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St. Tikhon’s University Review . Series IV: Pedagogy. Psychology

St. Tikhon’s University Review IV :61

PEDAGOGICAL SCIENCE

Egorov Ilya; Mart'yanova Galina

Family as a resource of socially adaptive behaviour of adolescents during the pandemic: raising the question

Egorov Ilya, Mart'yanova Galina (2021) "Family as a resource of socially adaptive behaviour of adolescents during the pandemic: raising the question ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia IV : Pedagogika. Psihologiia, 2021, Iss. 61, pp. 11-25 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturIV202161.11-25
This article presents the results of a pilot study of the psychological state of adolescents during the Covid-19 pandemic. It analyses the data on the general emotional background, subjective feeling of social isolation and a tendency to deviant forms of behaviour in subjects aged 12–15. The authors test the hypothesis that in families successfully coping with the stress of the pandemic, adolescents have good indicators of socio-psychological adaptation. Residents of Moscow City and Moscow Region (parents and adolescents) were selected to participate in the study. This Russian region has been a zone of greatest risk of coronavirus infection and of unprecedented measures to limit the spread of COVID-19. The study was conducted in December 2020 — January 2021, in the second wave of distance education, just before the removal of major restrictions. Since the pandemic aff ects the emotional state, intensifying negative experiences, and the associated restrictive measures provoke deprivation syndromes, the data from the parent survey were supplemented with information about the subjective feelings of emotional and social well-being/not well-being of adolescents. To do this, we used the “Scale of subjective feeling of loneliness” and the Russian version of the PANAS method. Taking into account the theoretical opinion that a long stay in a pandemic causes deviation in adolescent behaviour, a diagnosis of a tendency to deviant behavior was proposed. It is shown that, depending on the satisfaction of parents with their ways of coping with diffi culties of the pandemic, adolescents are characterised by positive tendencies of adaptation, i.e. the presence of positive emotional experiences, an actualised need for communication, the absence of deviant behaviour models. Occasional deviations are explained by the tension in the situation of uncertainty itself and its novelty. The lack of family and individual experience of coping with such situations determines individual disturbances in activity and behaviour. The data obtained make it possible to continue research in the direction of studying the determination of adolescents in adapting to diffi cult situations by family factors: the economic and socio-cultural status of the parents, the fi nancial situation of the family, its completeness, the specifics of conjugal coping and others.
adaptation, coping, adolescents, family, pandemic, self-isolation, deviant behaviour
  1. Bonkalo T. I., Marinova T. Yu., Feoktistova S. V., Shmeleva S. V. (2020) “Diadicheskie kopingstrategii suprugov kak faktor latentnykh disfunktsional’nykh otnoshenii v sem’e: opyt empiricheskogo issledovaniia v usloviiakh pandemii” [Dyadic coping strategies of spouses as a factor in latent dysfunctional relationships in the family: an empirical study in the pandemic]. Sotsial’naia psikhologiia i obshchestvo, 2020, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 35–50. doi.org/10.17759/sps.2020110303 (in Russian).
  2. Egorov I. V., Konysheva N. M., Badulina O. I., Zvereva M. V., Gorbatkina I. M., Romanenko N. L., Murtazina N. A., Bocharnikova M. A., Prokhorova A. V., Semeniuk N. M. (2012) “Emotsional’noe blagopoluchie i podderzhanie zdorov’ia detei v sisteme predshkol’nogo i nachal’nogo obrazovaniia” [Emotional well-being and health maintenance of children in the system of preschool and primary education]. Nachal'naia shkola, 2012, no. 3, pp. 43–71 (in Russian).
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  4. Fontanesi L., Marchetti D., Mazza C., Di Giandomenico S., Roma P., Verrocchio M. C. (2020) The effect of the COVID-19 lockdown on parents: A call to adopt urgent measures. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, 2020, vol. 12, pp. 79–81. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/tra0000672.
  5. Garcia de Avila M. A., Hamamoto Filho P. T., Jacob F., Alcantara L. R. S., Berghammer M., Jenholt Nolbris M., Olaya-Contreras P., Nilsson S. (2020) Children’s anxiety and factors related to the COVID-19 pandemic: an exploratory study using the children’s anxiety questionnaire and the numerical rating scale. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, 2020, vol. 17, no. 16, p. 5757. https://doi.org/10.3390/ij erph17165757.
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Egorov Ilya


Academic Degree: Candidate of Sciences* in Psychological Sciences;
Academic Rank: Associate Professor;
Place of work: Moscow City University 4; 2nd Sel'skokhoziaistvennyi proezd, Moscow, 129226, Russian Federation;
Post: Associate Professor;
ORCID: 0000-0002-7302-5335;
Email: egorov_cpti@mail.ru.

*According to the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) 2011, the degree of Candidate of Sciences (Cand.Sc.) belongs to ISCED level 8 — "doctoral or equivalent", together with PhD, DPhil, D.Lit, D.Sc, LL.D, Doctorate or similar.


Mart'yanova Galina


Academic Degree: Candidate of Sciences* in Psychological Sciences;
Academic Rank: Associate Professor;
Place of work: Moscow City University; 4/1, Vtoroi Sel’skokhoziaistvennyi proezd, Moscow 129226, Russian Federation;
Post: associate professor;
ORCID: 0000-0003-4841-5355;
Email: g.martyanova@mail.ru.

*According to the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) 2011, the degree of Candidate of Sciences (Cand.Sc.) belongs to ISCED level 8 — "doctoral or equivalent", together with PhD, DPhil, D.Lit, D.Sc, LL.D, Doctorate or similar.

Yaremtchuk Svetlana; Bakina Anna

The change in the life world in religious and non-religious young people during the COVID-2019 pandemic

Yaremtchuk Svetlana, Bakina Anna (2021) "The change in the life world in religious and non-religious young people during the COVID-2019 pandemic ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia IV : Pedagogika. Psihologiia, 2021, Iss. 61, pp. 26-43 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturIV202161.26-43
This article describes the results of studying the life world of young people during the pandemic. The study sample included 402 people aged 18 to 24. The data was collected a year before the COVID-19 pandemic and during the period of selfisolation in Russia. The article compares two groups of people: religious and nonreligious. The life world was measured by the criteria of complexity (diff erentiation of the inner world) and diffi culty (distance and diffi culty in reaching signifi cant objects). As a result of the study, it has been found that both religious and non-religious young people during the pandemic are characterised by a signifi cant increase in the complexity of perception of living space, which leads to the fact that the inner life world becomes more diff erentiated and increases the number of vital objects and phenomena. This manifests itself more among believers than among non-believers. The life world of young people during the pandemic is perceived by them as more diffi cult, hindering the realisation of life values. Both groups of young people are characterised by a reduction of distance in relation to semantic social groups, i.e. people who “have not lost faith in the future” and people who “make their own destiny”. Religious youth are characterised by distancing themselves from real everyday groups (peers, classmates), while non-religious are characterised by a subjective reduction of distance in relation to professional (colleagues and superiors) and ethnic groups, as well as to the “children” group. The obtained results can be interpreted through the prism of turning to religion as a strategy for coping with a diffi cult life situation, with the help of which a person acquires a system of value orientations that allow him or her to comprehend their own life during crisis events and fi nd the appropriate way of life.
youth, dynamics, life world, religious people, Covid-19, pandemic, value orientations
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Yaremtchuk Svetlana


Academic Degree: Candidate of Sciences* in Psychological Sciences;
Academic Rank: Associate Professor;
Place of work: Amur State University for the Humanities and Pedagogy; 17/2 Kirova Str., Komsomolsk-na-Amure, 181000, Russian Federation;
Post: associate professor;
ORCID: 0000-0003-1036-6826;
Email: svj@rambler.ru.

*According to the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) 2011, the degree of Candidate of Sciences (Cand.Sc.) belongs to ISCED level 8 — "doctoral or equivalent", together with PhD, DPhil, D.Lit, D.Sc, LL.D, Doctorate or similar.


Bakina Anna


Academic Degree: Candidate of Sciences* in Psychological Sciences;
Academic Degree: Candidate of Sciences* in Psychological Sciences;
Academic Rank: Associate Professor;
Place of work: Amur State University for the Humanities and Pedagogy; 17/2 Kirova Str., Komsomolsk-na-Amure, 181000, Russian Federation;
Post: associate professor;
ORCID: 0000-0002-6772-3743;
Email: bakina_anna@mail.ru.

*According to the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) 2011, the degree of Candidate of Sciences (Cand.Sc.) belongs to ISCED level 8 — "doctoral or equivalent", together with PhD, DPhil, D.Lit, D.Sc, LL.D, Doctorate or similar.

The reported study was funded by Ministry of Education and Science of the Khabarovsk Territory, project number №57C/2020.
Yanushkevichene Оlga; Smekalina Natalia

Impact of distance education on the development of communication skills of primary school students

Yanushkevichene Оlga, Smekalina Natalia (2021) "Impact of distance education on the development of communication skills of primary school students ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia IV : Pedagogika. Psihologiia, 2021, Iss. 61, pp. 44-56 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturIV202161.44-56
The article is devoted to the study of the infl uence of distance learning on the development of children’s communication skills. The conducted theoretical research revealed that the majority of authors associate this process with “communication”, “understanding of the other”, “non-verbal interaction”, “dialogue” and “text”. Since non-verbal communication channels practically do not work in distance learning, it was assumed that the development of communication skills in this case is complicated. It was also suggested that the eff ectiveness of communication in distance learning can be achieved through working with text, and the situation with understanding the meaning of the text in a modern school was analysed. An experimental study of the issue was carried out in the form of a survey of teachers and parents of children. The results of the survey made it possible to draw some conclusions as to the problem of the impact of distance learning on the development of communication skills of students. It was found that the skills of non-verbal communication are lost; written and oral speech issimplified; more abbreviations are used, thought is formed by simple sentences, the use of language expressions is reduced, comparisons are simplifi ed; skills of writing, spelling are lost; the desire to be a leader interferes with self-control; the ability to listen and give in to others is lost; dependence on “likes” appears; tolerance depends on the distance society in which the student lives; the skills of fi nding the necessary information from various sources, except the Internet, are reduced; the collective breaks up into interest groups, which are sometimes located in a parallel distance space; self-control decreases due to distracting “pop-up bright windows”.
distance learning, communication skills, communication, understanding of the other, non-verbal interaction, dialogue, text
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Yanushkevichene Оlga


Academic Degree: Doctor of Sciences* in Education;
Academic Degree: Doctor of Sciences* in Physical and Mathematical Sciences;
Academic Rank: Professor;
Place of work: St. Tikhon’s Orthodox University for Humanities; 6/1 Likhov per., Moscow 127051, Russian Federation;
Post: profesor;
ORCID: 0000-0002-5362-0073;
Email: olgjan@mail.ru.

*According to ISCED 2011, a post-doctoral degree called Doctor of Sciences (D.Sc.) is given to reflect second advanced research qualifications or higher doctorates.


Smekalina Natalia


Student status: Graduate student;
Place of study: St. Tikhon’s Orthodox University for Humanities; 6/1 Likhov per., Moscow 127051, Russian Federation;
ORCID: 0000-0001-5483-4084;
Email: festival-nata@mail.ru.
Kupriianov Boris

A preschool child’s prank: prospects of the research agenda

Kupriianov Boris (2021) "A preschool child’s prank: prospects of the research agenda ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia IV : Pedagogika. Psihologiia, 2021, Iss. 61, pp. 57-70 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturIV202161.57-70
The article actualises modern approaches to the education of preschool children, justifies the possibility of considering the specific circumstances of a child’s prank as an educational co-existence of a child and an adult. As a result of research in 2017–2020, the features of a child's prank were marked: prank as a kind of childadult dialogue; hidden transaction; dramatic social action; cultural practice that removes the constraints of everyday life; form of self-assertion and the way to overcome the constraints and pressures as educational co-existence of the child and the adult; experimental search behaviour to determine the boundaries of the permissible; signal of a problem; disagreement with the existing order of things. The article establishes the composition of participants in the situation of a child’s prank as well as the main phases and the educational potential of a child’s prank. In conclusion, it is shown that the prospects for the use of child pranks in the education of preschoolers are associated with the development of a methodological protocol for responding to child pranks for employees of preschool educational organisations and their appropriate training.
socio-pedagogical anthropology, education of preschool children, communication between adults and children, child behavior, interdisciplinary research of childhood
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  3. Asmolov A. G. Nikolai Podd'iakov kak L'iuis Kerroll nashego vremeni, ili Psikhologiia neopredelennosti mira detstva: Predislovie k knige “Razvitie i samorazvitie rebenka-doshkol'nika. Blizhnie i dal’nie gorizonty”, available at https://vogazeta.ru/articles/2020/12/25/psychology/16084-nikolay_poddyakov_kak_lyuis_kerroll_nashego_vremeni__ili__psihologiya_neopredelyonnosti_mira_detstva (27.03.2021).
  4. Bakhtin M. M. (2002) Sobranie sochinenii: v 7 t. T. 6. Problemy poetiki Dostoevskogo, 1963. Raboty 1960-kh — 1970-kh gg. [Collected works in 7 vols. Volume 6. Problems of Dostoevsky’s Poetics]. Kaluga (in Russian).
  5. Bern E. (2017) Igry, v kotorye igraiut liudi. Psikhologiia chelovecheskikh otnoshenii [Games people play: the psychology of human relationships]. Moscow (in Russian).
  6. Bershtein A. A. (2012) Pedagogika na konchikakh pal’tsev: vvedenie v spetsial’nost’ [Pedagogy at your fingertips: an introduction to the speciality]. St. Petersburg (in Russian).
  7. Ganicheva A. N., Demidova N. I., Dubrovskaia E. A. et al. (2017) Sotsializatsiia lichnosti rebenka ot rozhdeniia do shkoly v sovremennykh kul’turno-istoricheskikh usloviiakh: monografi ia [Socialisation of the child’s personality from birth to school in modern cultural and historical conditions]. Moscow (in Russian).
  8. Dugin I. M., Lugovoi A. A. (2017) “O protivorechiiakh protsessa nravstvennogo vospitaniia v federal’nykh gosudarstvennykh obshcheobrazovatel’nykh organizatsiiakh, nakhodiashchikhsia v vedenii Ministerstva oborony Rossiiskoi Federatsii” [Contradictions of the process of moral education in Federal State educational organisations under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation”]. Psikhologo-pedagogicheskie problemy bezopasnosti cheloveka i obshchestva, 2017, vol. 2 (35), pp. 43–50 (in Russian).
  9. Fel’dshtein D. I. (2012) “Sovremennoe detstvo kak sotsiokul’turnyi i psikhologicheskii fenomen” [Modern childhood as a socio-cultural and psychological phenomenon]. Universum: Vestnik Gertsenovskogo universiteta, 2012, vol. 1, pp. 20–29.
  10. Kalugina Z. I. (2007) “Ot srednego klassa — k kreativnomu” [From the middle class to the creative class]. EKO, 2007, vol. 10 (400), pp. 93–105 (in Russian).
  11. Kudriashev A. V. (2018) “Detskie shalosti sovetskikh podrostkov na gorodskom transporte” [Children's pranks of Soviet teenagers on public transport]. Sibirskii pedagogicheskii zhurnal, 2018, vol. 5, pp. 39–44 (in Russian).
  12. Kupriianov B. V. (2017) “Adrenalin detskoi shalosti” [The adrenaline rush of children’s pranks]. Nepreryvnoe obrazovanie: XXI vek, 2017, vol. 4 (20), pp. 2–14 (in Russian).
  13. Kupriianov B. V. (2020) “Detsko-vzroslye konventsii sovetskogo proshlogo (po materialam sovremennykh vospominanii o pionerskom lagere 60–80 gg. XX v.)” [Children’s and adults’ conventions of the Soviet past (materials of modern memoirs about the pioneer camp of 60–80 of the XX century”]. Vestnik PSTGU. Ser. IV: Pedagogika. Psikhologiia, 2020, vol. 56, pp. 41–56 (in Russian).
  14. Kupriianov B. V., Lebedev R. S., Smirnova I. E. (2020) “Teoreticheskaia identifi katsiia detskoi shalosti v ramkakh konstrukta «deviantnoe povedenie»” [Theoretical identifi cation of children's pranks within the framework of the construct “deviant behavior”], in Profilaktika deviantnogo povedeniia detei i molodezhi: regional'nye modeli i tekhnologii [Prevention of deviant behavior in children and youth: regional models and technologies: collection of articles]. Simferopol’, pp. 365–374 (in Russian).
  15. Kupriianov B. V., Minovskaia O. V., Podobin A. E. i dr. (2014) Organizatsiia dosugovykh meropriiatii [Organisation of leisure activities: a textbook] Moscow (in Russian).
  16. Kupriyanov B. V. (2018) “The Adrenaline Rush of Children’s Pranks”. Russian Education & Society. 2018, vol. 60, pp. 238–256.
  17. Lebedev R. S., Moshchenskaia Ia. Iu. (2018) “Detskaia shalost’ v povsednevnosti rebenka” [Children's prank in the daily routine of a child]. Izvestiia Voronezhskogo gosudarstvennogo pedagogicheskogo universiteta, 2018, vol. 4 (281), pp. 88–91 (in Russian).
  18. Liotar Zh.-F. (2013) Sostoianie postmoderna [Postmodern state]. St. Petersburg (in Russian).
  19. Liublinskaia A. A. (1971) Detskaia psikhologiia [Child’s psychology]. Moscow (in Russian).
  20. Liudtke A. (2010) Istoriia povsednevnosti v Germanii: novye podkhody k izucheniiu truda, voiny i vlasti [The history of everyday life in Germany: new approaches to the study of labour, war and power]. Moscow (in Russian).
  21. Mudrik A. V. (2001) Obshchenie v protsesse vospitaniia: ucheb. dlia studentov vuzov [Communication in the process of education: textbook]. Moscow (in Russian).
  22. Nikolai F. V., Khazina A. V. (2015) “Istoriia emotsii i “aff ektivnyi povorot”: problemy dialoga” [The history of emotions and the “affective turn”: problems of a dialogue]. Dialog so vremenem, 2015, vol. 50, pp. 97–115 (in Russian).
  23. Podd'iakov N. N. (2013) Psikhicheskoe razvitie i samorazvitie rebenka-doshkol'nika. Blizhnie i dal'nie gorizonty [Mental development and self-development of a preschool child. Near and far horizons]. St. Petersburg; Moscow (in Russian).
  24. Rozhkov M. I., Nabatova M. A. (2006) Kak pomoch’ rebenku preodolet’ obidu [How to help your child overcome resentment]. Yaroslavl’ (in Russian).
  25. Savenkov A. I. (2006) “Emotsional'nyi i sotsial'nyi intellekt kak prediktory zhiznennogo uspekha” [Emotional and social intelligence as predictors of life success]. Vestnik prakticheskoi psikhologii obrazovaniia, 2006, vol. 1, pp. 30–38.
  26. Savenkov A. I., Savenkova T. D. (2017) “Diagnostika bazovykh parametrov emotsional’nogo intellekta i sotsial'noi kompetentnosti doshkol’nikov” [Diagnostics of basic parameters of emotional intelligence and social competence of preschool children]. Detskii sad ot A do Ia, 2017, vol. 3 (87), pp. 39–44.
  27. Sidorkin A. M. (2020) “Ia-dlia-Tebia: kritika dialoga” [I-for-You: critique of dialogue], in Fundamental’nye problemy vospitaniia v usloviiakh sovremennykh sotsial’nykh protsessov [Fundamental problems of education in the conditions of modern social processes]. Novosibirsk, pp. 29–39.
  28. Smirnova I. E. (2019) “Ne poidu v «muzykalku!»: prodelki i shalosti uchashchikhsia muzykal’noi shkoly vtoroi poloviny XX v.” [“I will not go to the music school!”: pranks of students of music schools of the second half of the XX century”], in Profilaktika deviantnogo povedeniia detei i molodezhi: regional’nye modeli i tekhnologii [Prevention of deviant behaviour of children and youth: regional models and technologies]. Simferopol’, pp. 199–207.
  29. Inkeles A. (2015) National character: a psycho-social perspective. New Brunswick; London.

Kupriianov Boris


Academic Degree: Doctor of Sciences* in Education;
Academic Rank: Professor;
Place of work: Moscow City University; 16/1 Stolyarny per., Moscow 123022, Russian Federation;
Post: professor;
ORCID: 0000-0002-1041-6056;
Email: boriskuprianoff2012@yandex.ru.

*According to ISCED 2011, a post-doctoral degree called Doctor of Sciences (D.Sc.) is given to reflect second advanced research qualifications or higher doctorates.

The study was carried out with the financial support of the RFBR, project No. 18-013-00890. We express our gratitude to the organizers of the conference on the social development of preschool children and personally to A. S. Shakhmanova for the opportunity to present the results of the research, to colleagues R. S. Lebedev and I. E. Smirnova who participated in the development of the problem. Special thanks to A. G. Asmolov, who warmly supported the idea of studying children's pranks.
Romashina Ekaterina

Legibility of the cityscape: functions of urban space in the textbooks

Romashina Ekaterina (2021) "Legibility of the cityscape: functions of urban space in the textbooks ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia IV : Pedagogika. Psihologiia, 2021, Iss. 61, pp. 71-81 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturIV202161.71-81
The article presents an overview analysis of textbooks for reading and writing skills from the period of Late Antiquity to the early 20th century. The analysis focuses on the topic “city”, since during this period a school textbook (and, more broadly, an educational text) was a predominantly urban phenomenon: it was composed, illustrated, produced, and distributed mainly by and for townspeople. However, the representation of urban space in the textbooks of diff erent historical epochs solved different didactic tasks. The author is looking for an answer to the questions: why was the city included by the author/compiler/artist in the educational discourse of the textbook? what function(s) did performed in it? The starting point of the study was the phrase “legibility of the cityscape” from the classic work of Kevin Lynch The Image of the City (1960), which allowed us to formulate the research question: what makes the “legibility” of a city as an understandable and familiar space for a child? The article discusses in detail the manuals of Jan Amos Komensky, Karl Lauckhard, Konstantin Ushinsky, Evgenia Solovieva. The functions and roles that the city played and plays in the primers and readers from diff erent countries and epochs are highlighted and described: the unity of space and society, an active environment for a child’s education; “name” of one of the phenomena of the wide world, “picture”, mastered by naming its constituent parts; living “environment”, which includes the child in countless specifi c plots of urban life, diff erent from rural life and people’s occupations; a symbol, the embodiment of any idea — imperial, national, socio-economic, etc., the scene of the most important historical events; the transformation of a town into a city, involving the formation of orientation skills, especially for the neophyte.
city, legibility of the cityscape, textbook, ABC book, primer, reader, Comenius, Ushinsky, Soloviova
  1. Bezrogov V. (2017) “«Homo veste indutus duplici», or Homogeneity in a Heterogeneous Context: Orbis sensualium pictus (1653–1703)” in B. Aamotsbakken, E. Matthes, S. Schütze (eds.) Heterogeneity and Educational Media. Bad Heilbrunn, pp. 113–120.
  2. Bezrogov V. G., Tendriakova M. V. (2019) “Gorod i Korf: fi gura Urbis novae v uchebnykh knigakh dlia zemskoi shkoly” [“City and Korff : concept of early modernized city in the elementary textbooks for rural school of the 2d half of the 19th century”]. Vestnik PSTGU. Ser. IV: Pedagogika. Psikhologiia, 2019, vol. 55, pp. 110–127.
  3. Linch K. (1982) Obraz goroda [The image of the city]. Moscow (Russian translation).
  4. Lynch K. (1960) The image of the city. Cambridge.
  5. Petrov M. K. (2012) “Sistemnyi podkhod i chelovekorazmernost’ teoreticheskogo myshleniia” [Systematic approach and human dimension of theoretical thinking]. Sotsiologiia nauki i tekhnologii, 2012, vol. 3, issue 3, pp. 97–111.
  6. Pichugina V. K., Bezrogov V. G. (2019) Antologiia pedagogicheskogo naslediia Drevnei Gretsii i Drevnego Rima [Anthology of the pedagogical heritage of Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome]. Moscow (in Russian).
  7. Smirnov S. A. (2019) “Chelovekorazmernost’ goroda” [Human dimension of the city]. ΠΡΑΣΗΜΑ. Problemy vizual’noi semiotiki, 2019, vol. 2 (20), pp. 13–32 (in Russian).
  8. Smirnov S. A. “Gorod-vospitatel’: prostranstvo goroda kak repertuar antropopraktik razvitiia” [Educator city: city space as a repertoire of anthropological development practices] in Vizual’naia antropologiia. Gorod-universitet: zhiznennoe prostranstvo i vizual’naia sreda [Visual anthropology. City-University: living space and visual environment]. V. Novgorod, 2020, pp. 20–36 (in Russian).
  9. Solov'eva E. E., Tsionglinskaia E. P. (1923) Razvitie rechi [Speech development]. Moscow; Petrograd, issue 1–4 (in Russian).
  10. Tendriakova M. V., Bezrogov V. G. (2019) “Korf i Gorod: figura Urbis capitis v uchebnoi literature dlia zemskoi shkoly” [“Korff and city: concept of capital city in the elementary textbooks for rural school of the 2nd half of the 19th century”]. Vestnik PSTGU. Ser. IV: Pedagogika. Psikhologiia, 2019, vol. 54, pp. 84–105.

Romashina Ekaterina


Academic Degree: Doctor of Sciences* in Education;
Place of work: Tula State Lev Tolstoy Pedagogical University; 125 Pr. Lenina, Tula, 300026, Russian Federation;
ORCID: 0000-0003-0655-2183;
Email: katerinro@yandex.ru.

*According to ISCED 2011, a post-doctoral degree called Doctor of Sciences (D.Sc.) is given to reflect second advanced research qualifications or higher doctorates.

The reported study was funded by Russian Foundation for Basic Research (RFBR) project number № 20-013-00246.
Simora Vitalij, priest

Pastoral ministry in educational institutions of Russia in the second half of the 19th century — early 20th century

Simora Vitalij (2021) "Pastoral ministry in educational institutions of Russia in the second half of the 19th century — early 20th century ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia IV : Pedagogika. Psihologiia, 2021, Iss. 61, pp. 82-92 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturIV202161.82-92
This article reveals the content of pastoral service and its purpose in the spiritual development of children in the educational process of educational organisations in Russia in the pre-revolutionary period. The author shows what personal and professional requirements were imposed on priests engaged in public education, as well as the changes that the public education system underwent during this period. The author traces the attitude of the people to the activities of the clergy in the spiritual care and education of children and adults in the 19th century. The author analyses the role of the church and clergy in the 1860s in universal primary education, spiritual and moral education and in the establishment of religious and moral concepts in parochial schools. The example of Tver province demonstrates the measures taken by the secular and ecclesiastical authorities to improve the quality of teaching activities and prepare clergy for teaching religious education. An important role in solving these problems was played by the Brotherhood of law teachers, which opened in Tver province at the beginning of the 20th century at the initiative of Archbishop Antoniy of Tver and Kashin, Chairman of the fi rst all-Russian Congress of teachers of religious education. The Brotherhood dealt with the issues of teaching religious education in accordance with the developed methodological guidelines and contributed to the introduction of the younger generation to the worship and sacraments of the church in educational institutions through systematic interaction with the authorities and pedagogical community of the Ministry and Zemstvo schools.
pastoral ministry, religious education, teacher of religious school subjects, teacher, upbringing, parochial school, brotherhood
  1. Ocherki istorii shkoly v pedagogicheskoi mysli narodov SSSR. Vtoraia polovina XIX v. (1976) [Essays on the history of the school in the pedagogical thought of the peoples of the USSR. The second half of the XIX century.] Moscow (in Russian).
  2. Ososkov A. V. (1982) Nachal'noe obrazovanie v dorevoliutsionnoi Rossii (1861–1917 gg.) [Primary education in pre-revolutionary Russia (1861–1917): a textbook]. Moscow (in Russian).

Simora Vitalij, priest


Academic Degree: Candidate of Sciences* in Education;
Academic Rank: Associate Professor;
Place of work: Diocesan administration of the Tver and Kashin diocese, 170000, Tver, Sovetskaya str 10; Institute of pedagogical education and social technologies, Tver state University; 170000 Tver, 33 Zhelyabova str.; St. Tikhon's Orthodox University; Moscow, 127051, Likhov lane., 6;;
Post: The Chairman of the Department of religious education and catechism; associate Professor of theology; graguate student;
ORCID: 0000-0002-7317-9772;
Email: vitalijsimora@yandex.ru.

*According to the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) 2011, the degree of Candidate of Sciences (Cand.Sc.) belongs to ISCED level 8 — "doctoral or equivalent", together with PhD, DPhil, D.Lit, D.Sc, LL.D, Doctorate or similar.

Belenchuk Larisa

Education in the activities and scientific works of L. P. Karsavin

Belenchuk Larisa (2021) "Education in the activities and scientific works of L. P. Karsavin ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia IV : Pedagogika. Psihologiia, 2021, Iss. 61, pp. 93-106 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturIV202161.93-106
Lev Platonovich Karsavin was an outstanding Russian thinker, Eurasian, philosopher and historian. He lived in a diffi cult era of wars and revolutions and was engaged in various scientifi c fi elds of knowledge. The article is devoted to his pedagogical activity and thoughts related to enlightenment. Enlightenment work became the main activity of the scientist, who was engaged in teaching in higher educational institutions of four countries (Russia, Germany, France and Lithuania), as well as in educational activities of various public organisations, seminars and courses. His last work was a course of lectures on philosophy and culture, which he gave to the prisoners of the camp where he was serving a prison sentence. His teaching experience included various fields of knowledge: philosophy and theology, cultural studies and historical disciplines. Everywhere he demonstrated the broadest erudition and a deep approach based on the Orthodox worldview. The ideological basis of L.P. Karsavin’s pedagogical activity was Eurasianism, a theory popular in the post-revolutionary years among philosophers, historians and theologians of the Russian diaspora. Eurasianism highlighted Russian culture and enlightenment as standing apart and having common Christian roots with Western European culture, but having diff erent understanding of the church and church dogmas. L.P. Karsavin belonged to the group of Eurasians that emphasised not so much the geographical and ethnic characteristics of Russian culture, but the Eastern Christian tradition as its basis. The themes of Karsavin’s cultural and educational concepts was also unity, in which he revealed the special mission of man in the universe and his responsibility for the whole scope of events taking place in this world; the doctrine of personality, based on apostolic anthropology; the relationship between faith and science, the latter of which he considered to be the ultimate result of religious ideas.
L. P. Karsavin, education, culture, teaching, unity, Eurasianism, personality, faith, science
  1. Evlampiev I. I. Antropologicheskaia tema v russkoi filosofii [Anthropological theme in Russian philosophy], available at http://anthropology.ru/ru/text/evlampiev-ii/antropologicheskayatema-v-russkoy-fi losofi i (01.12.2019).
  2. Glaz'ev S. Iu., Shchipkov A. V. (2020) Ekonomika i obshchestvo [Economy and society]. Moscow (in Russian).
  3. Iastrebitskaia A. L. (1991) Istorik-medievist Lev Platonovich Karsavin (1882–1952) [Historianmedievalist Lev Platonovich Karsavin (1882–1952)]. Moscow (in Russian).
  4. Karsavin L. P. Otvet na stat’iu Berdiaeva ob evraziitsakh, available at http://www.odinblago.ru/path/2/10 (02.12.2019).
  5. Karsavin L. P. Prolegomeny k ucheniiu o lichnosti, available at http://www.odinblago.ru/path/12/2/ (01.12.2019).
  6. Karsavin L. P. Vostok, Zapad i russkaia ideia, available at https://unixone.ru/?p=1937 (10.12.2019).
  7. Kartashev A. V. Lev Platonovich Karsavin, available at https://azbyka.ru/otechnik/Anton_Kartashev/lev-platonovich-karsavin/ (01.12.2019).
  8. Katasonov V. Iu. (2017) Metafizika istorii [Metaphysics of history]. Moscow (in Russian).
  9. Khomiakov A. S. (2008) Vsemirnaia zadacha Rossii [Russia’s global aim]. Moscow (in Russian).
  10. Khoruzhii S. S. (1994) “Zhizn’ i uchenie L’va Karsavina” [The life and teaching of Leo Karsavin], in Khoruzhii S. S. Posle pereryva. Puti russkoi filosofii [After the break. The ways of Russian philosophy]. St. Petersburg, pp. 131–187 (in Russian).
  11. Klement’ev A. K. (2008) “Pedagogicheskaia i obshchestvenno-tserkovnaia deiatel'nost’ L. P. Karsavina v gody zhizni v Germanii i Frantsii (1922–1926)” [L.P. Karsavina’s pedagogical and public-church activities during his years in Germany and France (1922–1926)]. Istoricheskie zapiski, 2008, vol. 11, pp. 386–421 (in Russian).
  12. Lasinskas P. (2011) Lev Karsavin. Universal’naia lichnost’ v kontekstakh evropeiskoi kul’tury [Leo Karsavin. A universal personality in the contexts of European culture]. Moscow (in Russian).
  13. Losskii N. O. (2007) Istoriia russkoi filosofii [History of Russian philosophy]. Moscow (in Russian).
  14. Melikh Iu. B. (2003) Personalizm L. P. Karsavina i evropeiskaia filosofiia [The personalism of L. P. Karsavin and the European philosophy]. Moscow (in Russian).
  15. Trostnikov V. N. (2008) Bog v russkoi istorii [God in Russian history]. Moscow (in Russian).
  16. Veber D. I. (2017) “Issledovanie religioznoi kul’tury v trudakh L. P. Karsavina” [Study of religious culture in the works of L.P. Karsavin] in Religiovedenie [Religious studies]. Blagoveshchensk, vol. 1, pp. 109–116 (in Russian).
  17. Zen’kovskii V. V. (1999) Istoriia russkoi filosofii [History of Russian philosophy]. Rostov-na-Donu, vol. 2 (in Russian).

Belenchuk Larisa


Academic Degree: Candidate of Sciences* in History;
Place of work: Centre for the History of Pedagogy and Education, Institute of Education Development Strategy of the Russian Academy of Education; 5/16 Makarenko Str., Moscow 105062, Russian Federation;
Post: leading researcher;
ORCID: 0000-0002-8859-3634;
Email: ya.lbel@yandex.ru.

*According to the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) 2011, the degree of Candidate of Sciences (Cand.Sc.) belongs to ISCED level 8 — "doctoral or equivalent", together with PhD, DPhil, D.Lit, D.Sc, LL.D, Doctorate or similar.

Busarov Ivan

The first “military” academic year in Moscow schools based on materials from the newspapers “Evening Moscow” and “The Moscow Bolshevik”

Busarov Ivan (2021) "The first “military” academic year in Moscow schools based on materials from the newspapers “Evening Moscow” and “The Moscow Bolshevik” ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia IV : Pedagogika. Psihologiia, 2021, Iss. 61, pp. 107-115 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturIV202161.107-115
In this work, an attempt is made to collect and systematise disparate facts about Moscow secondary education and the life of schoolchildren in the school years 1941–1942. The study draws on materials of the offi cial periodicals of Moscow regional and city councils of workers’ deputies, the newspapers “Evening Moscow” and “Moscow Bolshevik”. The choice of this period was determined not only by the beginning of the Great Patriotic War, but also by the introduction in Moscow in the fall of 1941 of a state of siege and the possible capture of the city. Based on the articles of the offi cial periodicals, one can not only draw conclusions about urban life, the attitude of the state to such a socially signifi cant structure as a school, but also record little-known facts from the life of Moscow schoolchildren — not only well-known agricultural work, but also charity in its various types, patronage work, participation of schoolchildren in certain military activities, etc. The selected facts show that despite the termination of the classroom system, and the transition to training by attaching to counseling centres, the work of outposts, pioneer, komsomol, and other public organisations did not stop in the city, and the educational activity did not dry out. Due to the focus of the topic, i.e. the fi rst year of the war, it is signifi cant since there is no extensive analysis of periodicals devoted to school education in this period of time.
war, Moscow education, gorono, battle for Moscow, forpost, MPVO, evacuation, pioneers, consulting centres, history of education in USSR, periodicals as historical and pedagogical source, newspaper “Moscow Bolshevik”, newspaper “Evening Moscow”
  1. Evening Moscow. 1941. No. 131 of 05.06.1941, No. 133 of 07.06.1941; No. 134 (682) of 10.06.1941; No. 139 of 14.06.1941; No. 141 (689) of 18.06. 1941; No. 153 of 01.07.1941; No. 152 (700) of 01.07.1941; No. 154 of 02.07.1941; No. 156 of 04.07.1941; No. 157 of 05.07.1941; No. 158 of 07.07.1941; No. 172 of 23.07.1941; No. 173 of 24.07.1941; No. 174 of 26.07.1941; No. 176 of 28.07.1941; No. 177 of 29.07.1941; No. 180 of 01.08.1941; No. 181 of 02.08.1941; No. 184 of 06.08.1941; No. 185 of 07.08.1941; No. 189 of 12.08.1941; No. 190 of 13.08.1941; No. 195 of 19.08.1941; No. 203 of 28.08.1941; No. 218 of 15.09.1941; No. 229 of 27.09.1941; No. 240 of 10.10.1941; No. 265 of 10.11.1941; No. 272 of 18.11.1941; No. 293 of 12.12.1941; No. 299 of 19.12.1941; No. 308 of 29.12.1941.
  2. Evening Moscow. 1942. No. 1 of 02.01.1942; No. 2 of 03.01.1942; No. 3 of 05.01.1942; No. 4 of 06.01.1942; No. 6 of 08.01.1942; No. 8 of 10.01.1942; No. 10 of 13.01.1942; No. 13 of 16.01.1942; No. 15 of 19.01.1942; No. 19 of 24.01.1942; No. 20 of 26.01.1942; No. 21 of 27.01.1942; No. 22 of 28.01.1942; No. 23 of 29.01.1942; No. 24 of 30.01.1942; No. 25 of 31.01.1942; No. 28 of 04.02.1942; No. 29 of 05.02.1942; No. 30 of 06.02.1942; No. 33 of 10.02.1942; No. 36 of 13.02.1942; No. 92 of 20.04.1942; No. 98 of 27.04.1942.
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Busarov Ivan


Student status: Master's Degree Student;
Place of study: Moscow City Pedagogical University; 4, 2nd Sel'skohozyaystvennyi passage, Moscow, 129226, Russian Federation;
ORCID: 0000-0001-8692-8931;
Email: Busarovivan@yandex.ru.

PSYCHOLOGY

Semenov Igor

Philosophical, psychological, organisational and teaching activity of S. L. Rubinshtein in the academic science and university education

Semenov Igor (2021) "Philosophical, psychological, organisational and teaching activity of S. L. Rubinshtein in the academic science and university education ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia IV : Pedagogika. Psihologiia, 2021, Iss. 61, pp. 119-144 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturIV202161.119-144
This article analyses from an institutional and personological perspective the creativity of life and professional activity of the leader of Soviet psychology of the mid- 20th century, director of the Institute of Psychology of the Russian Academy of Education, founder of the Department of Psychology of Lomonosov Moscow State University, philosopher and psychologist S. L. Rubinshtein, the 130th anniversary of whom has recently been celebrated by the academic community. It discusses in a sociocultural context the new sides of his biography and demonstrates for the fi rst time their causal influence on his research in philosophy, psychology and pedagogy. It characterises the main periods in the development and the heyday of his scientific, organisational and social activity and shows the fundamental signifi cance of his achievements and achievements of his large academic school in the further development of psychological science and the present-day study of man.
S. L. Rubinshtein, philosophy, psychology, personology, pedagogy, methodology, activity, growth, individuality, thinking, refl ection, mentality, consiousness, academic work, academic institutions, scientifi c school, A. N. Leontiev, B. L. Pasternak, B. M. Teplov, M. G. Yaroshevsky
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  31. Rubinshtein S. (1952) “Uchenie I.P. Pavlova i nekotorye problemy perestroiki psikhologii” [I.Pavlov’s doctrine and several issues in transformation of psychology]. Voprosy filosofii, 3, p. 197–210 (in Russian).
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  34. Rubinshtein S. (ed.) (1960) Protsess myshleniia i zakonomernosti analiza, sinteza i obobshcheniia. Eksperimental'noe issledovanie [Mental process and regularities of analysis, synthesis, and generalisation]. Moscow (in Russian).
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  41. Semenov I. (1989) “The psychology of reflexion in the scientific work of S. L. Rubinshtein”. The Psychology Journal, 4, p. 67–74.
  42. Semenov I. (2006) “Vzaimodeistvie moskovskoi i peterburgskoi nauchnykh shkol psikhologii tvorchestva i refleksii” [Interaction between the Moscow and St. Petersburg academic schools of psychology of creativity and reflection]. Psikhologiia pered vyzovom budushchego [Psychology challenged by the future]. Moscow. P. 61–64 (in Russian).
  43. Semenov I. (2009) “S.L. Rubinshtein izvestnyi i neizvestnyi: istoriko-kul'tural'naia refl eksiia zhiznetvorchestva. Panorama razvitiia filosofsko-psikhologicheskoi sistemy S. L. Rubinshteina v sovremennom chelovekoznanii” [S.L. Rubinshtein known and unknown: Historical and cultural reflection of creativity of life. Panorama of the development of S. L. Rubinshtein’s philosophical and psychological system in the present-day study of man]. Psikhologiia. Zhurnal Vysshei shkoly ekonomiki, 6/3, p. 63–89, 106–116 (in Russian).
  44. Semenov I. (2011) “Ekzistentsial'no-kul'tural'naia refl eksiia vo vzaimodeistvii khudozhestvennogo i nauchnogo tvorchestva v Serebrianom veke” [Existential and cultural refl ection in the interaction of artistic and scientific creative work of Silver Age], in D. Ushakov (ed.) Tvorchestvo: ot biologicheskikh osnovanii k sotsial'nym i kul'turnym fenomenam [Creativity: From biological foundations to social and cultural phenomena]. Moscow. P. 606–624 (in Russian).
  45. Semenov I. (2012) “Vekhi, metodologiia i napravleniia issledovanii refl eksii v Psikhologicheskom institute na Mokhovoi” [Milestones, methodology and directions in the study of refl ection at the Institute of Psychology in Mokhovaya]. Mir psikhologii, 4, p. 262–275 (in Russian).
  46. Semenov I. (2012) “Kafedra obshchei psikhologii MGU kak kolybel' universitetskogo professional'nogo obrazovaniia psikhologov i izucheniia refl eksii” [Department of general psychology at MGU as a cradle of university-based professional training of psychologists and of the study of refl ection]. Psikhologiia. Istoriko-kriticheskie obzory i sovremennye issledovaniia, 5–6, p. 112–133 (in Russian).
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  50. Semenov I. (2017) “Tipologiia psikhologicheskikh shkol B.M. Teplova i refl eksivnaia personologiia razvitiia ego odarennoi lichnosti” [Typology of P. Teplov’s psychological schools and refl ective personology of development of his talented personality], in B.M. Teplov i sovremennoe sostoianie differentsial'noi psikhologii i differentsial'noi psikhofi ziologii [B. Teplov and present-day state of differential psychology and differential psychophysiology]. Moscow. P. 87–101 (in Russian).
  51. Semenov I. (2017) “Personologicheskaia refl eksiia zhiznetvorchestva P.Ia. Gal'perina i ego psikhologo-pedagogicheskoi i istoriko-metodologicheskoi deiatel'nosti v Moskovskom universitete” [Personological refl ection of P. Galperin’s creativity of life and his psychological, pedagogical, historical and methodological activity at Moscow University]. Vestnik Moskovskogo universiteta. Seriia 14: Psikhologiia, 2, p. 3–28 (in Russian).
  52. Semenov I. (2018) “Vklad A.N. Leont'eva v razvitie psikhologii myshleniia, inzhenernoi psikhologii i ergonomiki” [A. Leontiev’s contribution in the psychology of thinking, psychological engineering and ergonomics]. Vestnik Moskovskogo universiteta. Seriia 14: Psikhologiia, 3, p. 3–20 (in Russian).
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Semenov Igor


Academic Degree: Doctor of Sciences* in Psychological Sciences;
Academic Degree: Candidate of Sciences* in Politics;
Academic Rank: Professor;
Place of work: Moscow City University; 16/1 Per. Sverchkova, Moscow, 123022, Russian Federation;
Post: profesor;
ORCID: 0000-0002-5823-2918;
Email: i_samenov@mail.ru.

*According to the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) 2011, the degree of Candidate of Sciences (Cand.Sc.) belongs to ISCED level 8 — "doctoral or equivalent", together with PhD, DPhil, D.Lit, D.Sc, LL.D, Doctorate or similar.

Stebenev Aleksandr, priest

The activities of the Student psychological society of St. Petersburg theological academy based on publications of the journal ''Bulletin of psychology, criminal anthropology and hypnotism''

Stebenev Aleksandr (2021) "The activities of the Student psychological society of St. Petersburg theological academy based on publications of the journal ''Bulletin of psychology, criminal anthropology and hypnotism'' ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia IV : Pedagogika. Psihologiia, 2021, Iss. 61, pp. 145-156 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturIV202161.145-156
The article is devoted to an insuffi ciently explored topic in the history of Russian psychology, i.e. activities of the Student Psychological Society of St Petersburg Theological Academy and its publications in the St. Petersburg scientifi c psychological journal Bulletin of Psychology, Criminal Anthropology and Hypnotism. The history of the creation and development of the Society is briefl y presented in the article; it also describes the participation of the professor of psychology at the Academy, professor V. Serebrenikov, in the organisation of the Bulletin. He carried out the general editing of the journal together with Academician V. Bekhterev. The main attention is paid to the content of the reports of the meetings of the Society published in the journal, which allows us to present its activities and main scientifi c interests in the fi eld of psychology of that time. In conclusion, the article highlights the possibility of using the positive experience of the student psychological society in teaching psychology in modern theological educational institutions, taking into account the presented historical data.
Student Psychological Society, St Petersburg Theological Academy, “Bulletin of Psychology, Criminal Anthropology and Hypnotism”, Professor V. Serebrenikov, Professor V. Bekhterev, history of psychology
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Stebenev Aleksandr, priest


Student status: Graduate student;
Academic Rank: Member of the Russian Academy of Sciences;
Place of study: Herzen State Pedagogical University; 7, Koroleva Av., St. Petersburg, 197349, Russian Federation;
ORCID: 0000-0002-2938-8032;
Email: stebenev@inbox.ru.