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St. Tikhon’s University Review . Series V: Problems of History and Theory of Christian Art

St. Tikhon’s University Review V :46

ARTICLES

Ustinova Julia

The Tsar and the “Angel of the Tzar”: the problem of image-related interpretation of historiosophical conceptions of the 16th century in the miniatures of the convolute from Chudov monastery of the 1560s

Ustinova Julia (2022) "The Tsar and the “Angel of the Tzar”: the problem of image-related interpretation of historiosophical conceptions of the 16th century in the miniatures of the convolute from Chudov monastery of the 1560s ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia V : Voprosi istorii i teorii hristianskogo iskusstva, 2022, Iss. 46, pp. 9-33 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturV202246.9-33
The article is devoted to the analysis of the iconographic program of the miniature "Word for the Conception of St. John the Baptist" in the manuscript from the Chudov Monastery dated 1560s (Russian State Library. F. 98, Collection of E.E. Egorov. No 1844, fol. 132 v. – 186). Its elaborate composition combines the image of the tsar sitting on the throne surrounded by His entourage, God the Father and Christ, sending the young John the Baptist into the world, and the image of paradise with the Old Testament saints (f.151v – 155). The miniature program visualizes the ideas of the publicists of the 16th century about the role and purpose of the Moscow Kingdom and the Russian tsar in world history. It reflects the historiosophical ideas popular in this era of the translation of the Roman Empire into Russia, the concept of "royal sacrifice", as well as topical issues of the correlation of personal freedom of a citizen and the boundaries of autocratic power over him. It also clearly indicates the place of the cult of the "angel of the sovereign" in the formulated system of the ideology of the kingdom, its inspiring and teaching role in the process of his moral education.
Old Russian art, 16th-century art, Old Russian book miniature, illuminated compendium of the Chudov Monastery, iconography of St. John the Baptist, Tsar Ivan the Terrible, All-Russian Metropolitan Athanasius, ideology of the kingdom, historiosophical concepts, royal sacrifice, Moscow - the Third Rome, freedom, autocracy
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Ustinova Julia


Place of work: Saint Tikhon’s Orthodox University, The Central Andrey Rublev Museum of Ancient Russian Culture and Art;
Post: Senior Lecturer, head of the sector;
ORCID: 0000-0002-0902-1110;
Email: brodovaya@mail.ru.
Baturova Vera

On the Annunciation church in Snovitsy

Baturova Vera (2022) "On the Annunciation church in Snovitsy ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia V : Voprosi istorii i teorii hristianskogo iskusstva, 2022, Iss. 46, pp. 34-50 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturV202246.34-50
The study of the Church of the Annunciation in Snovitsy was conducted in order to clarify the dating of the monument, to clarify its structural and decorative features, as well as to determine the place and significance of this building for the church architecture of the Vladimir region in the XVII century. For this purpose, a study of available sources, including archival ones, was undertaken. The most valuable source is the materials of the monument survey conducted by specialists of the Vladimir Restoration Workshop before the start of its restoration. In addition to the work carried out by the workshop staff, plans of the temple and its sections were drawn up, which are published for the first time in this work. In addition to studying the sources, a detailed analysis of the structural and decorative features of the monument was carried out for the first time, during which the fact of participation in the construction of a mixed artel of masters – metropolitan and from the Volga region. The features of the Volga architecture were reflected mainly in the decoration of the building, became obvious. However, in general, Moscow features prevail. Some architectural features are extremely rare, for example, the orientation of the main volume along the west – east axis. Unique features were also used in the decoration of the monument, such as decorative inserts in the tops of the window frames, exact analogies to the combination of which have not been revealed at the moment. After the analysis, it became possible to clarify the dating of the temple. The most appropriate date should be considered the 1670s-1680s. The paper also raises the question of the original appearance and the customer of the building. It is necessary to agree with the opinion of the restorers about the reconstruction of the bell tower, the northern gallery, as well as the initial absence of the stone southern gallery. Regarding the identity of the customer, it should be noted that the village of Snovitsy has long been a metropolitan, and in the XVII century it was part of the patriarchal region, which suggests the likely participation of the patriarch in the construction of a stone monastery church. A possible customer could be Patriarch Pitirim (1672-1673), but the main period of construction fell on the time of his successor – Patriarch Joachim (1674-1690), which was reflected not only in the nature of the decor of the temple and its construction, but also in a considerable amount of church utensils of this period. The article also notes the importance of the Annunciation Church for the architecture of the Vladimir region, which is due to the presence of unique features of the monument, the mixed nature of the artel of masters, as well as the assumption of a possible patriarchal order.
Monastery, Snovitsy, uzorochye, Vladimir region, Church of the Annunciation, XVII century, patriarchal order, unique features, mixed artel, Volga region, Yaroslavl, salt baths
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Baturova Vera


Student status: Graduate student;
Student status: Graduate student;
Academic Rank: Professor;
Place of study: Scientific Research Institute of Theory and History of Architecture and Urban Planning;
Post: 9, Dushinskaya st. Moscow 111024, Russia;
ORCID: 0000-0002-8797-5761;
Email: Baturovaver@yandex.ru.
It is necessary to express gratitude to the head - Merzlyutina Natalia Alekseevna, as well as JSC "Vladimirrestavratsiya" for the documents and photos, which were provided by the archivist.
Sindeeva Nadezhda

The chime to the 9th song of the canon: what does it refer to?

Sindeeva Nadezhda (2022) "The chime to the 9th song of the canon: what does it refer to? ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia V : Voprosi istorii i teorii hristianskogo iskusstva, 2022, Iss. 46, pp. 51-58 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturV202246.51-58
This article for the first time raises a topical issue in the bell ringing practice – about the reference of the chime to the 9th song of the canon. The object of the study is the chime, that in major part of churches is performed as 9 measured strikes on one of the biggest bells after the deacon proclaims "Let us glorify the Mother of God and the Mother of Light in a song" or after a festive verse. It continues during the singing of the song of the Mother of God "My soul glorifies the Lord" or the 9th song of the canon. The chime to the 9th song was chosen not random – in modern guidelines on the bell ringing charter, as well as in the bell ringing practice, the issue of its reference remains not determinated, and the relation to the 9th song or to the song of the Mother of God seems not persuasive. In the comparative analysis of various charters of bell ringing, starting from the middle of the XIX century to the present, it was found that there was no unity in explaining the reference of this chime. In order to clarify the historical significance of the chime on the 9th song, the author used the Regulations («Chinovniki») of the Moscow Assumption Cathedral, published with a foreword and index by Professor A. P. Golubtsov and reflecting the practice of worship and bell ringing in the XVII - early XVIII centuries. On the basis of Regulations («Chinovniki»), we can confirm that the chime to the 9th song was performed to gather the clergy, prepare for the subsequent procession on the Glorification. Later, this procession was lost in liturgical practice. Thus, it can be concluded that the chime to the 9th song has lost its practical significance, and the issue arises about the necessity to perform it at the present time.
chime, the 9th song, canon, 9 strikes, Regulations («Chinovniki») of the Moscow Assumption Cathedral, Howler («Reut»), the bell
  1. Gaslov I., Kashkin A. (2011) Pravoslavnoe bogosluzhenie. Prakticheskoe rukovodstvo dlia klirikov i mirian. St. Petersburg (in Russian).
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  4. Ustav zvona Khrama Khrista Spasitelia [Regulations of bell ringing at the Cathedral of Christ the Redeemer], available at http://www.zvon.ru/zvon4.view1.page19.html (in Russian; accessed 24.04.2022).
  5. Ustav Tserkovnogo zvona [Regulations of church bell ringing], available at https://acathist.ru/en/novosti/item/264-ustav-tserkovnogo-zvona (24.04.2022).

Sindeeva Nadezhda


Academic Degree: Candidate of Sciences* in Art Criticism;
ORCID: 0000-0002-4940-9937;
Email: r.nadezda2109@mail.ru.

*According to the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) 2011, the degree of Candidate of Sciences (Cand.Sc.) belongs to ISCED level 8 — "doctoral or equivalent", together with PhD, DPhil, D.Lit, D.Sc, LL.D, Doctorate or similar.

Buzykina Yulia

Aesthetic judgments of Vasily Grigorovich-Barsky on the example of descriptions of architecture

Buzykina Yulia (2022) "Aesthetic judgments of Vasily Grigorovich-Barsky on the example of descriptions of architecture ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia V : Voprosi istorii i teorii hristianskogo iskusstva, 2022, Iss. 46, pp. 59-73 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturV202246.59-73
Describing his wanderings in famous travelogue, Vassiliy Grigorovich-Barskiy was paying special attention to architecture. As time went on, the descriptions became more specific, which makes it possible to articulate his aesthetic views. In the beginning of his wanderings, he just says that Italian architecture of palaces and churches is beautiful. Then, in Venice, he describes with piety the cathedral of St Marco, which was, to his mind, initially an Orthodox church. Thus, the confessional belonging, although in the past, could be a reason for Barskiy to pay it more attention. The similar situation repeats with the Umayyads’ mosque in Damascus – for Barskiy it is the church of John the Baptist, turned into mosque, that’s why he is risking his life to get inside and to describe it.The traveler appreciates the regularity of architecture and clarity of its forms, which is demonstrated in his judgement about St Mamas monastery in Morphou on Cyprus he founds the most beautiful one in the island. At the same time, he is fascinated with very fine Gothic architecture of ruined Abbey of Bella Pais (also on Cyprus). Barskiy makes no difference between styles of architecture. Barskiy says that some of the buildings including Orthodox churches are ugly. There are buildings which are not regular, not decorated, destroyed and being destroyes ones. Consequently, his judgements tend to be free from religious and confessional belonging and the author aims for being objective.
aesthetic judgements, ekphrasis, holy places, pilgrimages, travelogues, Grigorovich-Barskiy, Venice, Damascus, Rome, Naples, Paphos, Cyprus, Athos
  1. Bettini S. (1984) “Venice, the Pala d’Oro and Constantinople”, in The Treasury of San Marco, Venice. Milan.
  2. Buckton D. (ed.) The Treasury of San Marco, Venice. Basilica di San Marco, The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Exhibition catalogue. Milan, 1984. Byzantium 330–1453 (2008). London.
  3. Dubin M. S. (2002) The Rough Guide to Cyprus. Rough Guides.
  4. Setton K. M. Hazard H. W. (eds) (1977) A History of the Crusades. Vol. 4: The Art and Architecture of the Crusader States. University of Wisconsin Press.
  5. Hein E., Jakovlević A., Kleidt B. (1996) Zypern. Byzantinische Kirchen und Klöstern. Mosaiken und Fresken. Ratingen.
  6. Kazakova N. (ed.) (1999) Hozhdenie na florentiiskii sobor [Avisit to the Council of Florence], in D. Likhechev, L. Dmitriev, A. Alexeev, N. Ponyrko (eds) Biblioteka literatury Drevnei Rusi [Library of Old Russian literature], vol. 6. St. Petersburg. (in Russian).
  7. McGillivray Dawkins R. (1964) The Chronicle of George Boustronious, 1456–1489. Melbourne.
  8. Papageorgiou A. (1995) “Crusader Infl uence on the Byzantine Art of Cyprus”, in He Kypros kai hoi Staurophories = Cyprus and the Crusades, pp. 275–294.
  9. Papageorgiou A. (1998) Mama Agiou Ekklesia, Morphou. Megale Kypriake Enkyklopaideia. Nikosia, vol. 9 (in Greek).

Buzykina Yulia


Academic Degree: Candidate of Sciences* in Art Criticism;
Place of work: Moscow Kremlin museums;
Post: senior researcher;
ORCID: 0000-0003-3744-269X;
Email: yuliabuzykina@gmail.com.

*According to the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) 2011, the degree of Candidate of Sciences (Cand.Sc.) belongs to ISCED level 8 — "doctoral or equivalent", together with PhD, DPhil, D.Lit, D.Sc, LL.D, Doctorate or similar.

I thank Pavel and Elena Kornev and the Cyprusiana project for providing photographic materials
Emelianova Olga

Congregational singing in St. Petersburg diocese at the turn of the 19–20th centuries

Emelianova Olga (2022) "Congregational singing in St. Petersburg diocese at the turn of the 19–20th centuries ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia V : Voprosi istorii i teorii hristianskogo iskusstva, 2022, Iss. 46, pp. 74-89 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturV202246.74-89
In the Russian Empire at the turn of the 19th – 20th centuries, there is a great interest in the practice of congregational singing. The documents of the Russian Local Council of 1917-1918, choir congresses, reports on the activities of church brotherhoods and societies, as well as publications in the press allow to judge to what significant extent the congregational singing at divine services was organized. Definitely, the support of the higher church hierarchy played a special role, as it is demonstrated by the Decrees of the Holy Synod, issued back in 1804 and 1847. At the beginning of the 20th century a solid foundation which enabled a broad participation of the people in divine service through singing and reading church hymns in the St. Petersburg diocese, where for a long time professional church singing and author's liturgical music were actively supported and developed, as well as in other large dioceses (Moscow, Tambov, Kazan, etc.) was built. These were special church orders that dispose the clergy to new parish activities, teaching parishioners and students of parish schools church singing, publishing materials for nationwide liturgical singing (Liturgy, Vespers, Matins, Moleben, Panikhida). Priests Mikhail Dubensky, Konstantin Lorchenko, Nikolai Kurlov, as well as the Alexander - Nevsky Temperance society were active organizers and leaders of the congregational singing at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries in the St. Petersburg diocese.There is no doubt that the study of the history of the congregational singing and the accumulated rich practical experience is of high importance precisely today, when this ancient tradition, which remains a powerful means of not only uniting people in the church, but also of enlightening and educating them in the Christian faith, is reviving and expanding.
congregational singing, priest Mikhail Dubensky, priest Konstantin Lorchenko, priest Nikolai Kurlov, priest Alexander Rozhdestvensky, priest Petr Mirtov, Alexander - Nevsky Temperance society, the complex of church music of ordinary chants for people
  1. Dubensky M., priest. Novomucheniki, ispovedniki, za Khrista postradavshie v gody gonenii na Russkuiu Pravoslavnuiu Tserkov′ v XX v.: baza dannykh PSTGU [New martyrs, confessors, sufferers for Christ in the years of persecution of the Russian Orthodox Church in the 20th century: a database], available at http://kuz3.pstbi.ru/bin/nkws.exe/no_dbpath/docum/ans/nm/?TYZCF2JMTdG6Xbu2su4ZfS4ee8YUX8XZc8Wf674Zf8Khfe8ctk* (in Russian; accessed 28.09.2021)
  2. Emel′ianova O. (2020) Obshchenarodnoe bogosluzhebnoe penie kak massovoe iavlenie v Moskve i Sankt-Peterburge v nachale XX veka [People’s singing at a church service as a mass phenomenon in Moscow and St. Petersburg in the early 20th century], in Problemy khudozhestvennogo tvorchestva: po materialam Vserossiiskikh nauchnykh chtenii, posviashchennykh B. L. Iavorskomu (26–28 noiabria 2019) [Problems of creativity in art. Proceedings of a conference in honour of B. L. Yavorsky, 26–28 November 2019]. Saratov, pp. 76–89 (in Russian).
  3. Rusol E. (2002) Pomestnyi sobor Russkoi Pravoslavnoi Tserkvi 1917–1918 goda o tserkovnom penii [Local Council of the Russian Orthodox Church (1917–1918) on church singing]. Moscow (in Russian).

Emelianova Olga


Student status: Graduate student;
Place of study: St. Tikhon’s Orthodox University for the Humanities; 6/1 Likhov pereulok, Moscow, 127051, Russian Federation;
ORCID: 0000-0003-3649-2601;
Email: olga.emelianova95@gmail.com.
Zverev Alexandr

In search of a living middle

Zverev Alexandr (2022) "In search of a living middle ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia V : Voprosi istorii i teorii hristianskogo iskusstva, 2022, Iss. 46, pp. 90-105 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturV202246.90-105
The article analyzes the main category of Zedlmayr's theoretical works "the middle" (Mitte). Zedlmayr is a classic of the Vienna School of Art Studies. The relevance of Zedlmayr's scientific views in the era of digitalization is due to his desire to understand the whole. For the first time this category is used in antiquity. The "middle" is an ontological and epistemological category denoting the integrity and relevance of a work of art. Sedelmaier understands a work of art as a living whole, residing here and now. A work of art for Zedlmayr is being, presence (dasein). According to Zedtlmayr, the "middle" is both the beginning, the middle (center), and the end (goal) of the work. The "middle" is exactly what makes the work acquire integrity, self, being, and individuality. The category "middle" describes the principle of the existence of the whole, implying the unity of the whole and the part. The middle expresses the structure and life of a work of art. It is also the main means of learning art. The middle also denotes the person himself and his connection with God.
Work of art, science of art, whole, middle, event, understanding, contemplation, system, Zedlmayr
  1. Bachmann-Medik D. (2017) Kul′turnye povoroty. Novye orientiry v naukakh o kul′ture. [Cultural turns. New reference points in cultural sciences]. Moscow (in Russian).
  2. Binstock B. (2004) Springtime For Sedlmayr? The Future of Nazi Art History, in Wiener Jahrbuch für Kunstgeschichte (in English), 53–1, p. 73.
  3. Bibikhin V. (2000) Posleslovie k: Hans Zedl′mayr: iskusstvo i istina [Afterword to: Hans Zedlmayr. Art and Truth]. St. Petersburg (in Russian).
  4. Bibikhin V. (1998) “Hans Zedl′mayr: Iskusstvo videt′. Utrata serediny” [Hans Zedlmayr: the art of seeing. Loss of the middle], in New Renaissance. Moscow, pp. 59–126 (in Russian).
  5. Bohde D. (2012) Kunstgeschichte als physiognomische Wissenschaft. Kritik einer Denkfi gur der 1920er bis 1940er Jahre. Berlin.
  6. Dittmann L. (1967) Stil — Symbol — Struktur. Studien zur Kategorien der Kunstgeschichte. München.
  7. Gaidenko P. (2006) Vremшa. Dlitel′nost′. Vechnost′. Problema vremeni v evropeiskoi fi losofi i i nauke [Time. Duration. Eternity. The problem of time in European philosophy and Science]. Moscow (in Russian).
  8. Hegel G. V. F. (1970) Nauka logiki [The science of logic], vol. 1. Moscow (Russian translation).
  9. Hegel G. V. F. (2000) Fenomenologiшa dukha [Phenomenology of the spirit]. Moscow (Russian translation).
  10. Levy E. (2010) Sedlmayr and Schapiro Correspond. 1930–1935, in Wiener Jahrbuch für Kunstgeschichte, vol. LIX, pp. 235–263.
  11. Losev A. (1975) Istoriia antichnoi estetiki. Aristotel′ i pozdniaia klassika [History of Classical Ancient aesthetics. Aristotle and the Late Classics]. Moscow (in Russian).
  12. Luca Vargiu (2017) Hermeneutik und Kunstwissenschaft. Ein Dialog auf Distanz — Emilio Betti und Hans Sedlmayr. Berlin: Logos Verlag.
  13. Männig M. (2016) Hans Sedlmayrs Kunstgeschichte. Eine kritische Studie. Böhlau; Wien.
  14. Meulen J. van der (1951) Aristoteles. Die Mitte in seinem Denken. Hain: Meisenheim.
  15. Sedlmayr H. (1958) Kunst und Wahrheit: Zur Theorie und Methode der Kunstgeschichte. Hamburg.
  16. Sedlmayr G. (2000) Iskusstvo videt′. St. Petersburg (Russian translation).
  17. Vaneian S. (2004) Pustuiushchii tron. Kriticheskoe iskusstvoznaie Hansa Zedlmaira [An empty throne. Critical art studies by Hans Zedlmayr]. Moscow (in Russian).
  18. Verstegen I. (2016) “Obscene History. The Two Sedlmayrs”, in Austriaca, 24, pp. 79–93.

Zverev Alexandr


Place of work: Moscow State Linguistic University;
Post: Teacher;
ORCID: 0000-0002-5771-4608;
Email: al-zv@yandex.ru.
Kiryushina Maria

"Great Vespers" by B. М. Ledkovsky in the singing tradition of the Orthodox Church in America

Kiryushina Maria (2022) ""Great Vespers" by B. M. Ledkovsky in the singing tradition of the Orthodox Church in America ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia V : Voprosi istorii i teorii hristianskogo iskusstva, 2022, Iss. 46, pp. 106-134 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturV202246.106-134
The article deals with a collection of hymns by the famous church composer and regent B. M. Ledkovsky, a representative of the Russian musical diaspora, whose creative path during the last almost twenty-five years of his life was connected with the United States of America. The verbal basis of the collection was made up of the liturgical texts of the Great Vespers service translated from Church Slavonic into English. Without making a detailed excursion into the historical past of America and without having the intention to create a picture of the formation and establishment of Orthodoxy on American soil (this topic, multi-level and multi-valued, is worthy, in our opinion, of more than one special study), the author touches only on individual events and facts of this history. Referring to the modern church-singing practice, which is accepted today in the Russian Orthodox Church Abroad (ROCOR) only partially, and focusing mainly on some features of the services of the Orthodox Church in America (OCA), the author considers "Great Vespers" as a collection that generally corresponds to one of the rites of the Russian Orthodox Church, along with the All – Night Vigil written by B. M. Ledkovsky. The English-language verbal basis used in “Great Vespers” is seen as specific to the liturgical work of B. M. Ledkovsky, who always belonged to the Russian Orthodox Church – both in Russia and abroad after the revolution, but at the same time very consonant with the liturgical practice of the OCA, which gradually switched to the national, English language. Published in 1976 St. Vladimir's Seminary Press (SVS Press), one of the leading theological educational institutions of the Orthodox Church in America, where B. M. Ledkovsky worked as a teacher of church music for a number of years, "Great Vespers", composed by the composer on the order of the Seminary, was published after his death. The final revision and preparation of the collection for publication was made by D. Drillock, a student and junior colleague of B. M. Ledkovsky, E. and J. Erikson, R. Evich. They also, as indicated in the publication, carried out an English-language adaptation of the liturgical texts. It is characteristic that the musical component of most of the Great Vespers chants is the material of Obikhod Ledkovsky (All-Night Vigil), published in 1959 in Jordanville in the printing house of St. Job of Pochaevsky Holy Trinity Monastery. Individual hymns of this collection (litanies, Sunday troparia, and others) were later included in the editions of St. Vladimir Seminary in 1980 and 1982 in English ("Holy Week"; "Divine Liturgy", “The Liturgy of the Presanctified Gifts”). The proposed article examines the composition of the collection, with its features, based on the material of several hymns, shows the confirming statements of the composer and the approaches to harmonization that are fundamentally important for him, which he uses here and in other works. Some attention is also paid to the analysis of musical and linguistic parameters of harmonizations, the issues of vocalization of the chanted liturgical text.
Great Vespers, David Drillock, Orthodox worship in America, traditional chants, Orthodox Church in America, Russian Orthodox Church Abroad, St. Vladimir Seminary, Isabel Hapgood, English-language liturgical singing tradition, liturgical books in English
  1. Gardner I. (2004) Bogosluzhebnoe penie Russkoi Pravoslavnoi Tserkvi [Liturgical singing of the Russian Orthodox Church]. Moscow (in Russian).
  2. Ledkovskaia M. (2013) “Druz′ia i edinomyshlenniki: Gardner, Ledkovskii, Khiokke” [Friends and kindred spirits: Gardner, Ledkovskii, Khiokke], in Russkoe zarubezh′e: muzyka i pravoslavie: mezhdunarodnaia nauchnaia konferentsiia [Russian community abroad: music and Orthodoxy. International conference]. Moscow, 2008, 17–19 September. Moscow, 2013, pp. 517–530.
  3. Prilozhenie. Pis′ma B. M. Ledkovskogo k I.A. Gardneru [Supplement. B. M. Ledkovskii’s letters to I. A. Gardner], pp. 531–542 (in Russian).
  4. Pechatnov V. O., Pechatnov V. V. (2019) “Pravoslavnaia Amerika: proshloe i nastoiashchee” [The Orthodox America: the past and the future], in USA & Canada: ekonomika — politika — kul′tura [USA & Canada: economy — politics — culture], vol. 49, pp. 75–91. Moscow (in Russian).
  5. Sovremenniki o Patriarkhe Tikhone. Materialy po noveishei istorii Russkoi Pravoslavnoi Tzerkvi [Contemporaries’s accounts of Patriarch Tikhon] (2007), vols 1, 2. Moscow (in Russian).
  6. Zelenskaia N. (2013) “Russkie dukhovnye kompozitory v USA i ikh bor′ba za žnastoyashchee″ tzerkovnoe penie” [Russian spiritual composers in the USA and their struggle for the “genuine” church singing], in Russkoe zarubezh′e: muzyka i pravoslavie: mezhdunarodnaya nauchnaia konferentsiia [Russian community abroad: music and Orthodoxy. International conference], Moscow, 2008, 17–19 September. Moscow, 2013, pp. 395–406 (in Russian).
  7. Zvereva S. (2004) “Russkoe tzerkovno-pevcheskoe zarubezh′e kak oblast′ nauchnykh issledovanii” [Church singing of the Russian community abroad as a sphere of academic studies], in Russkie muzykal′nue arkhivy za rubezhom. Zarubezhnye muzykal′nye arkhivy v Rossii: materialy mezhdunarodnoi konferentsii [Russian musical archives abroad. Foreign musical archives in Russia. Conference proceedings], vol. 3, pp. 39–46. Moscow (in Russian).
  8. Zvereva S. (2010) “Materialy o zhizni i deiatel′nosti Al′freda Svana v amerikanskikh arkhivakh” [Materials on the life and work of Alfred Svan in American archives], in Russkie muzykal′nue arkhivy za rubezhom. Zarubezhnye muzykal′nye arkhivy v Rossii: materialy mezhdunarodnoi konferentsii [Russian musical archives abroad. Foreign musical archives in Russia. Conference proceedings], vol. 4, pp. 65–72. Moscow (in Russian).
  9. Zvereva S. (2010) “Problemy sokhraneniia tserkovno-muzykal′nykh arkhivov” [The issue of preserving archives of church music], in Russkie muzykal′nue arkhivy za rubezhom. Zarubezhnye muzykal′nye arkhivy v Rossii: materialy mezhdunarodnoi konferentsii [Russian musical archives abroad. Foreign musical archives in Russia. Conference proceedings], vol. 5, pp. 27–33. Moscow (in Russian).
  10. Zvereva S. (2010) “Sud′by zagranichnykh arkhivov vypusknikov Moskovskogo Sinodal′nogo uchilishcha” [Fates of the foreign archives of graduates of Moscow Synodal School], in Russkie muzykal′nue arkhivy za rubezhom. Zarubezhnye muzykal′nye arkhivy v Rossii: materialy mezhdunarodnoi konferentsii [Russian musical archives abroad. Foreign musical archives in Russia. Conference proceedings], vol. 5, pp. 48–56. Moscow (in Russian).

Kiryushina Maria


Student status: Graduate student;
Place of study: St. Tikhon’s Orthodox University for Humanities; 6 Likhov pereulok, Moscow 127051, Russian Federation;
Email: m_ist@mail.ru.
Konoreva Svetlana

Characteristic features of chanting stichera on the automelon in the contemporary liturgical practice of Grebenshchikov old believers’ community in Riga

Konoreva Svetlana (2022) "Characteristic features of chanting stichera on the automelon in the contemporary liturgical practice of Grebenshchikov old believers’ community in Riga ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia V : Voprosi istorii i teorii hristianskogo iskusstva, 2022, Iss. 46, pp. 135-151 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturV202246.135-151
The article is dedicated to the practical implementation of singing at the automelon in the Riga Grebenshchikov community, which is the most important singing center of the Priestless Old Believers. The choice of this branch of the Old Believers was caused by the fact that bespopovtsy adhere to the singing and manuscript traditions of the early period – "razdel'norechije", carefully preserve and reproduce the features of implementation the chants, pronunciation and intonation, and linguistic nuances. The material of the article is audio recordings of services and special recordings outside of services, transcribed by the author. The melodies of the automelons are considered exclusively in their oral version. The repertoire of the automelons, their typology, structural features, stable and mobile elements when singing various liturgical texts are determined. The results have been compared with the similar data of previous researchers on the material of earlier audio recordings of the Riga community, as well as other communities. Considering the previous experience of fixing the oral version of the automelons, our own analytical notated schemes were designed. They maximally reflect both the structure of the sample melody and all its possible changes when singing texts of different lengths. Some original features of the considered community are revealed, which are manifested in the special sounding of the final lines of the automelons, in the special "zapevnaja" line for some of the automelons, as well as in some rhythmic features that appear when singing stichera on the automelon. The continuation of the studying this subject will be a comparison of the automelon melodies existing in the Riga community with the melodies of other Baltic communities of the Pomor branch, as well as a detailed comparative studying of the oral and written versions of the automelons.
automelon, Old Believers, church singing, oral version, znamennyi raspev, "book" version, "napevka"
  1. Artamonova I. (1998) Pesnopeniia-modeli v drevnerusskom pevcheskom iskusstve XI–XVIII vekov [Chants-models in Old Russian art of singing of the 11th — 18th centuries]. Moscow (in Russian).
  2. Grigor′ev E. (2001) Posobie po izucheniiu tserkovnogo peniia i chteniia [A manual in the study of church singing and reading]. Riga (in Russian).
  3. Guseinova Z. (2018) Stikhirar mineinyi kontsa XVIveka: aspekty izucheniia. Po rukopisi Troitse- Sergievoi Lavry № 427 [Sticherarion of Menaia of the late 16th century: Aspects of study. MS 427 from St. Sergius Lavra], pp. 86–108. St. Petersburg (in Russian).
  4. Kazantseva T. (2009) “Stikhiry-podobny v bogosluzhebnoi praktike staroverov-strannikov sibirskogo regiona” [Stichera automela in the liturgical practice of Old Believers “Stranniki” in Siberia]. Vestnik PSTGU. Seriia V: Voprosy istorii i teorii khristianskogo iskusstva, 2 (5), pp. 76–124 (in Russian).
  5. Pavlova S. (2020) Penie na podoben v russkom pevcheskom iskusstve XI–XVIII vekov [Singing at the automelon in the Russian art of chants of the 11th — 18th centuries]. Moscow (in Russian).
  6. Vladyshevskaia T. (2006) Muzykal′naia kul′tura Drevnei Rusi [Musical culture of Old Rus′]. Moscow (in Russian).

Konoreva Svetlana


Student status: Graduate student;
Student status: Graduate student;
Place of study: St. Tikhon’s Orthodox University for the Humanities; 6/1 Likhov pereulok, Moscow 127051, Russian Federation;
Post: Senior Lecturer, Department of Choir Masters’ training;
ORCID: 0000-0003-4619-3736;
Email: svetela@inbox.ru.
Gerasimova Irina

Organisation of church singing in the Church of the Forty Martyrs of Sebaste in the Townof Pechora during the nazi occupation in 1941–1944

Gerasimova Irina (2022) "Organisation of church singing in the Church of the Forty Martyrs of Sebaste in the Townof Pechora during the nazi occupation in 1941–1944 ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia V : Voprosi istorii i teorii hristianskogo iskusstva, 2022, Iss. 46, pp. 152-170 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturV202246.152-170
The article is devoted to the problem of organizing church services in a Russian provincial church during the Nazi occupation of 1941-1944 on the example of the Church of the Forty Martyrs of Sebaste in the city of Pechora, Pskov region. Archival documents have been deposited in the church - accounting acts and books from the XVIIIth century allowed to trace its history, the organization of church life and the peculiarities of the administration of divine services. The rich library of old printed books that has been preserved allowed us to imagine in detail how the church service was organized, according to which books and notes were sung in the Pechora church in its various periods. Rich singing traditions, supported by talented regents, and a powerful large parish made it possible to preserve the male composition of the singing group, which worked through the entire occupation. Priests and regents were replaced, but the main choral group remained unchanged. The payment for the church choir has changed. Women's voices were transferred to the amateur cast, however, if possible, they were supported financially. Almost all the years of the war, worship was conducted according to the Gregorian calendar at the request of the German authorities, despite the Julian calendar adopted by the Moscow Patriarchate. At the first opportunity, the Russian parish of the Forty Martyrs switched to worship in the old style at the beginning of 1944
fascist occupation, organization of church singing, Pechora, church of the Forty Martyrs of Sebaste, choir, church parish
  1. Chelovek i transformatsiia sovremennogo obshchestva: problemy bezopasnosti, dukhovnosti i kul′tury [Man and the transformation of the present-day society: problems of security, spirituality and culture], in Sbornik materialov Mezhdunarodnogo nauchno-prakticheskogo Sviato- Tikhonovskogo foruma [Materials of St. Tikhon International Forum]. Pskov, pp. 44–50 (in Russian).
  2. Isakov D., Shor T. (eds) (2017) Khronika russkoi kul′turnoi i obshchestvennoi zhizni v Estonii (1918–1940). Iz istorii russkogo zarubezh′ia [Chronicle of the Russian cultural and social life in Estonia (1918–1940). From the history of the Russian diaspora abroad]. Tallinn, vol. 2. 1932–1940 (in Russian).
  3. Popov V. (2000) Pamiati ottsa Konstantina Shakhovskogo [In memory of Revd. Konstantin Sha khovsky], in Vestnik Russkogo khristianskogo dvizheniia, 2000, vol. 181, pp. 274–275 (in Russian). Rozhkov P., Romanova S., Sokolova L., Stolarova Zh. (eds) (2017) Istoriia Pskovskoi pravoslav noi missii v dokumentakh [History of the Orthodox mission in Pskov. Documents], in 2 vols. Kozel’sk (in Russian).
  4. Tikhon (Sekretarev) (2006) “Sviato-Uspenskii Pskovo-Pecherskii monastyr′ v gody Velikoi Otechestvennoi voiny” [The Holy Dormition Pskov-Pechersk Monastery during the Great Patriotic War]. Zhurnal Moskovskoi patriarkhii, 2006, № 5.
  5. Vasil′eva O. (2003) Svoi ili chuzhie: k voprosu o religioznoi zhizni na vremenno okkupirovannoi territorii [Us or them: the issue of religious life in the temporarily occupied territory], available at https://pravoslavie.ru/5209.html (28.04.2022).
  6. Vladimirtseva M., Gerasimova I. (2021) Istochniki po istorii religioznoi zhizni tserkovnogo prikhoda na okkupirovannoi territorii v 1941–1944 godakh: khram Soroka muchenikov Sevastiiskikh goroda Pechory [Sources on the history of the religious life of a church parish in the occupied territory in 1941–1944: the Church of the Forty Martyrs of Sebaste in the town of Pechora]. Pskov (in Russian).

Gerasimova Irina


Academic Degree: Candidate of Sciences* in History;
Academic Degree: Candidate of Sciences* in Art Criticism;
Place of work: Pskov State University; 2 Lenina Sq., 180000, Pskov, Russian Federation;
Post: Associate professor;
ORCID: 0000-0003-4740-4750;
Email: bazylek@yandex.ru.

*According to the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) 2011, the degree of Candidate of Sciences (Cand.Sc.) belongs to ISCED level 8 — "doctoral or equivalent", together with PhD, DPhil, D.Lit, D.Sc, LL.D, Doctorate or similar.

The article was written with the support of the RFFI, "the Theology in Interdisciplinary Research competition", project No. 21-011-44230 "The role of the Church in the life of the population in the occupied territory of the Pskov Region (1941-1944)".