/

Dvoinin Alexey

Psychology of religion in Post-soviet Russia (1990s)


Dvoinin Alexey (2018) "Psychology of religion in Post-soviet Russia (1990s) ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia IV : Pedagogika. Psihologiia, 2018, vol. 51, pp. 114-134 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturIV201851.114-134

Abstract

This article analyses social and historical conditions of disappearance of the Soviet psychology of religion and the emergence of psychology of religion of a new type in the 1990s. Soviet psychology of religion was more affi liated not the offi cial psychology but with the Soviet variety of religious studies, i.e. history and theory of atheism and religion. Its disappearance was due to social and political changes in Russian in the early 1990s. The dialogue between psychologists and religious fugures that began in the 1990s for the most part led to the development of a project alternative as to psychology of religion, namely Christian psychology. This has created diffi culty in diff erentiating between these two branches and led to the formation in the Russian academia of false ideas about the subject, methods and topics of psychology of religion. THe author of the article identifi es reasons for the absence of academic psychological studies of religion in Russia in 1990s. These were the focus on other scientifi c tasks; social and economic troubles of science and little fi nancial attractiveness of this fi eld; attitude to religion as a spiritual source for many scholars rather than an object of research. Main publications on this areas during the period in question are listed; fi rst university courses are mentioned as well. The birth of the new, post-Soviet psychology of religion in Russia in the 1990s was mostly due not to the social demand from Russian society that was experiencing a signifi cant rise in religiosity but to the personal interest of researches in psychological problems of religion as well as the cognitive “freshness” of this area of knowledge which was little studied at that time.

Keywords

psychology of religion, Christian psychology, Soviet psychology, history of psychology, religious studies, religion, ‘scientific atheism’, scientific research, scientific institutions, post-Soviet Russia

References

  1. Belorusov S. (1997) “S tochki zreniia pravoslavnogo psikhoterapevta” [“From the Orthodox Psychotherapist’s Point of View”]. Alfa i Omega, 1997, vol. 4, no. 11, pp. 296–309 (in Russian).
  2. Bratus B. (1995) “Rossiiskaia psikhologiia na pereput’e” [“Russian Psychology at the Crossroads”], in B. Bratus, S. Vorobiev (eds.) Nachala khristianskoi psikhologii [Elements of Christian Psychology]. Moscow, pp. 57–80 (in Russian).
  3. Bratus B. (1997) “K probleme cheloveka v psikhologii” [“On the Problem of Man in Psychology”]. Voprosy psikhologii, 1997, vol. 5, pp. 3–19 (in Russian).
  4. Bratus B. (2015) “Khristianskaia psikhologiia kak nauchnoe napravlenie: k istorii voprosa” [“Christian Psychology as a Scientifi c Area: On the History of the Issue]. Natsionalnyi psikhologicheskii zhurnal, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 4–14 (in Russian).
  5. Bratus B. (2017) “K istorii sozdaniia Moskovskoi shkoly khristianskoi psikhologii: konets XX veka” [“Moscow School of Christian Psychology at the End of the 20th Century”] in B. Bratus (ed.) Khristianskaia psikhologiia v kontekste nauchnogo mirovozzreniia: kollektivnaia monografiia [Christian Psychology in Context of Scientifi c Outlook: Collective Monograph]. Moscow, pp. 15–49 (in Russian).
  6. Bratus B. (ed.) (2017) Khristianskaia psikhologiia v kontekste nauchnogo mirovozzreniia: kollektivnaia monografiia [Christian Psychology in Context of Scientifi c Outlook: Collective Monograph]. Moscow (in Russian).
  7. Bratus B., Vorobiev S. (eds.) (1995) Nachala khristianskoi psikhologii [Elements of Christian Psychology]. Moscow (in Russian).
  8. Brushlinsky A. (ed.) (1997) Psikhologicheskaia nauka v Rossii XX stoletiia: problemy teorii i istorii [Psychological Science in Russia of the 20th Century: Problems of Theory and History]. Moscow (in Russian).
  9. Chumakov M. (1997) Vvedenie v psikhologiiu religii [Introduction to Psychology of Religion]. Kurgan (in Russian).
  10. Chumakov M. (1998) “Psikhologiia i religiia: tochki soprikosnoveniia” [“Psychology and Religion: Common Grounds”] in I. Stepanova (ed.) Religiia, chelovek, obshchestvo [Religion, Man and Society]: Doklady Mezhdunarodnogo nauchnogo religiovedcheskogo Kongressa: 2000-letiiu khristianstva posviashchaetsia [Reports of the International Scientifi c Religious Congress: 2000th Anniversary of Christianity]. Kurgan, pp. 134–139 (in Russian).
  11. Chumakov M. (1999) “Puti vzaimodeistviia psikhologii i religii” [“Ways of Interaction between Psychology and Religion”]. Nauka i obrazovanie Zaural’ia, 1999, vol. 3–4, pp. 244–247 (in Russian).
  12. Chumakov M. (2016) “Psikhologiia religii v Zaural’e” [“Psychology of Religion Beyond the Urals”], in Akademicheskoe issledovanie i kontseptualizatsiia religii v XXI veke: traditsii i novye vyzovy [Academic Research and Conceptualisation of Religion in the 21st Century: Traditions and New Challenges]. Sbornik materialov Tretego kongressa rossiiskikh issledovatelei religii [Proceedings of the Third Congress of Russian Researchers of Religion]. Vol. 3. Vladimir, pp. 171–176 (in Russian).
  13. Dubin B. (2004) “Massovaia religioznaia kultura v Rossii (tendentsii i itogi 1990-kh godov)” [“Mass Religious Culture in Russia”]. Vestnik obshchestvennogo mneniia: Dannye. Analiz. Diskussii, 2004, vol. 71, no. 3, pp. 35–44 (in Russian).
  14. Elbakyan E. (2015) “Sovremennoe rossiiskoe religiovedenie — v gore i v radosti…” [“Modern Russian Religious Studies — In Sorrow and in Joy...”]. Religiovedcheskie issledovaniia, 2015, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 191–199 (in Russian).
  15. Florenskaya T. (1994) “Dialog kak metod psikhologii konsultirovaniia (dukhovno orientirovannyi podkhod)” [Dialogue as a Method of Counselling Psychology (Spiritually Oriented Approach)”]. Psikhologicheskii zhurnal, 1994, vol. 15, no. 5, pp. 44–55 (in Russian).
  16. Florenskaya T. (1995) “K.G. Jung i problema dukhovnoi aktivnosti lichnosti” [“C.G. Jung and the Problem of Spiritual Activity of the Individual”], in K. Abulkhanova-Slavskaya, A. Brushlinsky (eds.) Gumanisticheskie problemy psikhologicheskoi teorii [Human-Related Problems of Theoretical Psychology]. Moscow, pp. 70–82 (in Russian).
  17. Garadzha V. (1995) Religievedenie [Religious Studies]. 2nd ed. Moscow (in Russian).
  18. Karpenko L., Petrovsky A., Yaroshevsky M. (eds.) (1985) Kratkii psikhologicheskii slovar [Concise Psychological Dictionary]. Moscow (in Russian).
  19. Kolbanovskii V. (1963) Rol’ nauchnoi psikhologii v ateisticheskoi propagande: (Stenogramma lektsii, prochit. na Vsesoiuznom seminare po propagande nauch. ateizma) [The Role of Scientific Psychology in Atheistic Propaganda: Transcript of the Lecture Read at the All-Union Seminar on the Promotion of Scientifi c Atheism)]. Moscow (in Russian).
  20. Kolbanovskii V. (1969) “Soveshchanie po problemam psikhologii religii” [“Meeting on the Problems of Psychology of Religion”]. Voprosy psikhologii, vol. 4, pp. 178–183 (in Russian).
  21. Kostylev P. Psikhologiia religii v sisteme vysshego professionalnogo obrazovaniia, available at: http://hentiamenti.livejournal.com/409331.html (08.05.2018).
  22. Loskutov V., Ivanov M. (1997) “K probleme vliianiia dukhovno-religioznogo opyta na transformatsiiu lichnosti” [“The Influence of Spiritual and Religious Experience on the transformation of personality: Toward a problem”] in A.A. Krylov, L.A. Korostyleva (eds.) Psikhologicheskie problemy samoreguliatsii lichnosti [Psychological issues of self-regulation of personality]. Saint-Petersburg, pp. 157–165 (in Russian).
  23. Loskutov Vladimir V., Ivanov M.D. (2002) “K probleme vliianiia dukhovno-religioznogo opyta na transformatsiiu lichnosti” [“The infl uence of spiritual and religious experience on the transformation of personality: Toward a problem”] in N.I. Tatarkina (ed.) Psikhologiia dukhovnosti: Khrestomatiia [Psychology of spirituality: Chrestomathy]. Lipetsk, pp. 255–264 (in Russian).
  24. Makhnach A. (1995) “Psikhologiia i khristianstvo: put’ integratsii” [“Psychology and Christianity: A Path to Integration]. Voprosy psikhologii, 1995, vol. 6, pp. 146–151 (in Russian).
  25. Makhnach A. (ed.) (1995) Psikhologiia i khristianstvo: put’ integratsii [Psychology and Christianity: A Path to Integration]: Materialy Mezhdunarodnoi konferentsii [Materials of the International Conference], 7‒9 September 1995, Moscow. Moscow (in Russian).
  26. Mazilov V. (2007) “Metodologiia psikhologicheskoi nauki: problemy i perspektivy” [“Methodology of Psychological Science: Problems and Prospects”]. Psychology. Journal of the Higher School of Economics, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 3–21 (in Russian).
  27. Mchedlov M., Nurullaev A., Filimonov E., Elbakian E. (1994) “Religiia v zerkale obshchestvennogo mneniia” [“Religion in a Mirror of Public Opinion”]. Sociological Studies, vol. 5, pp. 9–13 (in Russian).
  28. Mirskaya E. (1995) Russian Academic Science Today: Its Societal Standing and Situation within Scientific Community. Social studies of science, vol. 25, pp. 705–725.
  29. Mitrokhin L. (ed.) (1994) Religiia i politika v postkommunisticheskoi Rossii [Religion and Politics in Post-Communist Russia]. Moscow (in Russian).
  30. Mitrokhin L. (1995) “Religioznaia situatsiia v sovremennoi Rossii” [“Religious Situation in Modern Russia”]. Sociological Studies, vol. 11, pp. 79–81 (in Russian).
  31. Muskhelishvili N., Shreider Y. (1998) “Nekotorye zamechaniia k psikhologii molitvy: kognitivnyi aspect” [“Some Remarks on the Psychology of Prayer: The Cognitive Aspect”] Moskovskii psikhoterapevticheskii zhurnal, vol. 1, pp. 24–46 (in Russian).
  32. Muskhelishvili N., Spivak D., Shreider Y. (1996) “V poiskakh obshchego znacheniia. Sravnitelnyi analiz vostochnykh i zapadnoi molitv” [“In Search of General Meaning. Comparative Analysis of Eastern and Western Prayers”]. Stranitsy, vol. 4, pp. 80–91 (in Russian).
  33. Myagkov I., Shcherbatykh Y., Kravtsova M. (1996) “Psikhologicheskii analiz urovnia individualnoi religioznosti” [“The Level of Individual Religiosity: Psychological Analysis”]. Psikhologicheskii zhurnal, vol. 6, pp. 119–122 (in Russian).
  34. Nichiporov B. (1994) Vvedenie v khristianskuiu psikhologiiu: Razmyshleniia sviashchennikapsikhologa [Introduction to Christian Psychology: Reflections of the Priest-Psychologist]. Moscow (in Russian).
  35. Okulov A. et al. (eds.) (1971) Voprosy nauchnogo ateizma [Issues of Scientifi c Atheism]. Vol. 11. Psikhologiia i religiia [Psychology and Religion]. Moscow (in Russian).
  36. Parygin B., Erunov B., Bukin V. (1971) “Religioznoe nastroenie i ego struktura” [“Religious Mood and its Structure”], in A. Okulov et al. (eds.) Voprosy nauchnogo ateizma [Issues of Scientific Atheism]. Vol. 11. Psikhologiia i religiia [Psychology and Religion]. Moscow, pp. 58–81 (in Russian).
  37. Platonov K. (1967) Psikhologiia religii. Fakty i mysli [Psychology of Religion. Facts and Thoughts]. Moscow (in Russian).
  38. Platonov K. (1971) “Psikhologicheskie korni religii” [“Psychological Roots of Religion”], in A. Okulov et al. (eds.) Voprosy nauchnogo ateizma [Issues of Scientific Atheism]. Vol. 11.
  39. Psikhologiia i religiia [Psychology and Religion]. Moscow, pp. 29–42 (in Russian).
  40. Platonov K. (1975) “Psikhologiia religii i ateisticheskoe vospitanie” [“Psychology of Religion and Atheistic Education”]. Voprosy psikhologii, 1975, vol. 3, pp. 18–26 (in Russian).
  41. Platonov K. (1981) Kratkii slovar’ sistemy psikhologicheskikh poniatii [Concise Dictionary of the System of Psychological Concepts]. Moscow (in Russian).
  42. Platonov K. (1984) Chelovek i religiia [Man and Religion]. Minsk (in Russian).
  43. Polishchuk Yu. “Vliianie destruktivnykh religioznykh sekt na psikhicheskoe zdorov’e lichnost cheloveka” [“The Infl uence of Destructive Religious Sects on Mental Health”]. Zhurnal prakticheskogo psikhologa, 1997, vol. 1, pp. 93–97 (in Russian).
  44. Psikhologiia i etika: opyt postroeniia diskussii (1999) [Psychology and Ethics: An Experience of Constructing the Discussion]. Samara (in Russian).
  45. Psikhologiia i khristianstvo: put integratsii (1997) [Psychology and Christianity: A Path to Integration]: Sbornik tezisov 3 Mezhdunarodnoi konferentsii [Collection of Abstracts of the 3rd International Conference], 10‒13 May 1997, St Petersburg. St Petersburg (in Russian).
  46. Razumova M. (1997) “K voprosu o sotsialno-psikhologicheskikh osobennostiakh lichnosti sviashchennosluzhitelia” [“On the Issue of Socio-Psychological Characteristics of Priest’s Personality”]. Psikhologiia i khristianstvo: put’ integratsii [Psychology and Christianity: A Path to Integration]: Sbornik tezisov 3 Mezhdunarodnoi konferentsii [Collection of Abstracts of the 3rd International Conference], 10‒13 May 1997, St Petersburg. St Petersburg, pp. 51–54 (in Russian).
  47. Razumova M., Novikov V. (1998) “Lichnost’ sviashchennosluzhitelia kak obieekt sotsialnopsikhologicheskogo issledovaniia” [“Personality of Priest as an Object of Socio-Psychological Research”]. Pedagogicheskaia praktika: opyt i perspektivy [Pedagogical Practice: Experience and Prospects]: Mezhvuzovskii sbornik nauchnykh trudov [International Collection of Scientifi c Proceedings]. Vol. 2. Saratov, pp. 150–156 (in Russian).
  48. Schweitzer G. (1995) “Vozmozhno li vozrozhdenie nauki v Rossii?” [‘Is Revival of Science in Russia possible?’]. Voprosy ekonomiki, 1995, vol. 9, pp. 64–70 (in Russian).
  49. Shcherbatykh Yu. (2005) “Struktura individualnoi religioznosti” [“Structure of Individual Religiousity”], in S. Posokhova (ed.) Spravochnik prakticheskogo psikhologa. Psikhodiagnostika [Handbook of Practical Psychologist. Psychodiagnostics]. Moscow, St Petersburg, pp. 457–466 (in Russian).
  50. Shekhovtsova L. (1997) “III Mezhdunarodnaia konferentsiia ‘Psikhologiia i khristianstvo: puti integratsii’” [“3rd International Conference «Psychology and Christianity: A Path to Integration»”]. Voprosy psikhologii, 1997, vol. 5, pp. 147–151 (in Russian).
  51. Slobodchikov V. (1994) “Realnost’ sub’ektivnogo dukha” [“The Reality of Subjective Spirit”]. Chelovek, 1994, vol. 5, pp. 21–38 (in Russian).
  52. Vasilyuk F. (2017) “Predposylki periodizatsii noveishei istorii khristianskoi psikhologii” [“Prerequisites for the Periodisation of the Modern History of Christian Psychology”]. Khristianskaia psikhologiia v kontekste nauchnogo mirovozzreniia: kollektivnaia monografiia [Christian Psychology in Context of Scientifi c Outlook: Collective Monograph]. Moscow, pp. 50–69 (in Russian).
  53. Volkov E. (1996) “Metody verbovki i kontrolia soznaniia v destruktivnykh kultakh” [“Methods of Recruiting and Controlling Consciousness in Destructive Cults”]. Zhurnal prakticheskogo psikhologa, 1996, vol. 3, pp. 76–83 (in Russian).
  54. Volkov E. (1996) “Prestupnyi vyzov prakticheskoi psikhologii: fenomen destruktivnykh kultov i kontrolia soznaniia” [“The Criminal Challenge for Practical Psychology: The Case of Destructive Cults and Mind Control”]. Zhurnal prakticheskogo psikhologa, 1996, vol. 2, pp. 87–94 (in Russian).
  55. Volovikova M., Makhnach A. (1995) “Psikhologiia, psikhoterapiia i khristianstvo (“kruglyi stol”)” [“Psychology, Psychotherapy and Christianity (“Round Table”)”]. Psikhologicheskii zhurnal, 1995, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 176–178 (in Russian).
  56. Yablokov I. (ed.) (1994). Osnovy religiovedeniia: uchebnik [Fundamentals of Religious Studies: Textbook]. Moscow, 1994 (in Russian).
  57. Yurevich A. (1998) Umnye, no bednye: uchenye v sovremennoi Rossii [Smart, but Poor: Scientists in Modern Russia]. Moscow (in Russian).
  58. Zen’ko Yu. (ed.) (2009) Khristianskaia antropologiia i psikhologiia v litsakh. Osnovnye avtory i raboty s drevnekhristianskogo perioda po nastoiashchee vremia. Bibliografi cheskii spravochnik [Christian Anthropology and Psychology in Persons. Main Authors and Works from the Ancient Christian Period to the Present. Bibliography]. St Petersburg (in Russian).
  59. Zen’ko Yu. (2009) Psikhologiia religii [Psychology of Religion]. 2nd ed. St Petersburg (in Russian).
  60. Zuev Yu. (2009) “Institut nauchnogo ateizma (1964–1991)” [“Institute of Scientifi c Atheism (1964–1991)”], in Yu. Zuev, V. Shmidt (eds.) Voprosy religii i religiovedeniia, 1: Antologiia otechestvennogo religiovedeniia [Problems of Religion and Religious Studies: Anthology of Russian Religious Studies]. Moscow, pp. 9–36 (in Russian).
  61. Zuev Y., Shmidt W. (2010) “Ot Instituta nauchnogo ateizma k kafedre gosudarstvennokonfessionalnykh otnoshenii: stanovlenie religiovedcheskoi shkoly (1964–1991, 1992–2010)” [“From Institute of Scientifi c Atheism to Department of Relations of State and Confessions: the Establishment of a Scientific School of Religion (1964‒1991, 1992‒2010)”]. V. Shmidt, I. Yablokov, Yu. Zuev, Z. Trofimova (eds.) Voprosy religii i religiovedeniia, 2: Issledovaniia. Moscow, pp. 15–27 (in Russian).

Information about the author

Dvoinin Alexey


Academic Degree: Candidate of Sciences* in Psychological Sciences;
Academic Rank: Associate Professor;
Place of work: Institute of Pedagogy and Educational Psychology, Moscow City University; 4, 2nd Selskokhoziastvennyi Proezd, Moscow 129226, Russian Federation;
Post: Associate Professor;
ORCID: 0000-0003-0530-740X;
Email: alexdvoinin@mail.ru.

*According to the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) 2011, the degree of Candidate of Sciences (Cand.Sc.) belongs to ISCED level 8 — "doctoral or equivalent", together with PhD, DPhil, D.Lit, D.Sc, LL.D, Doctorate or similar.