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St. Tikhon’s University Review . Series IV: Pedagogy. Psychology

St. Tikhon’s University Review IV :55

PEDAGOGICAL SCIENCE

Skvortsov Pavel; Skvortsova Yaroslavna

The principle of objective assessment of educational achievements of students of pedagogical specialisation

Skvortsov Pavel, Skvortsova Yaroslavna (2019) "The principle of objective assessment of educational achievements of students of pedagogical specialisation ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia IV : Pedagogika. Psihologiia, 2019, Iss. 55, pp. 9-22 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturIV201955.9-22
This article deals with the issue of objectivity of evaluation of educational achievements of students of pedagogical specialisations in institutions of higher education within the framework of the implemented competence approach. It analyses the difficulties of implementing the competence approach in higher education in general and pedagogical education in particular. It studies the diff erences between the competencies of a specialist with higher education in comparison with a skilled worker and a middle-level specialist. It proposes a principle of objective evaluation of the effectiveness of the development of students’ professional educational programmes, which is based on the need, apart from the evaluation of the teacher and self-assessment of the student, of external evaluation of a third party. It puts forward conditions under which an objective assessment of success of training is possible. It substantiates the necessity of establishing a range of assessment tools for a specifi c subject. It off ers a typology of evaluation tools that allows one to objectively evaluate educational achievements of students. It highlights the features of control and evaluation tools that diagnose the level of knowledge and formation of students’ skills. It describes the qualitative features of control and measuring materials and competence-oriented tasks used in the evaluation of educational achievements of the student. It points to the possibilities of use of control and measuring materials and competence-oriented tasks according to their estimated opportunities. The authors substantiate the allocation of the basic level of educational achievements of the student as a reference point for diff erentiated and undiff erentiated forms of assessment.
principle of objective pedagogical assessment, sources of objective assessment of educational achievements, range of evaluation tools, control and evaluation tools, control and measuring materials, competence-oriented tasks, basic level of educational achievements
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  2. Federal'nyi gosudarstvennyi standart vysshego obrazovaniya. Uroven' vysshego obrazovaniia: Bakalavriat. Napravlenie podgotovki 44.03.03 Special'noe (defektologicheskoe) obrazovanie, available at: http://fgosvo.ru/news/9/1426 (08.10.2019).
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  18. Skvortsov P. (2016) “Monitoring uchebnykh dostizhenii uchashchikhsia 5 klassov po geografi i v sootvetstvii s trebovaniyami FGOS OOO” [Monitoring Educational Achievements of Students in Grades 5 in Geography in Accordance with the Requirements of the Federal State Educational Standard]. Geografiia v shkole, 2, pp. 47–52 (in Russian).
  19. Skvortsova Ya. (2014) “Vyiavlenie urovnia gotovnosti pervokursnikov k obucheniiu v meditsinskom kolledzhe” [Identification of the Level of Readiness of First-Year Students to Study at a Medical College]. Srednee professional'noe obrazovanie, 6, pp. 30–33 (in Russian).
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Skvortsov Pavel


Academic Degree: Candidate of Sciences* in Education;
Academic Rank: Associate Professor;
Place of work: St. Tikhon’s Orthodox University for Humanities; 23B Novokuznetskaya Str., Moscow 115184, Russian Federation;
Post: Associate Professor, Department of Pedagogy and Methods of Primary Education;
ORCID: 0000-0001-8233-6162;
Email: sturnus-68@mail.ru.

*According to the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) 2011, the degree of Candidate of Sciences (Cand.Sc.) belongs to ISCED level 8 — "doctoral or equivalent", together with PhD, DPhil, D.Lit, D.Sc, LL.D, Doctorate or similar.


Skvortsova Yaroslavna


Academic Degree: Candidate of Sciences* in Education;
Place of work: First Moscow State Medical University; 8/2 Trubetskaya Str., Moscow 119991, Russian Federation;
Post: Department of Nursing Management and Social Work;
ORCID: 0000-0003-0634-9871;
Email: skv-yaroslavna@yandex.ru.

*According to the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) 2011, the degree of Candidate of Sciences (Cand.Sc.) belongs to ISCED level 8 — "doctoral or equivalent", together with PhD, DPhil, D.Lit, D.Sc, LL.D, Doctorate or similar.

Feliksov Sergej

Essay as a competition task of the All-Russian contest foundations of orthodox culture for school students: regulatory requirements and a study guide for writing and evaluation

Feliksov Sergej (2019) "Essay as a competition task of the All-Russian contest foundations of orthodox culture for school students: regulatory requirements and a study guide for writing and evaluation ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia IV : Pedagogika. Psihologiia, 2019, Iss. 55, pp. 23-43 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturIV201955.23-43
This article presents the system of regulatory requirements and a study guide on writing and evaluation of the essay as a competitive task of the All-Russian Contest of School Students Foundations of the Orthodox Culture. It also substantiates the introduction of the term “theological and linguistic competence” in scientifi c and pedagogical circulation. It highlights that the contest essay is a complex creative task connected with the participant’s creation of an original text based on the model of a proposed theological topic. Following the defi nition given, the article extablishes the compositional parts of the contest essay, i.e. 1) introduction, 2) the main part (it includes the formulation of the problem and a commentary on it, explains the stance of the author, expresses the writer’s own opinion and its justifi cation), 3) conclusion. The article states that the contest essay should identify in the participants the complex of universal study activities that they should command (person-related, regulatory, cognition-related, communicative) in the framework of forming the theological and linguistic competence. The regulatory requirements for writing the contest essay have allowed the author of the article to identify and substantiate the system of assessment criteria that takes into account 1) the content, 2) speech coherence, 3) orthography and grammar. In its conclusion, the article argues that this system of assessment criteria is generally capable of producing an objective picture of results of creative work of the participants of the contest related to writing the essay.
All-Russian Contest of School Students, Foundations of Orthodox Culture, Orthodox Pedagogy, theolingustics, theology, theolinguistic competence, religious style, religious discourse, essay, task with detailed answer, assessment criteria
  1. Aleksandrov V., Aleksandrova O., Zvereva Е. et al. (2019) Russkij iazyk. Metodicheskie rekomendatsii po otsenivaniiu vypolneniia zadanii OGE s razvernutym otvetom [Russian Language. Methodological Recommendations on Performance Assessment of OGE Tasks with a Detailed Answer]. Moscow (in Russian).
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  9. Mishlanov V., Khudiakova Е. (2008) “O zhanrovoi spetsifi ke tekstov tserkovno-religioznogo stilia” [“Genre Specifi cs of Texts of Church and Religious Style”]. Filologicheskie zametki, 2, p. 28 (In Russian).
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  11. Ozerov Yu. (1990) Razdum'ia nad sochineniem [Thoughts about a School Essay]. Moscow (in Russian).
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  13. Postovalova V. (2012) “Teolingvistika v sovremennom religioznom diskurse” [“Theolinguistics in the Modern Religious Discourse”]. Nauchno-pedagogicheskii zhurnal Vostochnoi Sibiri Magister Dixit, 4. pp. 56–103 (In Russian).
  14. Redaktsionno-izdatel'skoe oformlenie tserkovnykh pechatnykh izdanij : spravochnik avtora i izdatelia (2015) [Editing Church-Related Periodicals: Reference Book of the Author and Editor]. Moscow (in Russian).
  15. Tashlykov S. (2001) Sochinenie: sekrety zhanra [School Essay: Secrets of the Genre]. Irkutsk (in Russian).
  16. Tsybul'ko I., Aleksandrov V., Arutiunova V. et al. (2019) Russkii iazyk. Metodicheskie rekomendatsii po otsenivaniiu vypolneniia zadanii s razvernutym otvetom [Methodological Recommendations on Performance Assessment of Tasks with a Detailed Answer]. Moscow (in Russian).
  17. Valgina N. (2003) Teoriia teksta [Theory of the Text]. Moscow (in Russian).

Feliksov Sergej


Academic Degree: Candidate of Sciences* in Philology;
Place of work: St. Tikhon’s Orthodox University for the Humanities; 9/2, Ilovaiskaya str., 109651, Moscow, Russian Federation;
Post: Associate Professor;
ORCID: 0000-0002-5928-3311;
Email: svfeliksov@gmail.com.

*According to the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) 2011, the degree of Candidate of Sciences (Cand.Sc.) belongs to ISCED level 8 — "doctoral or equivalent", together with PhD, DPhil, D.Lit, D.Sc, LL.D, Doctorate or similar.

Kosolapova Tatiana

Sunday school of the 21st century: challenges and opportunities

Kosolapova Tatiana (2019) "Sunday school of the 21st century: challenges and opportunities ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia IV : Pedagogika. Psihologiia, 2019, Iss. 55, pp. 44-56 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturIV201955.44-56
This article discusses the main trends in the development of modern Sunday schools, analyses changes in the church regulatory framework for the activities of parochial Sunday schools over the past twenty years and explores the main problems of their activities. In order to expand cooperation and disseminate the experience of successful functioning of the parish Sunday schools, it is proposed to consider the organisation of activities in the Sunday school which is a structural unit of the Orthodox parish of the Church of the Holy Prince Alexander Nevsky of Irkutsk. In this school, beside teaching religion, much attention is paid to the participation of students in liturgical life of the parish and to practical exercises. But the main feature of this Sunday school is being at church and at school of all family members of students as well as their participation in all spheres of the life of the parish. For the implementation of such cooperation, an educational system for the family has been developed. This system includes a whole range of various forms, methods and activities held in the Sunday school and is aimed at organising the interaction of parents, children and teachers (among which are clerics) and active cooperation in the upbringing of the younger generation. As an example of the implementation of spiritual and moral education, a description of several family activities is given. Such interaction of children, parents, teachers and clergymen contributes to a closer acquaintance between families, the formation of a friendly and cohesive parish community and the organic combination of spiritual knowledge and spiritual practice with modern life.
Sunday school, spiritual and moral education, religion training, becoming a regular church goer, Synodal Department of Religious Education and Catechism, Regulation of the Activities of Sunday Schools (for children) of the Russian Orthodox Church in the Russian Federation, Standard of Teaching and Educational Activities Implemented in Sunday Schools (for Children) of the Russian Orthodox Church on the Territory of the Russian Federation, church regulatory framework, integrated training courses, control of fi nal knowledge, dogma basics, family events
  1. Ageeva A. (2010) “Tserkovno-prikhodskiye voskresnyie shkoly: istoriia vozniknoveniia i tendentsii razvitiia (prodolzheniie)” [“Parish Sunday Schools: the History and Tendencies of Development (Continued)”]. Vestnik PSTGU. Ser. IV: Pedagogika. Psikhologiia, 4 (19), pp. 43–55 (in Russian).
  2. Doklad Sviateishego Patriarkha Kirilla na Arkhiiereiskom Sobore 2017 g., available at: http://www.patriarchia.ru/db/text/5072836.html (04.10.2019).
  3. Gennadii (Voitishko), hieromonk (2018) “Sozdaniie blagopriiatnoi dlia detei sredy kliuchevoi zadachi prikhodskogo popecheniya. O smene paradigmy v otnoshenii prikhodskoi raboty s det'mi” [“Creating a Child-Friendly Environment is the Key Task of Parish Care. On the Paradigm Shift in Relation to Parish Work with Children”]. Prikhod. Pravoslavnyi ekonomicheskii vestnik, 5 (143), 2018, pp. 4–12 (in Russian).
  4. Kosolapova T. (2016) “Organizatsiia sovmestnykh semeinykh meropriiatii v voskresnoi shkole, kak sposob formirovaniia iedinoi vospitatel'noi sredy” [“Оrganisation of Joint Family Events in Sunday School as a Way to Form a Unified Educational Environment”], in Pedagogika i psikhologiia: ot voprosov k resheniiam. Sbornik nauchnykh trudov po itogam mezhdunarodnoi nauchno-prakticheskoi konferentsii. Federal'nyi tsentr nauki i obrazovaniia Evensis [Pedagogy and Psychology: from Questions to Solutions. Collection of Scientific Papers. Federal Centre for Science and Education Evensis]. Tomsk, vol. 1, pp. 59–64 (in Russian).
  5. Mumrikov O. (2010) “Dukhovno-prosvetitel'skiie tsentry: aktual'nost' i perspektivy” [“Spiritual Education Centres: Relevance and Perspectives”], Vestnik PSTGU. Ser. IV: Pedagogika. Psikhologiia, 3 (18), pp. 13–20 (in Russian).
  6. Mumrikov O. (2015) “Liturgiia dlia detei v sovremennoi prikhodskoi praktike Russkoi Pravoslavnoi Tserkvi” [“Liturgy for Children in the Modern Parish Practice of the Russian Orthodox Church”]. Vestnik PSTGU. Ser. IV: Pedagogika. Psikhologiia, 2 (37), pp. 24–29 (in Russian).
  7. Organizatsiia religioznogo obrazovaniia i katekhizatsii v ieparkhii. Pravovaia reglamentatsiia religiozno-obrazovatel'noi deyatel'nosti, available at: https://pravobraz.ru/organizaciyareligioznogo-obrazovaniya-i-katexizacii-v-eparxii-pravovaya-reglamentaciya-religioznoobrazovatelnoj-deyatelnosti/ (04.10.2019).
  8. Polozheniie o deiatel'nosti voskresnykh shkol dlia detei Russkoi Pravoslavnoi Tserkvi na territorii Rossiiskoi Federatsii, available at: https://pravobraz.ru/polozhenie-o-deyatelnostivoskresnyx-shkol-dlya-detej-russkoj-pravoslavnoj-cerkvi-na-territorii-rossij skoj-federacii-2/ (04.10.2019).
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  10. Standart uchebno-vospitatel'noi deiatel'nosti v voskresnykh shkolakh (dlia detei) Russkoi Pravoslavnoi Tserkvi na territorii Rossiiskoi Federatsii, available at: https://pravobraz.ru/standart-uchebnovospitatelnoj-deyatelnosti-v-voskresnyx-shkolax-dlya-detej-russkoj-pravoslavnoj-cerkvi-naterritorii-rossijskoj-federacii/ (04.10.2019).

Kosolapova Tatiana


Academic Degree: Candidate of Sciences* in Education;
Academic Degree: Candidate of Sciences* in Education;
Place of work: Church of St. Prince Alexander Nevsky in Irkutsk; 3 Yakobi Str., Irkutsk 664056, Russian Federation;
Post: Director of Sunday School;
ORCID: 0000-0002-4492-2758;
Email: kcenianev@mail.ru.

*According to the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) 2011, the degree of Candidate of Sciences (Cand.Sc.) belongs to ISCED level 8 — "doctoral or equivalent", together with PhD, DPhil, D.Lit, D.Sc, LL.D, Doctorate or similar.

Stanovskaya Tatiana

Methodological aspects of teaching catechism in orthodox schools of Russia: the experience of the past and the present day

Stanovskaya Tatiana (2019) "Methodological aspects of teaching catechism in orthodox schools of Russia: the experience of the past and the present day ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia IV : Pedagogika. Psihologiia, 2019, Iss. 55, pp. 57-71 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturIV201955.57-71
Since the end of the 1980s, confessional schools (parish and Sunday schools, Orthodox gymnasiums) begin to resume at Orthodox churches in which the teaching of religion was gradually returned, but the relevant method has not been properly developed. To solve this problem, the author considers it important to address the history of the issue. For several years, the sphere of her scientifi c interests has been the study of the methodical heritage of the teachers of the Russian school. The present article addresses the issue of methodological aspects of teaching catechism as an important part of the course “Fundamentals of the Orthodox Faith” (Religious Education), focusing mainly on the experience of pre-revolutionary teachers of religious education and correlating it with the problems of modern school. In order to make the reader familiar with the stages in developing the content of Catechism, the article uses a constructive genetic method (studying the issue in time and space, identifying the stages in their genesis); sourcecritical analysis of educationalists’ works, legislation statutes, historical and comparative method; synthesis and interpretation of the information obtained. On the basis of study of documentary normative sources and works of teachers of religious education, the article presents a brief historical background as to the emergence and development of the Catechism as a special kind of religious literature containing the guidance and basic provisions of the Christian faith. The article also deals with methodological aspects of teaching Catechism, available in the works of teachers of religious education in the second half of the 19th — early 20th centuries, i.e. the time when the method of teaching religious subjects was in the period of its formation and development. The following topics are also dealt with: explanation of educational material (knowledge component), teaching method (catechetical conversation), moral application (connection with the life of the student), consolidation of the studied material (method of memorisation by heart), etc. The article is concluded with the author’s refl ections on the state of the method of teaching catechism as part of the subject “Fundamentals of the Orthodox Faith” in modern Orthodox schools in Russia and the prospects for the development of teaching methods in this sphere.
catechism, religious education, Sacred History, methods of teaching, Orthodox doctrine, Fundamentals of Orthodox Faith, teacher of religious education, explanation of material, method of memorisation, moral application, Orthodox school
  1. Bogdanova A. (2014). Metodika prepodavaniia Zakona Bozhiia: v pomoshch' uchiteliu tserkovnoi shkoly [Methods of Religious Education: Helping the Teacher of the Church School]. Ekaterinburg (in Russian).
  2. Bychkova V. (2009) “Nekotorye momenty iz istorii prepodavaniia Zakona Bozhiia v Rossii” [Some Moments from the History of Religious Education in Russia]. Vestnik PSTGU, 2009, 1 (12). pp. 7–20. (in Russian).
  3. Divnogortseva S. (2015) “Metodika prepodavaniia pravoslavnoi kul'tury kak novaia oblast' didakticheskoi nauki” [“Methods of Teaching Orthodox Culture as a New Area of Didactic Science”]. Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo Gumanitarnogo Universiteta. Seriia IV: Pedagogika. Psikhologiia, 2 (37), pp. 89–97 (in Russian).
  4. Proekt Katekhizisa Russkoi Pravoslavnoi Tserkvi [Catechism Project of the Russian Orthodox Church], available at: http://theolcom.ru/images/2017/КатехизисСББК_Проект.pdf (24.09.2019)
  5. Sinelnikov S. P. Prepodavanie Zakona Bozhiia v uchebnyh zavedeniiakh Rossii do 1917 g., available at: http://archive.bogoslov.ru/text/print/453126.html

Stanovskaya Tatiana


Place of work: St. Tikhon’s Orthodox University for the Humanities; 6/1 Likhov pereulok, Moscow, 127051, Russian Federation;
Post: Lecturer;
ORCID: 0000-0001-9667-6125;
Email: taaldu@gmail.com.
Hezser Catherine

Education in Roman Palestine. Part 4. Higher education among jews in Palestine

Hezser Catherine (2019) "Education in Roman Palestine. Part 4. Higher education among jews in Palestine ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia IV : Pedagogika. Psihologiia, 2019, Iss. 55, pp. 72-93 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturIV201955.72-93
Dealing with the higher education among Palestinian Jews, Catherine Hezser notes that its spread must have been even more limited. Only a small percentage of those who completed primary education continued their studies. One of the most serious restrictions was the economic aspect. The study was apparently oral. Only those rabbinical students and rabbis who had received training from scribes or were taught writing by their parents or private teachers were able to write properly. In contrast to primary education, rabbinic learning does not seem to have been focused on reading Torah. It rather consisted of the students’ repeating aloud and memorising of doctrines and opinions expressed by their teachers. Hezser emphasises that the preference for the oral over the written was also noticeable within Greco-Roman educational tradition. She also draws a parallel between institutions such as the Jewish “study house” and Greco-Roman scholasteria. Not all Jews who wanted to pursue a higher education would study with rabbis or visited study houses. Some Jews who had been educated in the Greek or Latin languages by private tutors were likely to proceed to higher studies with grammatici, rhetors, and philosophers. The rabbinic concern with “Greek wisdom” suggests that obtaining a higher Greek education was meaningful, at least among certain circles of the Jewish population of Palestine.
Roman Palestine, Jews, higher education, study house, rabbinic texts
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Hezser Catherine


Place of work: SOAS University of London;
Post: Professor;
Revyakina Nina

Humanism and urban schools in Italy of the 15th century

Revyakina Nina (2019) "Humanism and urban schools in Italy of the 15th century ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia IV : Pedagogika. Psihologiia, 2019, Iss. 55, pp. 94-109 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturIV201955.94-109
This article studies the state of the Italian urban school of the 15th century, i.e. the wide spread of education in cities of Italy, attitude of parents and urban authorities to school and education, the state of the teachers, the pay for their work, help from the city, preservation of the mediaeval educational curricilum and methods of upbringing. The article identifies the beginning of a gradual transformation of the mediaeval school, the penetration of the humanists’ ideas through teachers of grammar and public lecturers (among the latter are Giovanni Andrea Bussi, Ognibene da Lonigo, the disciples of the prominent educationalist and humanist Vittorino da Feltre), renewal of the school curriculum by means of including classical authors, poetry, art of public speaking. The article shows the appearance of teachers of the “new type” at school (Giovanni Aurispa and others), the humanists’ discussion in their texts about the school (Giovanni Conversini da Ravenna, Maff eo Vegio) of new principles and methods of education and moral upbringing. The article also highlights the degree of the infl uence of humanism on the Italian urban school.
school, student, teacher, mediaeval school curricilum, humanism, education, upbringing, attitude of parents to student’s education, educational politics of urban authorities, humanists’ infl uence at school
  1. “«Fanciulli a scuola» nel 1480”, in A. Verde. Lo studio Fiorentino. 1473–1503. Ricerche e Documenti. Volume terzо. Pistoia, 1977, pp. 1003–1202.
  2. Black R. (1991) “Italian Renaissance Education. Changing Perspectives and Continuing Controversies”. Journal of the History of Ideas, 52, 2, pp. 315–337.
  3. Frova C. (1974) Istruzione e educazione nel Medioevo. Torino.
  4. Frova C. (1981) “La scuola nella cittả tardomedievale: un impegno pedagogico e organizzativo”, in R. Elze, G. Fasoli (eds) Le cittả in Italia e in Germania. Bologna, pp. 127–128.
  5. Giovanni Conversini da Ravenna (1986) Rationarium vite. Introduzione, edizione, note a cura di Vittore Nason. Firenze.
  6. Grafton A., Jardine L. (1986) From Humanism to the Humanities. Education and the Liberal Arts in Fifteenth- and Sixteenth-Century Europe. London.
  7. Grendler P. (1989) Schooling in Renaissance Italy: Literacy and Learning 1300–1600. Baltimore; London.
  8. Gumanisty epokhi Vozrozhdeniia o formirovanii lichnosti (XIV–XVI vv.) [Humanists of Renaissance on the Formation of Personality (14th — 16th Centuries)]. Moscow; St Petersburg, 2015 (in Russian).
  9. Petti Balbi G. (1979) L’insegnamento nella Liguria medievale. Scuole, magistri, libri. Genova.
  10. Renzi P. (1991) “Umanesimo e scienza in due recenti interpretazioni”. Nuova Rivista storica, anno 75, fasc. 3, pp. 671–694.
  11. Revyakina N. (2015) Gumanisticheskoe vospitanie v Italii XIV–XV vekov [Humanistic Education in Italy of the 14th — 15th Centuries]. Moscow; Berlin (in Russian).
  12. Villani D. (1997) Novaia khronika, ili istorika Florentsii [New Chronicle, or the History of Florence]. Moscow (Russian translation).

Revyakina Nina


Academic Degree: Doctor of Sciences* in History;
Academic Rank: Professor;
Place of work: Ivanovo State University; 39 Ermaka Str., Ivanovo 153377, Russian Federation;
Post: Research and Educational Centre for Integration of Research and Education;
ORCID: 0000-0002-8263-3711;
Email: rev85@mail.ru.

*According to ISCED 2011, a post-doctoral degree called Doctor of Sciences (D.Sc.) is given to reflect second advanced research qualifications or higher doctorates.

Bezrogov Vitaly; Tendryakova Maria

City and Korff: figura urbis novae in textbooks for the rural school

Bezrogov Vitaly, Tendryakova Maria (2019) "City and Korff: figura urbis novae in textbooks for the rural school ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia IV : Pedagogika. Psihologiia, 2019, Iss. 55, pp. 110-127 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturIV201955.110-127
This article continues the publication on the image of the city in N. A. Korff ’s textbook Nash drug: kniga dlya chteniya v shkole i doma (‘Our friend: a book for reading at school and at home’). This manual was fi rst published in 1871, and in 1881 it was signifi cantly amended. The preceding article studies the concept of “the city” in the fi rst eight editions, this article deals with its change that was made in the 9th edition and was registered up to the last, the 19th edition, in 1908. The single textbook was divided into two parts. One retained the former title. The other came to be “Guidelines” to it. In the “Guidelines to «Our Friend»”, Korff added nine special chapters on various Russian cities, from Novgorod, where Russian history started, to Tifl is, where it developed towards the territorial expance. The country where the cities proper were only St Petersburg and Moscow is changed in the new edition into a country where the brilliance of the capitals is secularised. The textbook also expounds on other urban centres. The capital city ceases to be the principal, the singular, the one that determines the being. Its status is already determined not only by the monarch, but by history, trade, education, and gradually by manufacturing. The rejection of cities of the rural Russia, as it existed in the fi rst edition of the textbook, still remains, but the positive role of urbanisation has already been acknowledged. The article shows how N. A. Korff ’s Russian reading textbook was aimed at overcoming the typical (of textbooks of its epoch) idealisation of abstract rural life in order to become for students of rural school the real “friend of ours” in enhancing the village, in establishing its dialogue with the city. The article analyses textual additions and the visual range that has fi rst appeared in this textbook. Before the 9th edition, there were no pictures in Our Friend. The pictures are now placed both in the the fi rst, the main, part of the manual, and in the supplementary. The urban scenes included in the visual range demonstrate the transitional stage in understanding the city from the traditional pre-industrial to the one being modernised. The new understanding of the concept of “the city”, notwithstanding all its controversial character, had conditioned the dawning of the instrumental attitude to the urban phenomenon. Korff ’s new manual nourished the generation from which the “social engineers” of the 1910s and 1920s came, who transformed the actual life of Russian cities.
Nikolai Korff (1834–1883), elementary school textbook, rural education, educational concept, city image, second half of 19th century
  1. Ahier J. (1988) Industry, Children and the Nation. An analysis of national identity in school textbooks. London.
  2. Bezrogov V., Tendryakova M. (2017) “Chto nemtsu dialog, to russkomu uchitel': ot «Estestvennoi istorii» G. K. Raffa k «Detskomu miru» K. D. Ushinskogo” [“What is Dialogue to the German is Teacher to the Russian”: from “Natural History” by G. K. Raff to “Children’s World” by K. D. Ushinsky]. Psikhologo-pedagogicheskii poisk, 3 (43), pp. 58–70 (in Russian).
  3. Bezrogov V., Tendryakova M. (2017) “Chto nemtsu radost' nauki, to russkomu zabota bytiia: ot «Estestvennoi istorii» G. K. Raff a k «Detskomu miru» K. D. Ushinskogo” [What is Joy of Science to the German is Concern for the Being to the Russian: from “Natural History” by G. K. Raff to “Children’s World” by K. D. Ushinsky]. Psikhologo-pedagogicheskii poisk, 4 (44), pp. 22–32 (in Russian).
  4. Bezrogov V., Zaretskiy Iu., Kosheleva O. (eds) (2019) Detstvo v evropeiskikh avtobiografi iakh: ot Antichnosti do Novogo vremeni. Antologiia [Childhood in European Autobiographies: from Antiquity to Modern times. Anthology]. St Petersburg (in Russian).
  5. Desiaterik V. (2006) Pavlenkov. Moscow (in Russian).
  6. Elson R. (1964) Guardians of Tradition. American Schoolbooks of the Ninteenth Century. Lincoln.
  7. Nordeborg M. (2007) The “Good Child” and Nation-Building in Japan — The First Japanese Primary School Reader. Göteborg.
  8. Pantle U. (2009) “Bei uns in der Stadt. Kindliche Lebenswirklichkeiten und fi ktive Stadträume in deutschsprachigen Fibeln”, in A. Sowa, S. Schindler (hrsgg.). Candide. Journal for Architectural Knowledge, 1, pp. 69–96.
  9. Romashina E., Teterin I. (2018) “«Ucheniki k kartine tak vse i tianutsia»: rukovodstvo k nagliadnomu obucheniiu gramote N. A. Korfa” [“«All pupils are being drawn to the picture»: Nikolai Korff 's Guide to Visually-Aided Teaching of Literacy”]. Vestnik PSTGU, ser. 4, 51, pp. 73–81 (in Russian).
  10. Tendryakova M., Bezrogov V. (2019) “Korf i gorod: fi gura urbis capitis v uchebnyh knigah dlya zemskoj shkoly” [Korff and the City: fi gura urbis capitis in Elementary Textbooks for Rural School of the 2nd Half of the 19th Century]. Vestnik PSTGU, ser. 4, 54, pp. 84–105 (in Russian).

Bezrogov Vitaly


Academic Degree: Doctor of Sciences* in Education;
Academic Degree: Candidate of Sciences* in History;
Place of work: Institute for Strategy and Theory of Education of the Russian Academy of Education; 5/16 Makarenko Str., Moscow 105062, Russian Federation;
Post: Senior Research Fellow;
ORCID: 0000-0001-6389-4783;
Email: bezrogov@mail.ru.

*According to the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) 2011, the degree of Candidate of Sciences (Cand.Sc.) belongs to ISCED level 8 — "doctoral or equivalent", together with PhD, DPhil, D.Lit, D.Sc, LL.D, Doctorate or similar.


Tendryakova Maria


Academic Degree: Candidate of Sciences* in History;
Place of work: Institute of Ethnology and Anthropology of the Russian Academy of Sciences; 32a Leninskii Prospekt, Moscow 119991, Russian Federation;
Post: Senior Research Fellow;
ORCID: 0000-0001-6206-8439;
Email: mashatendryak@gmail.com.

*According to the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) 2011, the degree of Candidate of Sciences (Cand.Sc.) belongs to ISCED level 8 — "doctoral or equivalent", together with PhD, DPhil, D.Lit, D.Sc, LL.D, Doctorate or similar.

The study was supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research, grants 17-06-00066\ОГН и 17-06-00288\ОГН.
Belentsov Sergei

Berthold Otto and his school of free education

Belentsov Sergei (2019) "Berthold Otto and his school of free education ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia IV : Pedagogika. Psihologiia, 2019, Iss. 55, pp. 128-135 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturIV201955.128-135
This article analyses the socio-pedagogical system proposed by the prominent German educationalist of the second half of the 19th — early 20th centuries Berthold Otto, the proponent of free education of the younger generation. The leading approaches to the study of this problem are historical, cultural, systemic, which allowed the author to establish the essential characteristics, the features of the process of free education in Germany of the period in question. The theory of free education is studied as an objective historical and cultural component of the humanistic tradition of foreign education, as well as a subjective component of its content. The analysis of B. Otto’s works allows us to draw a conclusion as to the nature and content of his pedagogical system. It is made up of the disclosure of the foundations of education of the younger generation, didactic theory, training of teaching staff . The humanistic system of free education of B. Otto is a rather contradictory phenomenon. This being said, this historical and cultural phenomenon of philosophy of education is an important element in the system of general pedagogy, which has developed and is still developing in the context of philosophical views and psychological and pedagogical theories of the 20th century; it has its own conceptual features. The materials of the article can be useful for teachers, organisers of educational work with students to make them familiar with the life and work of the famous German educationalist and public fi gure B. Otto.
Germany, Berthold Otto, school, free education, education of younger generation, didactic theory, training of teachers
  1. Helmut A. (1925) Aus dem Leben der Berthold-Otto-Schule. Berlin.
  2. Kagarov E. (1928) Sovremennoe pedagogicheskoe dvizhenie v Zapadnoi Evrope i Amerike [Contemporary Pedagogical Movement in Western Europe and America]. Moscow (in Russian).
  3. Ketelhut K. (2015) Berthold Otto als pädagogischer Unternehmer. Eine Fallstudie zur deutschen Reformpädagogik. Köln.
  4. Weiß E. (1999) “Otto, Berthold”, in Neue Deutsche Biographie. Berlin.

Belentsov Sergei


Academic Degree: Doctor of Sciences* in Education;
Academic Rank: Professor;
Place of work: Kursk State University; 28–28, Maiskii Boulevard, Kursk 305038, Russian Federation;
Post: Professor, Department of Continuos Professional Education;
ORCID: 0000-0003-4844-5343;
Email: si_bel@mail.ru.

*According to ISCED 2011, a post-doctoral degree called Doctor of Sciences (D.Sc.) is given to reflect second advanced research qualifications or higher doctorates.

The work was prepared with the support of the Russian Foundation for basic research (project № 17-06-00013).

CHRONICLE

In memory of Vitaly Grigoryevich Bezrogov

Poliakova Mariia (2019) "In memory of Vitaly Grigoryevich Bezrogov ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia IV : Pedagogika. Psihologiia, 2019, Iss. 55, pp. 139-146 (in Russian).

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Poliakova Mariia


Academic Degree: Candidate of Sciences* in Education;
Place of work: «Russian New Universitу»;
Post: Калуга 248002, ул. Ст. Разина: д. 89, кв. 62;
ORCID: 0000-0003-3580-9718;
Email: mariap71@rambler.ru.

*According to the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) 2011, the degree of Candidate of Sciences (Cand.Sc.) belongs to ISCED level 8 — "doctoral or equivalent", together with PhD, DPhil, D.Lit, D.Sc, LL.D, Doctorate or similar.