Ivanova Julia; Sokolov Pavel

The public space of the City of the ancient regime and the birth of the school as reflected in the rationes studiorum and manuals of “civility”

Ivanova Julia, Sokolov Pavel (2021) "The public space of the City of the ancient regime and the birth of the school as reflected in the rationes studiorum and manuals of “civility” ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia IV : Pedagogika. Psihologiia, 2021, vol. 62, pp. 11-28 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturIV202162.11-28


This article deals with the forms the disciplinary practices of the early modern French city find their ways to the 17th century rationes studiorum and manuals on "civility" (civilité). The article examines the manuals created for Jesuit schools, "small schools" of Jean-Baptiste de la Sales, and Charles Démia’s schools of the Christian Brothers. So, we were primarily interested in educational institutions that accepted for teaching children of the "third estate" and declassed elements. The study of these three types of schools made it possible to identify three alternative models of prescribed school behavior both in school and outside it. In all three cases, the bodily manifestations of students, their movements in space, the mode of speaking and silence, interaction with each other, with teachers and school leaders were subjected to detailed regulation, but the meaning and the teleology of this regulation was different. In Jesuit schools, discipline was accompanied by the encouragement of students' independence and activity, which found expression in an abundance of interactive forms of education, the organization of disputes and initiative circles ("academies"). The educational activity of the Jesuit school also spread beyond the school: this school opened itself to the city in the form of public disputes (actus), school dramas and discussions about school subjects and devotional practices, which students were encouraged to lead right on the city streets. The task of the "small schools" was different: not so much to educate the apostles of enlightenment and Christian morality, but to keep the lower strata of society under control. This led to the primacy of the process over the result and the textbook over the teacher in educational practice, special attention to the learning of the rules of behavior by students (the students were obliged to learn textbooks on "civic education" by heart), significant restrictions imposed on freedom of speech in the classroom and the widespread use of non-verbal means of communication. Finally, the third model, presented by Démia's schools of the Christian Brothers, was also focused primarily on socializing students, eliminating criminality in cities and replenishing the labor force for manufactories, but these goals were achieved through various kinds of role-playing games (creating “orders of knighthood” and communities of missionaries from schoolchildren, etc.), the extension of school control to the parents of the students, and the school taking over medical care of its students (school-sponsored medical care for disadvantaged students).


petites écoles, civilité, Charles Démia, Jean-Baptiste de la Salles, ratio studiorum, urban sociology, Richard Sennett


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Information about the author

Ivanova Julia

Academic Degree: Candidate of Sciences* in Philology;
Place of work: University of Cologne; 137 Weyertal Str., Cologne 50931, Germany; Independent Moscow University; 17 Bol,shoi Levschinsky per., Moscow, 119034, Russian Federation;
Post: lecturer at the Institute of slavic studies; project manager at the “Laboratory of unnecessary things”;
ORCID: 0000-0002-6847-2595;
Email: juliaivanova@list.ru.

*According to the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) 2011, the degree of Candidate of Sciences (Cand.Sc.) belongs to ISCED level 8 — "doctoral or equivalent", together with PhD, DPhil, D.Lit, D.Sc, LL.D, Doctorate or similar.

Sokolov Pavel

Academic Degree: Candidate of Sciences* in Philosophy;
Academic Rank: Associate Professor;
Place of work: National Research University “Higher School of Economics”; 20 Myasnitskaya ul., Moscow, 101000, Russian Federation;
Post: associate professor;
ORCID: 0000-0001-5817-2671;
Email: alharizi12@gmail.com.

*According to the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) 2011, the degree of Candidate of Sciences (Cand.Sc.) belongs to ISCED level 8 — "doctoral or equivalent", together with PhD, DPhil, D.Lit, D.Sc, LL.D, Doctorate or similar.


The research was funded by RFBR according to the project № 20-013-00535 «The Image of the City in the 16th — 18th c. Didactic Literature: From Medieval Traditions to the Modern Practices».