Salnikova Alla; Galiullina Dilyara

Abc-books for baptised tatars of the second half of the 19th — first decades of the 20th centuries

Salnikova Alla, Galiullina Dilyara (2019) "Abc-books for baptised tatars of the second half of the 19th — first decades of the 20th centuries ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia IV : Pedagogika. Psihologiia, 2019, vol. 53, pp. 90-101 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturIV201953.90-101


This article deals with the history of the Baptised-Tatar ABC-book (Russ. букварь) which was designed for a specifi c ethno-confessional group, namely Volgaand Ural-region Tatars, i.e. baptised Orthodox Tatars (Kryashens). This ethnoconfessional group had been forming mainly during the second half of the 16th — fi rst half of the 18th centuries, after the conquest of the Khanate of Kazan in 1552 and its inclusion in the Russian state. The article gives a detailed description of the fi rst ABC-book for the baptised Tatars: Букварь, краткая священная история, сокращенный катехизис и молитвы (Russ. “ABC-book, concise Holy History, abridged catechism, and prayers”), prepared and published in 1862 by the prominent Russian orientalist, educationalist and missionary N.M. Il’minskiy. Attention is paid to its novel character as an ABC-book in the Tatar language designed in Cyrillic script. The article studies the history of preparation of the ABC-book, the problem of authorship, the problem of adapting the Russian alphabet to Tatar phonetic features. The ABC-book was republished many times up to 1917 and was the only ABC-book for baptised Tatars during all this period. The article also identifi es the role and place of this ABC-book in the integrated system of Christian enlightenment of non-Russian ethnic groups of Russia developed by N.I. Il’minskiy, as well as in the formation of Orthodox religious consciousness among baptised Tatars. Special attention is paid to the fi rst Sovied Baptised- Tatar ABC-books published in the second half of the 1920s in Arabic and then in Latin scripts as a specifi c cultural and historical phenomenon refl ecting the national and educational strategy of Soviet authorities prior to transition to the unifi ed system of school education in the USSR, both as a medium of integrating a child not only into the new Soviet reality, but also into the new Tatar educational and ethno-cultural space which took into account the cultural specifi city of each ethno-cultural group, reaching as far as separate education. Overall, the ABC-book is discussed in the context of the authoritative “imperial” educationl perspective and the adjustment of the Imperial and Soviet educational policy to specifi c conditions of multi-ethnic and multi-confessional environment.


ABC-books, baptised Tatars (Kryashens), Volga-Ural Tatars, state educational policy, multi-ethnic space, multi-confessional space, educational system of N. I. Il’minsky, Soviet “graphic revolutions”, Russian Empire and USSR, second half of 19th century — 1920s


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Information about the author

Salnikova Alla

Academic Degree: Doctor of Sciences* in History;
Academic Rank: Professor;
Place of work: Kazan (Volga) Federal University; 18 Kremlevskaia Str., Kazan. 420008, Russian Federation;
Post: Professor;
ORCID: 0000-0002-5498-1401;
Email: Alla.Salnikova@kpfu.ru.

*According to ISCED 2011, a post-doctoral degree called Doctor of Sciences (D.Sc.) is given to reflect second advanced research qualifications or higher doctorates.

Galiullina Dilyara

Academic Degree: Candidate of Sciences* in History;
Academic Rank: Associate Professor;
ORCID: 0000-0003-4932-2951;
Email: galiullinadm@mail.ru.

*According to the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) 2011, the degree of Candidate of Sciences (Cand.Sc.) belongs to ISCED level 8 — "doctoral or equivalent", together with PhD, DPhil, D.Lit, D.Sc, LL.D, Doctorate or similar.