Prokofeva Elena Anatolyevna

Views of N. I. Pirogov on the upbringing of children

Prokofeva Elena, Chmeleva Elena, (2013) "Views of N. I. Pirogov on the upbringing of children ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia IV : Pedagogika. Psihologiia, 2013, vol. 31, pp. 102-112 (in Russian).


The article analyzes some pedagogical ideas of an outstanding surgeon, pedagogue, supervisor of the Kiev and Odessa educational districts N. I. Pirogov, expressed by him in his works: a view on the early specialization of children, an attitude to punishments in general and to corporal punishments, in particular, an argument about the moral principle in the upbringing, the study of children's nature and others. The ideas, expressed by N. I. Pirogov in the works considered in this article, do logically continue his pedagogical theory to be found in his fundamental and programme-aimed work "Problems of Life". The aim of the Russian Pedagogy and the Russian School has always been upbringing of a Person, being able to subjugate the material side of Life to the side of Life, moral and spiritual. Being engaged in the school problems in practice as a supervisor of the educational districts, N. I. Pirogov was a categorical opponent of corporal punishments, quite justifiably considering that a fear of such humiliates the pupil, causing him to be irresponsible for his deeds, but rather to lie and use every subterfuge, what leads to a great damage of an upbringing of Man within a man. Likewise the early specialization of schoolchildren doesn't lead to the main aim of Pedagogy, as it primarily is aimed at career achievements and detriments the child's spiritual development. N. I. Pirogov was one of the first researchers to express a thought, worth of being recollected today: youth requires a respectable, dearing, and sensitive attitude to itself; every student is very individual, and the task of the teacher is to understand this individuality. The pedagogical heritage of N. I. Pirogov has not lost its importance till to-day and may be of a considerable interest for the theory and practice the modern Pedagogy.

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Prokofeva Elena Anatolyevna