place of work: Institute of Oriental Studies of the Russian Academy of Sciences; 12/1 Rozhdestvenka Str., Moscow, 107031, Russian Federation;
Post: Senior Researcher;
ORCID: 0000-0002-8133-6379;
Email: kendoltseva@ivran.ru.

*According to the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) 2011, the degree of Candidate of Sciences (Cand.Sc.) belongs to ISCED level 8 — "doctoral or equivalent", together with PhD, DPhil, D.Lit, D.Sc, LL.D, Doctorate or similar.

Kulikova Elena

The programme of the fresco cycle by Benozzo Gozzoli in the choir of the church of San Francesco in Montefalco

Kulikova Elena (2022) "The programme of the fresco cycle by Benozzo Gozzoli in the choir of the church of San Francesco in Montefalco ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia V : Voprosi istorii i teorii hristianskogo iskusstva, 2022, Iss. 47, pp. 53-73 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturV202247.53-73
The frescoes on the subjects of the life of St. Francis in the choir of the main Franciscan church in Montefalco were painted by Benozzo Gozzoli in 1452. For a long time they remained poorly studied, and the program of the cycle was unclear. Studies of the end of the XX century indicate a steadily increasing interest in the artist's work, including his monumental paintings in Montefalco. The subject of this article is to clarify the program design of the chapel, which probably belonged to Fra Jacopo of Montefalco, a Franciscan theologian and rector of the church. The appearance of rare plots, atypical for earlier and later Franciscan cycles in Italy, and a careful analysis of each composition in connection with the literary tradition of the Franciscan order, allowed us to more fully substantiate that the idea of "Francis as another Christ" (Franciscus alter Christus) was consistently carried out in the chapel program. The cycle executed by Gozzoli includes twelve fresco compositions and a stained glass window. All of them represent twenty episodes from the life of St. Francis from his birth to his ascension to heaven, which are accompanied by explanatory comments in Latin. Many of the scenes are multi-episode, reflecting the passion for storytelling in the middle of the XV century and the desire to bring all the details and details necessary to explain the plot. The analysis of the compositions in comparison with hagiographic literature allows us to conclude that the compilers of the program mainly relied on three main texts about the life of the saint: the first and second lives of Thomas by Chelan, as well as the Great Legend by St. Bonaventure. The choice of subjects and the overall design of the chapel emphasize the living ministry of the saint, and also reflect another, more important by this time, Franciscan idea – the glorification of Francis as another Christ. The depictions of scenes telling about the birth, childhood and about the early years of Francis' life, appearing in the pictorial tradition for the first and last time, make this painting cycle truly unique.
15th century Italian art, early Renaissance art, monumental painting, Montefalco, Benozzo Gozzoli, St. Francis, Franciscanism
  1. Boschetto A. (1961) Gli affreschi diBenozzo Gozzoli nella Chiesa di San Francesco a Montefalco. Milano:Istituto Editoriale Italiano.
  2. Cole [Ahl] D. (1996) Benozzo Gozzoli. New Haven &London: Yale University Press.
  3. Cole [Ahl] D. (1996) “Benozzo Gozzoli’s Cycle of the Life of SaintFrancis in Montefalco: Hagiography and Homily”, in S. Sticca (Ed.), Saints: Studiesin Hagiography, Binghamton, NY: Medieval & Renaissance Texts and Studies,pp. 191-213.
  4. DanilovaIrina E. (1970) Ital'yanskaya monumental'nayazhivopis' (rannee vozrozhdenie) [Italian monumental painting (the early Renaissance)]. Moscow: URSS (InRussian).
  5. Filarete. (1999) Trattatodi architectura. Moscow (Russiantranslation).
  6. FontiFrancescane. (1986) Assisi (Russian translation).
  7. Jakobusde Voragine (2019) Legenda Aurea. Moscow (Russian translation).
  8. H. W. van Os. (1974) St. Francis of Assisi as a Second Christ in EarlyItalian Painting. Netherlands Quarterly for the History of Art, 1974, No. 3/Vol. 7, pp. 115-132.
  9. KovalchukLada I. (2019) “The “tramezzo” in Early Franciscan Churches in Italy”, ActualProblems of Theory and History of Art, (2019) vol. 9, pp. 513-524 (In Russian).
  10. Lavin M. A. (1990) The place ofnarrative. Mural decoration in Italian Churches 431–1600. Chicago, London.
  11. Luchinat C. A. (2006) “Benozzo Gozzoli”, in The Great Italian Painters from the Gothic tothe Renaissance, Florence, pp. 561-639.
  12. Lunghi E. (2010) Benozzo Gozzoli a Montefalco. Assisi:Editrice Minerva.
  13. Morgen R. (1956) Tradizione religiosa eRinascimento nel ciclo degli affreschi francescani a Montefalco. Florence: Sansoni.
  14. Nessi S. (1961) La vita diS.Francesco dipinta da Benozzo Gozzoli a Montefalco. Roma: MiscellaneaFrancescana.
  15. Nessi S. (2001) La vita – Le operecon le immagini degli affreschi a Montefalco. Perugia: Quattroemme Srl.
  16. Padoa Rizzo A. (1972) Benozzo Gozzoli pittorefiorentino. Florence.
  17. Roettgen S. (1996) Italianfrescoes. The early Renaissance 1400 – 1470. New-York: Abbeville presspublishers.
  18. Smirnova Irina A. (1987) Monumental'naya zhivopis' ital'yanskogoVozrozhdeniya [Monumental paintingof the Italian Renaissance]. Moscow: URSS (In Russian).
  19. VasariGiorgio. (2010) Zhizneopisanie naibolee znamenityh zhivopiscev, vayatelej i zodchih[The Lives of the Most Excellent Painters, Sculptors, and Architects]. Saint Petersburg (Russian translation).

Kulikova Elena


Student status: Graduate student;
ORCID: 0000-0001-6373-8246;
Email: elena.delovoy@gmail.com.
Starikova Irina; Tyurina Olga

The modal particularity of 4th mode in Byzantine chant over the centuries (12–19th cс.)

Tyurina Olga, Starikova Irina (2022) "The modal particularity of 4th mode in Byzantine chant over the centuries (12–19th cs.) ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia V : Voprosi istorii i teorii hristianskogo iskusstva, 2022, Iss. 47, pp. 74-109 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturV202247.74-109
The history of Byzantine chant goes back many centuries. The modal system of Octoechos, that regulates most of liturgical compositions, emerged even before the appearance of the musical notation in the chant books, and then continuously developed. Over the centuries, this octomodal system absorbed a lot of divergent influences, so Byzantine and post-Byzantine modes appear as a fusion of archaic, classical and modern features. After a detailed study of the modal content of the fourth authentic mode, the authors reconstruct its melodic image and its evolution from the classical Byzantine period to the samples of the later Greek tradition. The present study is based on different sticheras of the hebdomadal and annual liturgical circles taken from the middle-Byzantine Sticherarion of the 12th to the 14th century, from post-Byzantine versions of the Sticherarion by the 17th-century authors Chrysaphos the Younger and Germanos of New Patras, and from collections of selected chants: the Anastasimatarion of Chrysaphos the Younger (17th century), the Doxastaria of Iakovos the Protopsaltis and Petros Peloponnesios, the Anastasimatarion of Peter Peloponnesios (18th century). The middle Byzantine evidence points to the special place of the fourth authentic mode in the octomodal system, as possessing a peculiar modal content: while other authentic modes have a third-fifth structure of the main cadences, in the fourth authentic mode the main cadences are arranged in a second relation. This trait impacts also the melodic formulas of the chants. Over the centuries, this peculiar feature has been preserved in the mutual relationship of the main cadences of the fourth mode. Accordingly, the melismatic enrichment of older versions of Sticheraria took place, but the main characteristics of the mode remained unchanged, in spite of the addition of supplementary modal cadences. The modal particularity of the fourth authentic mode may be explained by the combination of several modal components: the archaic features, inherited from pre-octomodal forms, merged with later elements and were embedded into the classical modal system.
Byzantine medieval chant, chant manuscripts, Sticherarion, middle byzantine musical notation, byzantine neumes, melodic formulas, mode, modulation, short sticheraric melos, Post-Byzantine chant
  1. Aleksandrou M. (2010). Exegesis and transription of Byzantine musi. The brief Introduction tothe Problem. Thessaloniki.
  2. Adsuara C. (1995). “KalophonicSticherarion Sinai gr. 1251. Introduction and Indices“. Cahier de l’Institue du Moyen Age Grec et Latin. 65, p. 15­–58.
  3. Anastasimatarion argon and syntomon (1995).Athens (in Greek).
  4. AntoniouS. (2004). The Heirmologion and the tradition of its melos. Athens (in Greek).
  5. Chatzigiakoumis M. (1999). The Church Μusic of Ηellenism, afterthe Fall (1453-1820). Athens (in Greek).
  6. Chrysanthos (1832). The Great Treatise of Music. Trieste(in Greek).
  7. Doksastarion (1836). Constantinople(in Greek).
  8. Jung A. (1984). “The Settings of the Evening and MorningPsalms According to the ManuscriptSinai1255“. Cahier de l’Institue duMoyen Age Grec et Latin, 47, p. 3-63.
  9. Kritikou F. (2013). “TheEmbellishment of a Sticherarion Chrysaphes the Younger as a Phenomenon ofRenewal of Byzantine chant“.Traditionand Innovation in Late and Post Byzantine liturgical chant, Proceedings of theCongress held at Hernen Castle 2008. Eastern Christian Studies 17, p.215–260.
  10. Kujumdzieva S. (2001) “Studying the Octoechos:from the Octoechos to the Anastasimatarion“. Paperread at the XX International Byzantine Congress, Paris, 19-25 August, 2001.Publications No. 3, p. 122-129 (http://musicart.imbm.bas.bg/p/en_kujumdzieva1.html. Дата обращения: 24.04.2022);
  11. Neon Anastasimatarion (1820).Bucharest (in Greek).
  12. Raasted J. (1958). “SomeObservations on the Structure of Sticherariain Byzantine Rite“. Byzantion. 28, p. 529–541.
  13. Raasted J. (1995). “KoukouzelesRevision of the Sticherarion and Sinai Gr. 1230“. Laborare Fratres in unum: Fesrschrift Laszlo Dobszay zum 60. Geburtstag, s. 261–277;
  14. Gertsman E.V. (1994) Peterburskii teoretikon[St.Petersburg theoretikon]. Odessa (In Russian).
  15. Shkolnik I. (1994) “Archaic features of the Octoechos in ByzantineStichera”. Musica Antiqua EuropaeOrientalis. X/1, p.201 – 215.
  16. Starikova I.V. (2019) “Razvitiemelizmatiki v vizantijskoj i drevnerusskoj pevcheskih tradiciyah: opytkomparativnogo issledovaniya“ [Τhe development of melismatic in Byznatine and OldRussian Chant: An Attempt of comparative study]. Vestnik PSTGU. Seriya V, 34, p. 25–36 (in Russian).
  17. Stathis G. (1979). “An Analysis ofthe Sticherarion Τον ήλιον κρύψαντα by Germanos,Bishop of New Patras. The Old Synoptic and the New Analytical Method ofByzantine Notation“. Studies in EasternChant, 4, p. 177–277.
  18. Stathis G. (1993). The manuscripts of Byzantine Music. Mount Athos.Athens (in Greek).
  19. Strunk O. (1977) P. “Lorenzo Tardoand Jis Ottoeco Nei MSS. Melurgici“. Essays on Music in the Byzantine World,p. 255-267.
  20. Strunk O. (1977) “The Notation ofthe Chartres Fragment“. Essays on Music in the Byzantine World, p. 68–111.
  21. Syntomon Doksastarion (1820). Bucharest(in Greek).
  22. Tillyard H. (1970) Handbook of theMiddle Byzantine musical notation. Copenhague. (Monumenta MusicaeByzantinae: Subsidia, vol.I).
  23. Troelsgard C. (2003) “A List of SticherarionCall-Numbers of the Standard Abridged Version of the Sticherarion. Part I (TheCycle of the Twelve Months)“. Cahier de l’Institue du Moyen Age Grec et Latin, 74, p. 3–20.
  24. Troelsgård Ch. (2011) Byzantineneumes: a new introduction to the Middle Byzantine musical notation.Copenhagen. (Monumenta Musicae Byzantinae: Subsidia, vol.IX).
  25. Tyurina O.V. (2020) “Stihira Rozhdestvu Bogorodicy “Neplody bezchadenaAnna” v drevnerusskoj i vizantijskoj tradiciyah. Evolyuciyapesnopeniya-mnogoglasnika” [Sticheiron for the Nativity of Theotokos “InfertileChildless Anna” in Old Russian and Byzantine Singing Traditions. Evolution of aPoly-Modal Hymn]. Vestnik PSTGU. Ser. V:Voprosy istorii I teorii khristianskogo iskusstva. 39, p.42 – 60 (in Russian).

Starikova Irina


Academic Degree: Candidate of Sciences* in Art Criticism;
Place of work: Moscow State Conservatory;
Post: researcher;
ORCID: 0000-0002-9962-1872;
Email: ivstarikova@gmail.com.

*According to the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) 2011, the degree of Candidate of Sciences (Cand.Sc.) belongs to ISCED level 8 — "doctoral or equivalent", together with PhD, DPhil, D.Lit, D.Sc, LL.D, Doctorate or similar.


Tyurina Olga


Academic Degree: Candidate of Sciences* in Art Criticism;
Place of work: Moscow Tchaikovsky Conservatory; 13/6 Bol’shaia Nikitskaia Str., Moscow 125009, Russian Federation;
Post: Senior Researcher;
ORCID: 0000-0002-6662-7530;
Email: tiurinao@mail.ru.

*According to the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) 2011, the degree of Candidate of Sciences (Cand.Sc.) belongs to ISCED level 8 — "doctoral or equivalent", together with PhD, DPhil, D.Lit, D.Sc, LL.D, Doctorate or similar.

Guseinova Zivar

Notated manuscript as an “open text”

Guseinova Zivar (2022) "Notated manuscript as an “open text” ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia V : Voprosi istorii i teorii hristianskogo iskusstva, 2022, Iss. 47, pp. 110-123 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturV202247.110-123
The scientific concept of "open text" (U. Eco) is applicable to various humanities, including musical medieval studies, primarily to ancient Russian singing manuscripts. The liturgical purpose does not contradict the introduction of additions and corrections in the syntactic, semantic, and pragmatic fields of them at all stages of the work, as well as after its completion. The updates ("ponowlenija") affect on the one hand, the structure of each manuscript, on the other – its hymnographic and singing texts highlighted for consideration in this article. They relate directly to the notated texts, which in their original presentation (without updates) appear as complete chants, and open, if we consider all the updates introduced into it later by the author of the manuscript or subsequent masters. At the same time the completeness of the chant and its openness do not contradict each other; both variants can be chosen for performance. In the article, the features of the plaintext are considered on the example of the manuscript of the 16th century of the collection of the Trinity-Sergius Lavra of the Russian State Library No. 420, demonstrating the active work on it of both the author and subsequent masters. The introduction of new elements concerns, in addition to the structure of the manuscript, the writing out of variants of the hymnographic text, the inclusion of new chants in place of existing or absent ones from the author of the manuscript; the use of unusual neumes, not characteristic of znamenny notation in general; the designation of "superfluous" chants; the "programming" of improvisational updates, in particular, in the genre of the "Mnogoletija (Perennial). Many aspects of additions and transformations allow us to speak about the active creative work of the masters with ancient Russian hymnographic and musical texts, the openness of which provided an infinite wealth of chants.
open text, manuscript, singing book, notation, renewal, variation, improvisation
  1. Aleksandrina Alexandra V. (2020) "Pevcheskie rukopisnye knigi XV–XIX vekov Troice-Sergievojlavry. Nauchnoe opisanie"["Singinghandwritten books of the XV-XIX centuries of the Trinity-Sergius Lavra.Scientific description"]. Moscow: Lepta Kniga Publ. (in Russian).
  2. Bezuglova Irina F. (1988) "Marginalii v rukopisnyh knigah Kirillo-Belozerskogomonastyrja kak istochnik po istorii russkoj muzykal'noj kul'tury" ["Marginalia inthe Handwritten Books of the Kirillo-Belozersky Monastery as a source on theHistory of Russian musical culture"] in Issledovanijapamjatnikov pis'mennoj kul'tury v sobranijah i arhivah otdela rukopisej iredkih knig: Sb. nauch. tr. Red. N.A.Efimova. Leningrad: GPBPubl.,pp. 51–57 (in Russian).
  3. Findejzen Nickolaj F. (1928) "Ocherki po istorii muzyki v Rossii sdrevnejshih vremen do konca XVIII veka". ["Essays on the history of music inRussia from ancient times to the end of the XVIII century"]Moscow-Leningrad: Gos.izd-vo. Muzsektor Publ., vol. 1 (in Russian).
  4. Guseinova Zivar M. (1990). "Rukovodstva po teorii znamennogo penija XV veka (istochnikii redakcii)" ["Manualson the theory of znamenny singing of the XV century (sources and editions)"],available at: Drevnerusskajapevcheskaja kul'tura i knizhnost'. Problemymuzykoznanija 4. Red. N.S.Seregina. Leningrad: LGIK Publ. pp.20–46 (in Russian).
  5. Guseinova Zivar M. (2013) "Pervichnye i vtorichnye tekstynotirovannoj rukopisi" ["Primary and secondary texts ofthe notified manuscript"], available at: Muzykal'naja arheografija-2013. Sb.statej. Sost. N.V.Zabolotnaja. Moscow: RAM im Gnesinyh, pp. 83-100. (in Russian).
  6. Hedzhinjan Lyn. "Otricanie zakrytosti" ["Denial ofcloseness"]. Podg. k publ. i per. s angl. Arkadija Dragomoshhenko. Filosofskij zhurnal, 2011, vol. 6, pp. 78-85 (Russian translation).
  7. Jeko Umberto. (2016) Rol' chitatelja. Issledovanija posemiotike teksta [Lector in fabula. Lacooperazione interpretativa nei testi narrativi]. Moscow: ACT Publ. (Russian translation).
  8. KostjuhinaLjudmila M. (1962) "ZapisiXIII-XVIII vv. na rukopisjah Voskresenskogo monastyrja" ["Records of the XIII-XVIIIcenturies on the manuscripts of the Resurrection Monastery"]. Arheograficheskij ezhegodnik za 1960god. Pp. 273–291 (in Russian).
  9. Lihachev Dmitrij S. (1971) "Pojetika drevnerusskoj literatury" ["Poetics of Ancient Russian literature"] Leningrad,Khudozhestvennaya Literatura Publ. (in Russian).
  10. Lotman Jurij. M. (1992) "Ritorika" ["Ritorika"], in Lotman Ju. M. Izbrannye stat'i v treh tomah. Stat'i po semiotike itopologii kul'tury [Selected Articles: in 3 volumes. Vol. 1. Articleson Semiotics and Topology of Culture]. Tallinn: Aleksandra Publ., pp. 148−161 (In Russian).
  11. Parfent'evNickolaj P., Parfent'eva Natalia V. (2013). "Mnogoletija v chest' carja MihailaRomanova v demestvennyh raspevah masterov usol'skoj (Stroganovskoj) shkoly" ["Perennials in honor of Tsar Mikhail Romanov in the solemnchants of the masters of the Usolsky (Stroganov) school"] available at: Vestnik JuUrGU. Serija «Social'no-gumanitarnye nauki».2013. vol. 13, # 2. pp. 112-115 (in Russian).
  12. PozhidaevaGalina A. (2000). "Iz istorii demestvennogo raspeva XVII v". ["From the history of the divine chant ofthe XVII century"] in Germenevtika drevnerusskojliteratury / RAN; Institut mirovoj literatury im. A.M.Gor'kogo; Obshhestvo issledovatelej DrevnejRusi. Moscow: IMLI RAN Publ., vol. 10, pp. 482–516 (in Russian).
  13. PuckoVasilij G. (1998) "Mnogoletija russkim knjaz'jam porukopisjam Kirillo-Belozerskogo monastyrja" ["Long-termgreetings to Russian princes from the manuscripts of the Kirillo-BelozerskyMonastery"] available at: Kirillov.Kraevedcheskij al'manah. Vyp. 3. Vologda: Legija Publ., pp. 50–55 (in Russian).
  14. Rukopisi XVI –XX vv. i knigi kirillicheskoj pechati iz sobranija Instituta istorii SO RAN. ["Manuscriptsof the XVI - XX centuries and books of Cyrillic printing from the collection ofthe Institute of History SB RAS"]. Sostaviteli: N.D.Zol'nikova, A.I.Mal'cev, T.V.Panich,L.V.Titova), available at: https://arran.ru/images/nd/mus/75/article2.pdf(28.12.2021). (in Russian).
  15. Tihomirov Mihail N. (1960) "ZapisiXIV-XVII vekov na rukopisjah Chudova monastyrja" ["Records of the XIV-XVIIcenturies on the manuscripts of the Chudov Monastery"]. Arheograficheskij ezhegodnik za 1958god. Pp. 11–36 (in Russian).
  16. Uspenskij Nickolaj D. (1971) "Obrazcy drevnerusskogo pevcheskogo iskusstva". ["Samples ofancient Russian singing art"]. Leningrad: Muzyka Publ. (in Russian).

Guseinova Zivar


Academic Degree: Doctor of Sciences* in Art Criticism;
Place of work: St. Petersburg State Conservatory; 3 Teatral’naya Sq., St Petersburg 190000, Russian Federation;
ORCID: 0000-0001-8940-6485;
Email: zivar-g@mail.ru.

*According to ISCED 2011, a post-doctoral degree called Doctor of Sciences (D.Sc.) is given to reflect second advanced research qualifications or higher doctorates.

Viskova Irina

Polychoral compositions of Mikołaj Zieleński

Viskova Irina (2022) "Polychoral compositions of Mikołaj Zieleński ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia V : Voprosi istorii i teorii hristianskogo iskusstva, 2022, Iss. 47, pp. 124-135 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturV202247.124-135
The heyday of the art of polychoral composition in European musical culture falls on the middle of the 17th century. The style originated in the churches of western and central Italy. It united a whole generation of young Polish composers educated in Venice and Rome. One of them is the famous Polish composer Mikolaj Zielenski. In musical style Zielenski follows the traditions of late Renaissance polyphony. His compositions mark the beginning of a long period of influence of Italian style on Polish music. Until today the question remains open, where the composer got acquainted with the Venetian technique of writing multi-choir music. The composer could master the polychoral style without leaving Poland. The polychoral style was then very widespread thanks to the activities of Italian musicians throughout Europe.All of Zielenski 's works known today were published in Venice in 1611. The first of these, Offertoria totius anni, includes multi-choir compositions similar to Giovanni Gabrieli's Sacrae symphoniae. The collection contains 55 compositions, the last of which is the Magnificat for three choirs. Mikolaj Zielenski 's Magnificat can be considered a classical composition for three choirs. In terms of stylistic and compositional features, it follows Italian traditions, in connection with which it is often compared with Giovanni Gabrieli's Magnificat.The history of polychoral style is one of the most interesting pages in the history of European musical culture. The Venetian style influenced the music of Central and Eastern Europe, including Russian musical culture.
musik of Poland, Baroque music, Mikolaj Zielenski, Giovanni Gabrieli, polychoral compositions, antiphon, Magnificat
  1. BroughDelma(1989) Polish Sevententh-Century Church Miusc.With Reference to the Influence of Historical, Political, and Social Condition.New York & London
  2. Dunicz Jan J. (1936) Do biografjiMikołaja Zieleńskiego. Polski Rocznik Muzykologiczny, II
  3. FederhoferHelmut (1980) Giovanni Valentini. [in:] Sadie S. The New Grove Dictionary ofMusic and Musicians. Bd. 19. Macmillan, London 1980
  4. Howard Deborah, Moretti Laura (2009) Sound and Spacein Renaissance Venice: Architecture, Music, Acoustic. New Haven, London
  5. MalinowskiWładysław (1981) Polifonia Mikołaja Zieleńskiego. Kraków
  6. Patalas Aleksandra. (1998) Twórczośćkapelmistrzów polskich Wazów. A. Pacelli, G. F. Anerio, M. Scacchi. Doctoraldissertation, Jagiellonian University, Kraków
  7. Przybyszewska-Jarmińska Barbara (2002) TheHistory of Music in Poland,tom III: The Baroque, part 1: 1595-1696. Warsaw, Sutkowski
  8. Schwider Damian J. (2009) MikołajZieleński: ein polnischer Komponist an der Wende des 16. und 17. Jahrhunderts. München 2009
  9. Starowolski Simonis (1627) ScriptorumPolonicorum Hecatonias; seu centum illustrum Poloniae Scriptorum elogia etvitae. Venedig
  10. Szczepańska Maria (1935) O dwunastogłosowym “Magnificat” Mikołaja Zieleńskiego z r. 1611. Polski rocznikmuzykologiczny (I)
  11. SzweykowskaAnna - Szweykowski Zygmunt (1997) Włosi w kapeli królewskiej polskich Wazów.Kraków, Musica Iagellonica
  12. Zieleński Mikołaj (1966-1978) Offertoria totius anni. 1611 in Venice by Giovanni Vincenti. Restored editionpublished in three volumes, Kraków
  13. Zieleński Mikołaj (1989-1991) Communiones totiusanni. 1611 in Venice by Giovanni Vincenti. Reconstruction and scholarlytranscription published in two volumes, Kraków

Viskova Irina


Academic Degree: Candidate of Sciences* in Art Criticism;
Academic Rank: Associate Professor;
Place of work: Tchaikovsky Moscow State Conservatory; 13 Bolshaya Nikitskaya Str., Moscow 125009, Russian Federat;
Post: associate professor;
ORCID: 0000-0002-9304-0428;
Email: Viskova2001@mail.ru.

*According to the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) 2011, the degree of Candidate of Sciences (Cand.Sc.) belongs to ISCED level 8 — "doctoral or equivalent", together with PhD, DPhil, D.Lit, D.Sc, LL.D, Doctorate or similar.

Golubev Valentin

Presentational icon with a view of Likhvin Dobryi monastery: dating, typology, iconography, stylistic features

Golubev Valentin (2022) "Presentational icon with a view of Likhvin Dobryi monastery: dating, typology, iconography, stylistic features ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia V : Voprosi istorii i teorii hristianskogo iskusstva, 2022, Iss. 47, pp. 136-157 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturV202247.136-157
The article is devoted to the “podnosnoy” with the view of the Likhvin Dobryi Monastery of Intercession of Theotokos near Kaluga from the collection of the Andrey Rublev Central Museum of Ancient Russian Culture and Art (CMAR): the dating of the monument is specified, its typology is determined, the iconography and style are characterized. Due to the information about chronology of construction transformations carried out in the monastery it is possible to date the icon with the time range of 1818-1832. The lower dating limit is based on the stylistic features of this icon are formed by influence of architectural drawing from 1818. The upper limit determined due to the typological characteristics of the icon as a gift (testimonial icon) for a special important person in memory of the solemn consecration of the renovated monastery ensemble in 1832. The typological characteristic of the monument as a special gift is supported by a number of iconographic and typological analogies. The iconographic program of the icon shows the principles of compositional constructing of "podnosnoy" (tray) and "razdatochnyy"(handout) icons: the pictorial surface is divided into two parts; at the bottom a panoramic view of the city or monastery placed, and at the top of it there are celestial patrons. Taking into account the administrative dependence of the Likhvin Dobryi Monastery from the Kaluga diocese and comparing the icon with a number of dated works close to it in style, it was possible to place them in the circle of works of the Kaluga icons and artistic context of Empire era. A number of these analogies constitutes a separate stylistic line of this regional artistic tradition: it is distinguished by delicate coloring, sentimentality and classical restraint.
Likhvin Dobryi Monastery of Intercession of Theotokos, Kaluga icon painting, “podnosnaya” icon, iconographic program, icon painting of the 19th century, architecture in icons, classicism
  1. Altunin, G. Zavarihin S. (2019).“Istoriia formirovaniia arkhitekturnogo ansamblia Likhvinskogo PokrovskogoDobrogo monastyria” [“The history of the formation of the architecturalensemble of the Likhvin Pokrovsky Dobriy Monastery”], in Tula Local LoreAlmanac. No. 16, pp. 152-162 (in Russian).
  2. Buzykina Iu. (2011). “Obrazsviashchennogo grada i monastyria v russkoi zhivopisi Pozdnego Srednevekov'ia:XVI - pervaia polovina XVII veka” [“The image of the sacred city and monasteryin Russian painting of the Late Middle Ages: XVI - the first half of the XVIIcentury”]. PhD theses in history of art: Moscow State University. Moscow (inRussian).
  3. Buseva-Davydova I. (2019). “Russkaiaikonopis' ot Oruzheinoi palaty do moderna: poiski sakral'nogo obraza” [“RussianIcon Painting: From the Armoury Chamber to Art Nouveau: The Search of theSacred Image”]. Moscow: BuksMart, pp. 131-135 (in Russian).
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  8. Ivannikova A., Dobrovol'skaia L.(auth. of the articles) (2021). “Sviatoi blagovernyi velikii kniaz' AleksandrNevskii. Obrazy i simvolika: katalog vystavki” [“Holy Blessed Grand Duke AlexanderNevsky, Prince and Saint: Imagery and Symbolism: exhibition catalog”]. StateHermitage Museum; St. Petersburg: Publishing House of the State Hermitage (inRussian).
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  11. Komashko N. (comp. and auth. of thearticle) (2019). “Lestnitsa v nebo. Ikony iz sobraniia Viktora Bondarenko”[“Stairway to heaven. Icons from the collection of Viktor Bondarenko”]:exhibition catalog. Moscow: Central Museum of Old Russian Culture and Art.Andrey Rublev (CMAR) (in Russian).
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  15. Nechaeva T., Chernov M. (2012). Iconpainting [in Kaluga]: XVIII ̶ XIX centuries. In art. "Kaluga and Borovskdiocese". Orthodox Encyclopedia. Moscow: Church and Scientific Center"Orthodox Encyclopedia", vol. 29, S. 620-623. (in Russian).
  16. Nechaeva T., Chernov M. (2010). “"Pisanv Kalugi…". Kaluzhskie ikony XVIII–. XIX vekov” [“"Painted in Kaluga...". Kaluga icons XVIII– XIX centuries”]. Antiques. Art and collectibles.No. № 11(81), pp. 14 ̶ 66 (in Russian).
  17. Poliakova O. (author-comp.) (2006).“Arkhitektura Rossii v ee ikone: goroda, monastyri i tserkvi v ikonopisiXVI-XIX vekov iz sobraniia Muzeia-zapovednika "Kolomenskoe"” [“Thearchitecture of Russia in its icon: cities, monasteries and churches in theiconography of the XVI-XIX centuries from the collection of the KolomenskoyeMuseum-Reserve”]. Moscow (in Russian).
  18. Preobrazhensky A. (2010). “Ktitorskieportrety srednevekovoi Rusi. XI – nachalo XVI veka” [“Donor Portraits ofMedieval Russia: XIth - Early XVIth Centuries”]. Moscow: Severnyi palomnik (inRussian).
  19. Putsko V. (1993). “Ikony sizobrazheniiami kaluzhskikh sviatykh” [“Icons with depictions of Kalugasaints”], in Tausend Jahre Taufe Russlands: Russland in Europa: Beiträge zuminterdisziplinären und ökumenischen Symposium in Halle (Saale) 13-16. April 1988/Edit. by Hermann Goltz und Axel Meissner. Aufl. 1. Leipzig: EvangelischeVerlagsanstalt, 1993. (in Deutsch).
  20. Putsko V. (2000). “Ikony 2 pol. XVIIi 1 pol. XVIII vv. iz khramov Kalugi” [“Icons of 2nd half XVII and 1st halfXVIII century from the temples of Kaluga”], in Kaluga in six centuries:materials of the 3rd city local history conference; comp.: V. Dyachenko.Kaluga, pp. 331 ̶ 342 (in Russian).
  21. Putsko V. (2005). “O kaluzhskoiminiatiurnoi ikonopisi XVIII - XIX vekov” [“About the Kaluga miniature iconpainting of the XVIII th – XIX th centuries”], in Kaluga in six centuries:materials of the 5th city local history conference. Kaluga: Polygraph-Inform,pp. 319 – 329 (in Russian).
  22. Putsko V. (2005). “Bogomater'Zhivonosnyi istochnik v kaluzhskoi ikonopisi XVIII veka” [“The Mother of Godthe Life-Giving Spring in Kaluga Icon Painting of the XVIII th Century”], inKaluga in Six Centuries: Proceedings of the 5th City Local History Conference.Kaluga: Polygraph-Inform, pp. 346–347 (in Russian).
  23. Putsko V. (2009). “Ikona BogomateriKazanskoi, chto v Kaluge” [“Icon of the Mother of God of Kazan, in Kaluga”], inIssues of history, culture and nature of the Upper Poochie: materials of theXIII All-Russian scientific conference dedicated to the 200th anniversary ofN.V. Gogol. Kaluga: Polygraph-Inform, pp. 172 – 177 (in Russian).
  24. “Russkie monastyri: iskusstvo itraditsii” [“Russian monasteries: art and traditions”]. St. Petersburg: PalaceEditions (1997)(in Russian).
  25. Tarasov O. (1995). “Ikona iblagochestie: Ocherki ikonnogo dela v imperatorskoi Rossi” [“Icon and Devotion.Sacred Spaces in Imperial Russia”]. Moscow: Progress, Tradition (in Russian).
  26. Tarasova N. (2019). “Pochitanie svt. Nikolaia Chudotvortsa vKrasnokholmskom Nikolaevskom Antonievom monastyre” [“To the Question ofVeneration of St. Nicholas the Wonderworker in Krasnoholmskiy NikolaevskiyAntoniev Monastery in XVIth — XVIIth Centuries”], in “Nachalo”: Journal of theInstitute of Theology and Philosophy. Vol. 36. S. 187-198 (in Russian).
  27. Tsarevskaya,T. (2021). “Izobrazheniia novgorodskikh sviatitelei v "kel'e Ioanna"Vladychnoi palaty: vremia i obstoiatel'stva poiavleniia 1558” [“Images ofNovgorod Saints in the “John’s Cell” of the Episcopal Chambers in VelikyNovgorod: The Time and Circumstances of Their Appearance 1558”]. Part II (end),In Bulletin of the sector of ancient Russian art. No. 1(5), pp. 110 ̶ 126 (in Russian).

Golubev Valentin


Student status: Graduate student;
Student status: Graduate student;
Academic Rank: Professor;
Place of study: Department of Russian Art History, Faculty of History, Lomonosov Moscow State University;
ORCID: 0000-0002-9490-3192;
Email: golubev.valent@yandex.ru.
Гильдина Tatiana; Kurochkin Mikhail

Church architecture of Vyatka province in the time of Nicholas I

Гильдина Tatiana, Kurochkin Mikhail (2022) "Church architecture of Vyatka province in the time of Nicholas I ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia V : Voprosi istorii i teorii hristianskogo iskusstva, 2022, Iss. 47, pp. 158-172 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturV202247.158-172
This publication is part of a comprehensive study addressed to the architectural heritage of the Vyatka province during the reign of Nicholas I. This article highlights the features of temple architecture. Based on the analysis of eleven church projects, the tendencies and trends in the architecture of the Vyatka province of the second quarter and the middle of the 19th century are consistently examined.The study is based on an extensive body of archival sources identified during the work in the Russian State Historical Archive in the period 2019-2022, as well as materials from the periodical press of the 19th - early 20th centuries, photographs and postcards of the early 20th century, published in open sources. The presented archival documents have an undoubted source study potential, primarily for conducting fundamental scientific research in the field of art history, as they present the features of the artistic process in the architecture of the province.The materials are scattered, but they allow creating a complete picture of the evolution of the architecture of the Vyatka province in the first half of the 19th century. Thanks to the introduction of the mentioned documents into scientific circulation, it becomes possible to clarify the actual construction data of some individual objects, stylistic and structural details, the proposed appearance of buildings and evaluate the diversity of the architectural heritage of the Vyatka province. Many documentary materials are introduced into scientific circulation for the first time.
Architectural heritage of the Vyatka province, temple architecture, project, designing, style, composition, classicism
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Гильдина Tatiana


Academic Degree: Candidate of Sciences* in Art Criticism;
Place of work: Herzen State Pedagogical University of Russia; 48 Naberezhnaia reki Moiki, St. Petersburg, 191186, Russian Federation;
ORCID: 0000-0003-3808-3764;
Email: felmantanya@gmail.com.

*According to the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) 2011, the degree of Candidate of Sciences (Cand.Sc.) belongs to ISCED level 8 — "doctoral or equivalent", together with PhD, DPhil, D.Lit, D.Sc, LL.D, Doctorate or similar.


Kurochkin Mikhail


Place of work: Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education "The Udmurt State University";
Post: assistant professor;
Email: misha-meta@mail.ru.