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St. Tikhon’s University Review . Series III: Philology

St. Tikhon’s University Review III :69

ARTICLES

Arutyunova-Fidanyan Viada

The Role of the “Image of the Other” in the Interaction of Civilisations. The Armeno-Byzantine Contact Zone (10th — 11th Centuries))

Arutyunova-Fidanyan Viada (2021) "The Role of the “Image of the Other” in the Interaction of Civilisations. The Armeno-Byzantine Contact Zone (10th — 11th Centuries)) ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia III : Filologiia, 2021, Iss. 69, pp. 11-22 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturIII202169.11-22
Armenian medieval historiographers, scholars-monks (vardapets), who belonged to the intellectual elite of the Armenian society, were closely linked with the ruling houses and the top clergy of the country. They were the creators of the ideas concerning the Byzantine Empire. Their desire to introduce the lands of Armenia into the sphere of Byzantine political influence was logically interwoven into their doctrine with the introduction of Byzantine ideological values into Armenian social and political thought. All these factors determined the creation of a positive image of Byzantium — a legal suzerain of the Armenian kingdom and the only supporter of the Armenians in the struggle against the Persians, Arabs and Turks. Therefore, they purposefully diminished the influence of two major «instruments of alientation», political and confessional, which divided Byzantium and Armenia. What is more, they see an ideal of rulers in the persons of the Byzantine emperors. For armenian medieval historiographers the existence of the armenian lands as a part of the «Greek country» at the beginning of the 10th cent. was convenient, and at the end of the 11th cent. — natural and common. The historiographers demonstate tolerance towards the imperial orthodoxy, and the set of ideological and political understandings formed by the 10th cent. in Byzantium has a serious impact on the socio-political theory of the armenians these days. During the desintegration of the armeno-byzantine contact zone the armenian social conscience under pressure of seljuks reliases itself from the influence of the byzantine ideological values, Byzantium starts to estrange itsef from the armenian world, wherease it’s image is considerably fading. And from the end of the 11th – beginning of the 12th cent., after the utlimate collapse of the contact zone, the image of Byzance becomes totally negative (in all of its aspects: government, ethnos, confession). This negative modification of Byzantine Empire’s image goes over from the medieval to the new and newest armenian historiograpgy. The fall of the armeno-byzantine contact zone entailed not only disappointment in the might of the Byzantine state, but also changes in the mentality of the armenian society.
the image of the other, the interaction of civilizations, the exchange of ideologemes, the im-age’s transformation, byzantine and armenian historiographers of the 10–11 cent., the in-struments of assumption, the instruments of substraction
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  3. Arutyunova-Fidanyan V. A. (2011) “Armiane-khalkidonity na sluzhbe Vizantiiskoi imperii: Pakuriany” [Armeno-Chalсedonians in the service of the Byzantine Empire: Pakurians], in Vizantiiskie ocherki: Trudy rossiiskikh uchenykh k XXII Mezhdunarodnomu kongressu vizantinistov [Byzantine essays: Papers of Russian scholars for the 22nd International Congress of Byzantinists] (in Russian).
  4. Arutyunova-Fidanyan V. A. (2009) “Byzantine Armenia: The Armenian Impact on Byzantine Life in the Xth and XIth Centuries”, in Mare et littora: Essays Presented to S. Karpov, Moscow, pp. 645–658.
  5. Arutyunova-Fidanyan V. A. (2014) “Istoki genezisa armiano-vizantiiskoi kontaktnoi zony X– XI vv.: ‘Kavkazskoe dos′e’ Konstantina Bagrianorodnogo” [The origins of the Armeno- Byzantine contact zone in the 10th–11th centuries: The ‘Caucasian Dossier’ of Konstantin Porphyrogenitus”]. Vizantiiskii vremennik, 2014, vol. 73 (98), pp. 13–52 (in Russian).
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  27. Serikov N. I. (1983) “O nekotorykh aspektakh podkhoda k issledovaniiu arabo-vizantiiskikh otnoshenii X–XI vv. v sovremennoi zarubezhnoi istoriografi i” [On certain aspects of the approach to studies of the Arab-Byzantine relationships of the 10th — 11th centuries in contemporary foreign historiography]. Vizantiiskii vremenik, 1983, vol. 44, pp. 246–251 (in Russian).
  28. Shukurov R. M. (ed.) (1999) Chuzhoe: opyty preodoleniia [The foreign: experience in overcoming]. Moscow (in Russian).
  29. Vryonis Sp. (1981) “Byzantine Images of the Armenians”, in The Armenian Image in History and Literature, California, рр. 65–81.

Arutyunova-Fidanyan Viada


Academic Degree: Doctor of Sciences* in History;
Place of work: Institute of World History, Russian Academy of Sciences; 32A Leninsky Prospekt, 119334, Moscow, Russian Federation;
ORCID: 0000-0003-4900-1736;
Email: asya1pobednaya25@gmail.com.

*According to ISCED 2011, a post-doctoral degree called Doctor of Sciences (D.Sc.) is given to reflect second advanced research qualifications or higher doctorates.

Gusarova Ekaterina

Names of the months of different calendar systems in the ethiopian manuscript tradition

Gusarova Ekaterina (2021) "Names of the months of different calendar systems in the ethiopian manuscript tradition ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia III : Filologiia, 2021, Iss. 69, pp. 23-33 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturIII202169.23-33
The Ethiopians up to nowadays use their own calendar, traditional for the Christians of the country. It consists of twelve months and the additional, intercalary, days (epagomen). Names of the months are normally used in historical and hagiographical texts in the Geez language (and later in Amharic) to indicate the dates. Wherein names of months of other traditions can also be found in Ethiopian manuscripts. Normally they were not an integral part of a compilation, but were rather presented as a separate list inserted in codices of reference content. In the frame of the present research particular characteristics of the idea of the Medieval Ethiopian Christians calendars of a number of Middle Eastern peoples regarding the names of months. As a basis for the present research two manuscript books were taken. Particular attention has been paid to order of the months used by their authors and also to the way of transliteration of the foreign months’ names in Ethiopian script. This makes it possible to get a view about awareness of calendars of different peoples and cultures by late medieval Ethiopian scribes.
Calendar, Names of the months, Calendars of the Oriental Christians, Months of Oriental calendars, Ethiopian calendar, Ethiopian Church, Ethiopian manuscript tradition, Transliteration of foreign words in Ge’ez
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Gusarova Ekaterina


Academic Degree: Candidate of Sciences* in History;
Place of work: Institute of Oriental Manuscripts, Russian Academy of Sciences; 18 Dvortsovaya nab., St. Petersburg, 191186, Russian Federation;
ORCID: 0000-0003-2170-024;
Email: ekater-ina@mail.ru.

*According to the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) 2011, the degree of Candidate of Sciences (Cand.Sc.) belongs to ISCED level 8 — "doctoral or equivalent", together with PhD, DPhil, D.Lit, D.Sc, LL.D, Doctorate or similar.

Ermilov Pavel, priest; Panchenko Konstantin; Petrova Yulia

Correspondence between Patriarch of Alexandria Gerasimos Palladas and christians of the Church of Antioch: historical and textological aspects

Petrova Yulia, Panchenko Konstantin, Ermilov Pavel (2021) "Correspondence between Patriarch of Alexandria Gerasimos Palladas and christians of the Church of Antioch: historical and textological aspects ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia III : Filologiia, 2021, Iss. 69, pp. 34-52 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturIII202169.34-52
Several decades preceding the split of the Church of Antioch into Orthodox and Catholic branches in 1724 are the least studied period in the early Modern history of the Orthodox Middle East. The authors present preliminary results of their joint project aiming at the commented edition of the Arabic texts of the epistle sent in September 1702 by the Patriarch of Alexandria Gerasimos Palladas to the Eastern Orthodox community of Tripoli, and the responses from the Christians of Tripoli and Aleppo. The correspondence, only partially edited, reflects intellectual life and ideological confrontation in the Church of Antioch in the late 17th and early 18th centuries. The main topic of the correspondence is a dispute on the moment of consecration of the Holy Gifts in the Divine Liturgy, which was one of the traditional subjects of polemics between the Orthodox and Catholic theologians. The Orthodox Church view, expressed by Patriarch Gerasimos, met strong objections on the part of the Christians of Aleppo, probably influenced by the Latin Church missionaries. The authors analyze the historical background and the context of the correspondence, as well as peculiarities of the Arabic manuscript tradition of the Patriarch’s epistle. As a result of the collation of the manuscripts available, the authors identify two versions of the translation of Gerasimos’ epistle and determine the features of stylistic revision of the text in the second recension.
Christian Middle East, Patriarchate of Alexandria, Patriarchate of Antioch, Arab Christians, Catholic Unia, Anti-Catholic polemics, Eucharistic controversies, Gerasimos Palladas, Arabic Christian manuscripts
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Ermilov Pavel, priest


Academic Degree: Candidate of Sciences* in History;
Place of work: St. Tikhon’s Orthodox University for the Humanities; 6/1 Likhov pereulok, Moscow 127051, Russian Federation;
Post: Head of the Ecclesiastical Institutions Research Laboratory;
ORCID: 0000-0003-0881-2866;
Email: pavel_ermilov@mail.ru.

*According to the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) 2011, the degree of Candidate of Sciences (Cand.Sc.) belongs to ISCED level 8 — "doctoral or equivalent", together with PhD, DPhil, D.Lit, D.Sc, LL.D, Doctorate or similar.


Panchenko Konstantin


Academic Degree: Doctor of Sciences* in History;
Academic Rank: Associate Professor;
Place of work: Institute of Asian and African Studies, Moscow State University; 11 Mokhovaia str., Moscow 103911, Russian Federation;
Post: Professor;
ORCID: 0000-0003-4155-5187;
Email: const969@gmail.com.

*According to ISCED 2011, a post-doctoral degree called Doctor of Sciences (D.Sc.) is given to reflect second advanced research qualifications or higher doctorates.


Petrova Yulia


Academic Degree: Candidate of Sciences* in Philology;
Place of work: A. Krymsky Institute of Oriental Studies, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine; 4 Grushevskogo str., Kiev 01001, Ukraine;
ORCID: 0000-0002-5130-232X;
Email: j.arabic2011@gmail.com.

*According to the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) 2011, the degree of Candidate of Sciences (Cand.Sc.) belongs to ISCED level 8 — "doctoral or equivalent", together with PhD, DPhil, D.Lit, D.Sc, LL.D, Doctorate or similar.

The article is written within the framework of the research project “History of Eucharistic Disputes in the Christian East: Correspondence between Patriarch of Alexandria Gerasimos Palladas and Syrian Christians” with the support of the St Tikhon’s University and the Living Tradition Foundation.
Zabolotnyi Evgenii

Theodore and Diodore’s heritage: the Greek original, Syriac and Latin translations

Zabolotnyi Evgenii (2021) "Theodore and Diodore’s heritage: the Greek original, Syriac and Latin translations ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia III : Filologiia, 2021, Iss. 69, pp. 53-67 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturIII202169.53-67
The article researches the Christological fragments from the writings of Diodore of Tarsus and Theodore of Mopsuestia, preserved both in the Greek original and in the Syriac and Latin translations. Comparison of these fragments will allow to get closer to solving the problem of interpolations in the versions that have come down to us. A comparative analysis of these versions makes it possible to reconstruct and refine Theodore’s Christological formula and also demonstrates that the Syriac and Latin intellectuals followed the pattern of transltaion of the Greek theological terminology, which can be called “standard”. Moreover, the translation activity, which took place in the 5th century in the School of Edessa and resulted in preparing translation of Theodore’s most important Christological treatise, De Incarnatione, into the Syriac, made a great contribution to the formation of the “standard” translation scheme. The author shows that this translation is the best witness to the text of De Incarn. VIII 62, rather than the quotations of the opponents of Antiochene Christology, who apparently based on the florilegium, which contained interpolations. As a result, the article studies in a detailed manner the translation technique used by Christian intellectuals from the 5th to the 6th centuries, including those who worked in the Syriac educational centers. The Latin versions of these fragments will also be considered not in isolation, but in the context of the development of Western theological terminology.
Christology, Diodore of Tarsus, Theodore of Mopsuestia, Greek texts, Syriac and Latin translations, translation technique, Church of the East, Ecumenical Councils, Chalcedon, Nestorianism, School of Edessa, Leontius of Byzantium, Severus of Antioch, pope Vigilius, Boetius, intellectual history.
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  11. Hespel R. (ed.) (1968) Sévèred’ Antioche. La polemique anti julianiste II. Louvain. (CSCO; 295–296. Syr.; 124–125.)
  12. Hespel R. (ed.) (1971) Sévèred’ Antioche. La polemique anti julianiste III. Louvain. (CSCO; 318–319. Syr.; 136–137.)
  13. Richard M. (1943) “La Tradition des fragments du traité ΠερÎ τõς ºν ανθρωπήσε ως de Théodore de Mopsueste”. Le Muséon,1943, vol. 56, pp. 55–75.
  14. Seleznev N. N. (2002) Khristologiia Assiriiskoi Tserkvi Vostoka: Analiz osnovnykh materialov v kontekste istorii formirovaniia veroucheniia [The Christology of the Assyrian Church of the East: the main documents and development of the doctrine]. Moscow (in Russian).
  15. Seleznev N. N. (transl.) (2006) “Nestorii. Kniga Geraklida Damasskogo” [Nestorius. The Book of Heracleides of Damascus], in Volshebnaia Gora: Traditsiia, religiia, kul′tura [Magic Mountain: tradition, religion, culture], vol. 12, pp. 74–82 (in Russian).
  16. Shchukin T. A., Benevich G. I. (2015) “Leontii Vizantiiskii” [Leontius of Byzantium], in Pravoslavnaia entsiklopediia [The Orthodox Encyclopaedia], vol. 40, pp. 534–545 (in Russian).
  17. Zabolotnyi E. A. (2015) “Uchenie Diodora Tarsiiskogo: Khristologiia voploshcheniia ili vochelovecheniia?” [The teaching of Diodore of Tarsus: the “Logos-sarx” or the “Logos-anthropos” Christology?]. Vestnik PSTGU. Ser. III: Filologiia, 2015, vyp. 5 (45), pp. 38–46 (in Russian).
  18. Zabolotnyi E. A. (2018) “Nestorianstvo” [Nestorianism], in Pravoslavnaia entsiklopediia [The Orthodox Encyclopaedia], vol. 49, pp. 110–127 (in Russian).
  19. Zabolotnyi E. A. (2020) (ed.) “Diodor Tarsiiskii. Predislovie k «Tolkovaniiu na psalmy» (fragment)” [Diodore of Tarsus. Preface to the Commentary on psalms (fragment)], in Bibliia i khristianskaia drevnost′ [Bible and Christian Antiquity], vol. 4 (8), pp. 32–46 (in Russian).
  20. Zabolotnyi E. A. (2020) Siriiskoe khristianstvo mezhdu Vizantiei i Iranom [Syriac Christianity between Byzantium and Iran]. St. Petersburg: Nauka (in Russian).

Zabolotnyi Evgenii


Academic Degree: Candidate of Sciences* in History;
Place of work: Lomonosov Moscow State University; Lomonosovsky prospect, 27–4, Moscow 119991, Russian Federation;
Post: Researcher;
ORCID: 0000–0002–0629–747X;
Email: e.zabolotnyj20@mail.ru.

*According to the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) 2011, the degree of Candidate of Sciences (Cand.Sc.) belongs to ISCED level 8 — "doctoral or equivalent", together with PhD, DPhil, D.Lit, D.Sc, LL.D, Doctorate or similar.

Acknowledgments: The reported study was funded by RFBR, project number 19-29-07549.
Alexander Zinovkin, priest

To interpretation of Syrian notions PARṢŌP̄Ā and QNŌMĀ (based on the Ishodad of Merv’s commentary on the Gospel of Matthew)

Alexander Zinovkin (2021) "To interpretation of Syrian notions PARṢŌP̄Ā and QNŌMĀ (based on the Ishodad of Merv’s commentary on the Gospel of Matthew) ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia III : Filologiia, 2021, Iss. 69, pp. 68-86 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturIII202169.68-86
The article is devoted to the specifics of the interpretation of the Syrian notions parṣōp̄ā and qnōmā, which are analogous to the Greek notions πρόσωπον ‘face’ and úπоστασις ‘person’. It is known that these notions acquire a specific meaning in the context of Triadological and Christological disputes in the era of the Ecumenical Councils. For Eastern Christians, in particular for scholars of the Antioch and Edessa-Nisibian schools, the interpretation of these Greek notions and their Syrian analogues differs from the interpretation set forth in the Acts of the 3rd and 4th Ecumenical Councils. Theodore of Mopsuestia (428), a biblical exegete and theologian par excellence, has always been considered as a bright representative of the first group. In this regard, many scientific works were devoted to the Theodore's position in relation to the notions πρόσωπον and úπоστασις. These works also considered the writings of prominent authors of Eastern Christianity such as Aphraate (mid. 4th century), Ephraim the Syrian (373), Nestorius (451), Narsai (502), Babai the Great (628), etc. However, at the same time, the works of Ishodad of Merv (9th century) still remain almost completely unexplored despite the fact that in his biblical commentaries he reflected not only the late exegetical tradition of his Church of the East but also the theology, which by the 9th century had undergone a number of changes and transformations. Thus, for the first time, the article is devoted to the position of the prominent medieval Syrian author in relation to the notions parṣōp̄ā and qnōmā, their lexical semantics and differential positions to each other. In addition, the novelty of the work also lies in the fact that the research is carried out according to the still unpublished and unexplored manuscript Dorn 622 (= St Petersburg Syr. 33), which contains the Ishodad of Merv's commentary on the entire New Testament.
Face, Person, Ishodad of Merv, Syriac language, New Testament, Gospel of Matthew, Christology, Triadology
  1. Abramowski L., Goodman A. E. (1972) A Nestorian Collection of Christologicl Texts: Cambridge University Library Ms. Orientaal 1319. Cambridge: University Press, t. 1: Syriac Text.
  2. Abramowski L., Goodman A. E. (1972) A Nestorian Collection of Christologicl Texts: Cambridge University Library Ms. Orientaal 1319. Cambridge: University Press, t. 2: Introduction, Translation, Indexes.
  3. Behr J. (2011) The Case Against Diodore and Theodore: Texts and their Contexts. Oxford: Oxford University Press. (Oxford Early Christian Texts.)
  4. Hofstra J. D. (1998) “The Sources used by Isho`dad of Merw in his Commentary on St. John, Chapter I”, in S. J. R. Lavenant (ed.) Symposium Syriacum VII, 11–14 August 1996, Roma: Pontificio Istituto Orientale, pp. 23–35.
  5. Hofstra J. D. (ed.) (2019) Isho’dad of Merw: Commentary on the Gospel of John. Leuven: Peeters Publisher. (CSCO; 671–672. Syr.; 259–260.)
  6. Lampe G. W. H. (1996) A Patristic Greek Lexicon. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
  7. Liddell H., Scott R. (1996) A Greek-English Lexicon. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
  8. Ozhegov S., Shvedova N. (2006) Tolkovyi slovar’ russkogo iazyka [Explanatory Dictionary of the Russian Language]. Moscow (in Russian).
  9. Seleznev N. (2002) Khristologiia Assiriiskoi Tserkvi Vostoka: Analiz osnovnykh materialov v kontekste istorii formirovaniia veroucheniia [The Christology of the Assyrian Church of the East. The main documents and development of the doctrine]. Moscow (in Russian).
  10. Sokoloff M. (2009) A Syriac Lexicon: A Translation from the Latin, Correction, Expansion, and Update of C. Brockelmann’s Lexican Syriacum. Winona Lake, New Jersey: Eisenbrauns, Gorgias Press.
  11. Van den Eynde C. (1955) Commentaire d’Išoʽdad de Merv sur l’Ancien Testament. Louvain: L. Durberq, vol. 1: Genèse (CSCO; 156. Syr.; 75.)
  12. Zabolotnyi E. A. (2020) Siriiskoe khristianstvo mezhdu Vizantiei i Iranom [Syriac Christianity between Byzantium and Iran]. St. Petersburg: Nauka (in Russian).
  13. Zinovkin A. Iu. (2020) “Osobennosti kommentariia Ishodada Mervskogo na In 1:1–5” [Features of Ishodad of Merv’s commentary on John 1:1–5]. Khristianskoie chtenie, 2020, no. 4, pp. 60–78 (in Russian).

Alexander Zinovkin, priest


Academic Degree: Candidate of Sciences* in Theology;
Academic Rank: Associate Professor;
Place of work: Saint Petersburg Theology Academy;
Post: Associate Professor;
ORCID: 0000-0001-7227-1836;
Email: zinovkinpds@mail.ru.

*According to the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) 2011, the degree of Candidate of Sciences (Cand.Sc.) belongs to ISCED level 8 — "doctoral or equivalent", together with PhD, DPhil, D.Lit, D.Sc, LL.D, Doctorate or similar.

Rogozhina Anna

Spell or prayer? Magical miscellanies in the armenian christian tradition: problems of contents and interpretation

Rogozhina Anna (2021) "Spell or prayer? Magical miscellanies in the armenian christian tradition: problems of contents and interpretation ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia III : Filologiia, 2021, Iss. 69, pp. 87-105 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturIII202169.87-105
This paper discusses the main types of magical miscellanies in the Armenian manuscript culture, their contents, evolution, and interpretation in the Armenian Christian tradition and in the scholarship of the 20th-21st centuries. Despite the canonical and theological ‘war against magic’ witnessed in various medieval sources from the fifth century onwards, the extermination of magical practices amongst Armenian Christians did not really take place as is witnessed by a very large number of manuscripts that might be called ‘written amulets’ or ‘magical miscellanies’, two highly popular and resilient types of text compilations. Hand-written amulets, hmayils, in the form of highly decorated and illuminated scrolls, designed for private use and travel, came into use in the fifteenth century. They contained prayers, Gospel readings, images of saints and depictions of Bible stories, and sometimes, also magical formulas and signs to ward off evil eye and demons. The other type of miscellanies, axtarq or Kiprianos, usually in the form of a codex, contained astrological treatises and tables, mixed with excerpts from the Gospels, prayers, spells, and images of demons. Judging by the contents and accompanying images in both types one might suggest that Armenian Church turned (a more or less) blind eye on the scrolls production due to their relative acceptability for a Christian, while the second type was seen as continuation of an ancient astrological tradition connected with the Greco-Roman inheritance in the Armenian culture.
magic, Armenia, handwritten amulets, axtarq, Kiprianos, magical miscellany, manuscripts, astrology, characteres, Hovhannes Mandakuni
  1. Abeghyan M. (2012) Armenian Folk Beliefs, transl. from Armenian by R. Bedrosian. Long Branch, New Jersey.
  2. Anasian A. (1959) Armenian bibliology of V–XVIII cc. Yerevan, vol. 1 (in Armenian).
  3. Antonian Iu. (2006) “Koldovskoi talisman v sovremennoi armianskoi narodnoi kul′ture” [Magical talisman in the contemporary Armenian culture]. Zhivaia starina, 2006, vol. 4, pp. 29–32 (in Russian).
  4. Arevshatian S. (1959) “Shaapivanskie kanony — drevneishii pamiatnik armianskogo prava” [Canons of the Shahapiwan Synod as the earliest witness of the Armenian law]. Patmabanasirakan handes, 1959, no. 2/3 (5/6), pp. 334–348 (in Russian).
  5. Artiukhova T., Korolev A. (2013) “Kiprian i Iustina” [Cyprian and Justina], in Pravoslavnaia entsiklopediia [The Orthodox Encyclopaedia], Moscow, vol. 33, pp. 716–728 (in Russian).
  6. Arutiunian S. (2006) “Osnovnye cherty drevnearmianskoi mifologii” [Main features of the ancient Armenian mythology]. Patma-banasirakan handes, 2006, no. 3, pp. 57–66 (in Russian).
  7. Balicka-Witakowska Ewa, Phenix Robert (2017) “An Armenian Prayer Scroll in the Collection of the Uppsala University Library”, in C. Esche-Ramshorn (ed.) Reflections on Armenia and the Christian Orient: Studies in Honour of Vrej Nersessian. Yerevan, pp. 48–78, pl. 1–7.
  8. Choat M., Gardner I. (eds) (2013) A Coptic Handbook of Ritual Power. Turnhout: Brepols.
  9. Feydit F. (1986) Amulettes de l’Arménie chrétienne. Venise: Académie arménienne Saint-Lazare.
  10. Ghazaryan D. (2013) Artistic decoration of the scroll shaped amulets from the 15th century to 1659: Summary of the PhD thesis in Armenian, Russian and English. Yerevan (in Armenian).
  11. Gurevich E. (1969) Taina drevnego talismana [The secret of an ancient talisman]. Moscow (in Russian).
  12. Harutyunyan S. (2006) Armenian incantations and folk prayers. Yerevan (in Armenian).
  13. Israelyan A. (2012) Armenian Amulets of XVIII–XX cc. Yerevan: History Museum of Armenia.
  14. Iuzbashian K. (2005) “Armianskie rukopisi v peterburgskikh sobraniiakh: katalog” [Armenian manuscripts in Saint-Petersburg collections: a catalogue], in Pravoslavnyi Palestinskii sbornik, vol. 41 (104) (in Russian).
  15. La Porta S. (2002) “Sorcerers, Witches, and Weasels: Armenian Defi nitions of the Magical Arts”. Revue des études arméniennes, 2001, vol. 28, pp. 171–214.
  16. Maguire H. (ed.) (1995) Byzantine Magic. Washington (DC).
  17. Meyer M. W., Smith R. (1999) Ancient Christian Magic: Coptic Texts of Ritual Power. Princeton (New Jersey): Princeton University Press.
  18. Odabashian A. (1976) “Narodnye verovaniia armian (po materialam rukopisnykh talismanov XV–XIX vv.)” [Armenian folk beliefs (based on handwritten amulets from XV–XIX cc.], in V. K. Gardanov (ed.) Kavkazskii etnograficheskii sbornik [The Caucasian Ethnographic Collection], Moscow, vol. 6, pp. 107–130 (in Russian).
  19. Skemer D. C. (2006) Binding Words: Textual Amulets in the Middle Ages. University Park (Pennsylvania): Pennsylvania State University Press.
  20. Stepanian L. (transl.) (2008) S. Ovan Mandakuni. Izbrannye rechi [St. Hovhannes Mandakuni. Selected homilies]. Etchmiadzin (in Russian).
  21. Tadevosian T., Kotsinian Sk. (2017) “Armianskie amulety i zagovory protiv ala i tpkhi i Sisinieva legenda” [Armenian amulets and spells against agha and tpgha and the legend of St. Sisinnius], in A. L. Toporkov (ed.) Sisinieva legenda v fol’klornykh i rukopisnykh traditsiiakh Blizhnego Vostoka, Balkan i Vostochnoi Evropy [St Sisinnius’ legend in folklore and handwritten traditions of the Near East, Balkans and Eastern Europe]. Moscow, pp. 327–372 (in Russian).
  22. Ter-Davtian K. (transl., ed.) (1994) Armianskie zhitiia i muchenichestva V–XVII vv. [Armenian Lives and Martyrdoms of V–XVII cc.]. Yerevan (in Russian).
  23. Thomson R.W. (1992) “‘Let Now the Astrologers Stand up’: The Armenian Christian Reaction to Astrology and Divination”. Dumbarton Oaks Papers, 1992, vol. 46: Homo Byzantinus: Papers in Honor of Alexander Kazhdan, pp. 305–312.
  24. Vardanyan E. (2012) “Fragments de manuscrits conservés au Musée arménien de France Fondation Nourhan Fringhian: catalogue et edition”. Revue des études arméniennes, 2012, vol. 34, pp. 289–332.
  25. Waller D. J. (2019) “Curious Characters, Invented Scripts, and... Charlatans? “Pseudo-Scripts” in the Mesopotamian Magic Bowls”. Journal of Near Eastern Studies, 2019, vol. 78, pp. 119–139.
  26. Wingate J. S. (1930) “The Scroll of Cyprian: An Armenian Family Amulet”. Folklore, 1930, vol. 41, no. 2, pp. 169–187.

Rogozhina Anna


Academic Degree: PhD in Philosophy;
Place of work: National Research University “Higher School of Economics”; 21/4 Staraia Basmannaia, Moscow 119017, Russian Federation;
ORCID: 0000-0003-4311-5257;
Email: anrogozh@gmail.com.
Salimovskaya Anastasia

The image of the caliph al-Mamun and its transformation in medieval christian-arabic literature

Salimovskaya Anastasia (2021) "The image of the caliph al-Mamun and its transformation in medieval christian-arabic literature ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia III : Filologiia, 2021, Iss. 69, pp. 106-115 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturIII202169.106-115
This article analyzes the image of the famous Abbasid caliph al-Mamun (813-833) and its transformation in monuments of Christian-Arabic hagiographic literature and apologetics. In the description of «The Miracle of Theotokos in Atrib» it will be seen how the image of the Caliph could be modified even within one work from a relatively authentic image to the gradual perception of the ruler as a composite image. And in the arabic version of «The Life of St. Theodore of Edessa» the caliph is so idealized that it takes baptism. In the description of the disputation of Theodore Abu Qurra, Arab Orthodox bishop of Harran (ca. 750 — ca. 830) with Muslim thinkers, held at the court of the caliph al-Mamun, which we regard as an example of apologetic literature, the ruler is presented more realistically. And a careful reading of the unique prayer for the Muslim ruler attributed to Theodore Abu Qurra shows that, despite the rhetorical focus of the monument, it reflects some features of the historical image of al-Mamun. The texts in question are of interest as evidence of the popularity of the chosen caliph among Arab-Christian authors who attempted to create his positive image in texts of various genres. And the creation of such an image could take many forms, from soft in apologetic literature to more radical in hagiography.
caliph al-Ma’mun, Christian-Arabic literature, hagiography, apologetics, Theodore Abu Qurra, court debate, The Miracle of Theotokos in Atrib, The Life of St. Theodore of Edessa
  1. Abel A. (1949) “La portée apologétique de la «Vie» de st. Théodore d’Edesse”. Byzantino-Slavica, 1949, vol. 10, pp. 229–240.
  2. Bertaina D. (2008) “The Debate of Theodore Abu Qurra”, in D. Thomas, B. Roggema (eds) Christian-Muslim relations: A bibliographical history, Leiden; Boston, vol. 1, pp. 556–564.
  3. Bertaina D. (2010) “Melkites, Mutakallimū n and al-Ma’mū n: Depicting the Religious Other in Medieval Arabic Dialogues”. Comparative Islamic Studies, 2010, vol. 1 (1/2), pp. 17–36.
  4. Fil’shtinskii I. (2001) Istoriia arabov i khalifata (750–1517 gg.) [History of the Arabs and the Caliphate]. Мoscow (in Russian).
  5. Frantsuzoff S. (2013) “Chudo Bogoroditsy v Atribe: tekstologicheskie osobennosti i spetsifi ka soderzhaniia” [The Miracle of Theotokos in Atrib: textological peculiarities and specifi c features of the content]. Vestnik PSTGU. Ser. III: Filologiia, 2013, vyp. 35, pp. 97–108 (in Russian).
  6. Frantsuzoff S. (ed.) (2013) “Bukharestskaia versiia Chuda Bogoroditsy v Atribe (po rukopisi B.A.R. Mss orientale 365 Biblioteki Rumynskoi akademii)” [The Miracle of Theotokos in Atrib: Version of Bucarest (B.A.R. Mss orientale 365 from the Romanian Academy Library)”]. Vestnik PSTGU. Ser. III: Filologiia, 2013, vyp. 35, pp. 133–142 (in Russian).
  7. Frantsuzoff S. (ed.) (2013) “Taibitskaia versiia Chuda Bogoroditsy v Atribe (po rukopisiam RNB Arab. n. s. 266 i Arab. n. s. 91)” [The Miracle of Theotokos in Atrib: Version of al-Tayba (The National Library of Russia Arab. n. s. 266 and Arab. n. s. 91)”]. Vestnik PSTGU. Ser. III: Filologiia, 2013, vyp. 35, pp. 143–160 (in Russian).
  8. Griffi th S. H. (1999) “The Monk in the Emir’s Majlis: Refl ections on a Popular Genre of Christian Literary Apologetics in Arabic in the Early Islamic Period”, in The Majlis: Interreligious Encounters in Medieval Islam, Wiesbaden, pp. 13–65.
  9. Moiseeva S. (2015) Arabskaia mel′kitskaia agiografi ia IX–XI vekov [The early Melkite Arabic hagiography (9th — 11th centuries)]. Мoscow (in Russian).
  10. Moiseeva S. (2015) “Ioann, muchenik, ‘persidskii tsar′’” [Martyr John, the ‘Persian king’], in Pravoslavnaia entsiklopediia [Orthodox Encyclopaedia], Мoscow, vol. 23, pp. 315–316 (in Russian).
  11. Rekaya M. (1991) “Al-Ma’mūn”, in Encyclopaedia of Islam, 2nd ed., Leiden, vol. 6, pp. 331–339.
  12. Sourdel D. (1963) “La politique religieuse du Calife ‘Abbaside al-Ma’mun”. Revue des études islamiques, 1963, t. 30, pp. 27–48.
  13. Swanson M. (ed.) (2003) “Abū Qurra’sРrayer for al-Ma’mūn”, in D. Thomas (ed.) Christians at the Heart of Islamic Rule, Leiden; Boston, pp. 87–88 (transl.: Salimovskaya A. (2020) “Molitva Feodora Abu Qurry, episkopa Harranskogo, o halife al-Ma’mun” [The prayer for the caliph al-Ma’mun by Theodore Abu Qurra, Bishop of Harran]. Vestnik PSTGU. Ser. III: Filologiia, 2020, vyp. 65, pp. 138–143 (in Russian)).
  14. Swanson M. (2003) “The Christian al-Ma’mūn tradition”, in D. Thomas (ed.) Christians at the Heart of Islamic Rule, Leiden; Boston, pp. 63–92.
  15. Thomas D. (2007) “The Caliph al-Ma’mūn”, in D. Thomas, B. Roggema (eds) Christian-Muslim relations: A bibliographical history, Leiden; Boston, vol. 1, pp. 582–584.
  16. Vasiliev A. (1942/1943) “The Life of St. Theodore of Edessa”. Byzantion, 1942/1943, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 165–225.

Salimovskaya Anastasia


Student status: Master's Degree Student;
Place of study: St. Tikhon’s Orthodox University for the Humanities; 6/1 Likhov per., Moscow 127051, Russian Federation;
ORCID: 0000-0002-4547-5400;
Email: n.salik@live.com.
I express my deep gratitude to my academic advisor, Sofya Melikyan, for her valuable advice and assistance in the preparation of this publication.
Fomicheva Sofia

Anti-exodus in memra “On Nineveh and Jonah” by Ephrem the Syrian

Fomicheva Sofia (2021) "Anti-exodus in memra “On Nineveh and Jonah” by Ephrem the Syrian ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia III : Filologiia, 2021, Iss. 69, pp. 116-129 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturIII202169.116-129
In the memra On Nineveh and Jonah by the Syriac poet and theologian St. Ephrem the Syrian († 373) the biblical story is provided with a sequel that has no parallels in the Christian tradition. This publication is the fi rst to off er its literary and theological analysis. The identifi ed intertextual connections with the books of the Bible, Jewish literature of the Second Temple period, exegetical tradition of Church Fathers and the works by St. Ephrem allow us to draw the following conclusions. The studied text is a hybrid genre that confl ates the Anti-Jewish rewritten Bible with preaching. The author’s choice of a genre, his following its rules on the one hand and innovation on the other hand is framed by the main function of the text, which is polemical. This is especially evident in the embodiment of the object to be condemned and its obvious dependence on the genre section of the memra in which the respective function is carried out. Thus, within the genre of counter-history, these are the Jews, and within the framework of the sermon are Christians, the author’s contemporaries, who live in his hometown of Nisibis. The fi ndings about the genre specifi city of a concrete memra are important not only for its interpretation and not only for the analysis of the legacy of St. Ephrem, but they can also be used in the genre studies of early Syriac literature.
Syriac Christian literature, Ephrem the Syrian, Anti-Jewish polemic, internal critique, genre of memra, exegesis of the Book of Jonah, narrative exegesis, intertextuality, rewritten Bible
  1. Beck E. (ed.) Des Heiligen Ephraem des Syrers Carmina Nisibena. Louvain: Secré tariat du Corpus Scriptorum Christianorum Orientalium, 1961. (CSCO; 218. Syr.; 92.)
  2. Beck E. (ed.) Des Heiligen Ephraem des Syrers Sermones de Fide. Louvain: Secré tariat du Corpus Scriptorum Christianorum Orientalium, 1961. (CSCO; 212. Syr; 88.)
  3. Beck E. (ed.) Des Heiligen Ephraem des Syrers Sermones II. Louvain: Secré tariat du Corpus Scriptorum Christianorum Orientalium, 1970. (CSCO; 311. Syr; 134.)
  4. Biale D., Sholem G. (1979) Kabbalah and Counter-History. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
  5. Bickerman E. (1965) “Les deux erreurs du prophète Jonas”. Revue d’Histoire et de Philosophie,1956, no. 45, pp. 232–264.
  6. Brock S. (1986) “Two Syriac verse homilies on the binding of Isaac”. Le Muséon, 1986, vol. 99, pp. 61–129.
  7. Brock S. (1992) “Syriac and Greek Hymnography: Problems of Origin”, in S. Brock. Studies in Syriac Christianity. Hampshire: Variorum, pp. 77–81.
  8. Brock S. (2010) “Dramatic Narrative Poems on Biblical Topics in Syriac”. Studia Patristica, 2010, vol. 45, pp. 183–196.
  9. Cramer W. (2003) “Frohbotschaft des Erbarmens: die Jonaerzählung in der Rezeption des Syrers Ephräm”, in K. Kiesow, T. Meurer (eds) Textarbeit: Studien zu Texten und ihrer Rezeption aus dem Alten Testament und der Umwelt Israels. Festschrift für Peter Weimar. Münster: Ugarit-Verlag, 2003, pp. 93–115.
  10. Duval Y.-M. (1973) Le Livre de Jonas dans la littérature chrétienne grecque et latine: Sources et influences du Commentaire sur Jonas de saint Jérôme. Paris: Études augustiniennes.
  11. Griffith S. (2017) “The Poetics of Scriptural Reasoning: Syriac Mêmrê at Work”, in J. Wickes, K. Heal (eds) Papers presented at the 17th International Conference on Patristic Studies held in Oxford 2015. Leuven: Peeters, vol. 4: Literature, rhetoric, and exegesis in Syriac verse, pp. 5–24. (Studia Patristica; vol. 78.)
  12. Halleux A. de (1990) “A propos du sermon ephrémien sur Jonas et la penitence des Ninivites”, in Lingua Restituta Orientalis: Festgabe für Julius Assfalg, Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, pp. 155−160. (Ägypten und Altes Testament; Bd. 20.)
  13. Hartung B. (2018) “The Mêmrâ on the Signs Moses Performed in Egypt: An Exegetical Homily of the “School” of Ephrem”. Hugoye, 2018, vol. 21, issue 2, pp. 319–356.
  14. Kavvadas N. (2015) “Translation as Taking Stances: The Emergence of Syriac Theodoranism in 5th Century Edessa”. Zeitschrift für Antikes Christentum, 2015, vol. 19, pp. 89–103.
  15. Köckert C. (2011) “Der Jona-Kommentar des Theodor von Mopsuestia: Eine christliche Jona- Auslegung an der Wende zum 5. Jahrhundert (mit einer Übersetzung des Kommentars)“, in J. Anselm, W. Kühlmann (eds) Der problematische Prophet: Die biblische Jona-Figur in Exegese, Theologie, Literatur und Bildender Kunst, Berlin: De Gruyter, pp. 1–38.
  16. Kubat R. (2014) “Memra of Ephrem the Syrian of Jonah and the Repentance of the Ninevites”. ΘΕΟΛΟΓΙΑ, 2014, vol. 85, pp. 193–210.
  17. Minov S. (2020) Memory and Identity in the Syriac “Cave of Treasures”: Rewriting the Bible in Sasanian Iran. Leiden: Brill.
  18. Philip A. (1988) “Retelling the Old Testament”, in D. A. Carson, H. G. M. Williamson (eds) It is Written: Scripture Citing Scripture: Essays in Honour of Barnabas Lindars. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 99–121.
  19. Shepardson C. (2011) “Interpreting the Ninevites Repentance: Jewish and Christian Exegetes in Late Antique Mesopotamia”. Hugoye, 2011, vol. 14, issue 1, pp. 249–277.
  20. Sprenger H. N. (ed.) Theodorus Mopsuestenus. Commentarius in Jonam, in Theodori Mopsuesteni Commentarius in XII prophetas: Einleitung und Ausgabe. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 1977, pp. 169–190.
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Fomicheva Sofia


Student status: Graduate student;
ORCID: 0000-0002-9312-3346;
Email: amerboozille@mail.ru.
Frantsouzoff Serge

Anti-calvinist treatises of two primates of the Antiochian Church from the Maniscript collection of the National Library of Russia

Frantsouzoff Serge (2021) "Anti-calvinist treatises of two primates of the Antiochian Church from the Maniscript collection of the National Library of Russia ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia III : Filologiia, 2021, Iss. 69, pp. 130-160 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturIII202169.130-160
In the article two manuscript documents of the National Library of Russia (NLR), viz. the Anti-Calvinist treatises compiled by the Antiochian Patriarchs Macarius III Ibn al-Zaim in AD 1671 and Neophytus in AD 1673, are introduced into circulation between researchers for the first time and examined in detail. They entered the Imperial Public Library in the early 19th century AD as part of the collection of Pierre P. Doubrovski and are kept at present in the Sector of Western Funds of the Manuscripts’ Department of the NLR under the numbers 1 and 2 inside the file bearing the book-mark Doubr. Aut. 60. The Treatise of Macarius III, which is extant in several copies, was edited according to the manuscript Arabe 224 of the Biblioth?que nationale de France. While its contents prove to be identical with those of the copy of the NLR, the latter differ from it with the absence of some clerics’ testimonies. As to the treatise of Neophytus, it was previously known only by its French translation made in the beginning of the 18th century AD from the manuscript kept now in the NLR. The comparison of the contents of both treatises in consideration of their division into sections is drawn. Besides that, the composition of the witnesses, who signed each of those treatises, is thoroughly analyzed. At the end of the article the certification records of these documents compiled in Middle French by the Ambassodor of France in Constantinople Charles Fran?ois Olier Marquis de Nointel as well as by its Consul I Sayda Baltazard de Bonnecorse. The author formulates a hypothesis that these treatises were ordered and delivered to France within the framework of activities aimed at preparing the abolition of the ?dit de Nantes.
Antiochian Patriarchate, Patriarch Macarius III, Patriarch Neophytus, Anti-Calvinist polemics, documents from the collection of Pierre P. Doubrovski, relations of France with Oriental Christians, Ambassador Charles Fran?ois Olier de Nointel, Consul Baltazard de Bonnecorse, abolition of the ?dit de Nantes
  1. Nasrallah J. (1979) Histoire du mouvement littéraire dans l’église melchite du Ve au XXe siècle. Louvain; Paris, vol. 4: Période ottomane, 1516–1900, t. 1: 1516–1724.
  2. Panchenko K. A. (2012) Blizhnevostochnoe pravoslavie pod osmanskim vladychestvom: Pervye tri stoletiia, 1516–1831 [The Middle Eastern Greek Orthodox community under the Ottoman dominion. The first three centuries. 1516–1831]. Moscow (in Russian).
  3. Troupeau G. (1972) Catalogue des manuscrits arabes [de la Bibliothèque nationale]. Paris, pt. 1: Manuscrits chrétiens, t. 1: Nos 1–323.
  4. Vasil’eva O. V. (2020) Pis′mennye pamiatniki Vostoka v Rossiiskoi natsional’noi biblioteke: Istoriia formirovaniia fonda, 1795–1850 [Written monuments of the East in the National Library of Russia. The history of making the collection, 1795–1850]. St. Petersburg (in Russian).
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Frantsouzoff Serge


Academic Degree: Doctor of Sciences* in History;
Academic Rank: Associate Professor;
Place of work: Institute of Oriental Manuscripts, Russian Academy of Sciences; 18 Dvortsovaya nab., St. Petersburg, 191186, Russian Federation;
ORCID: 0000-0003-3945-8898;
Email: serge.frantsouzoff@yahoo.fr.

*According to ISCED 2011, a post-doctoral degree called Doctor of Sciences (D.Sc.) is given to reflect second advanced research qualifications or higher doctorates.

BOOK REVIEWS

Golovnina Natalia

Rev. of The Question of God’s Perfection. Jewish and Christian Essays on the God of the Bible and Talmud / Eds. Y. Hazony and D. Johnson. 2019. VIII + 231 pp. (Philosophy of Religions; 8)

Golovnina Natalia (2021) Rev. of The Question of God’s Perfection. Jewish and Christian Essays on the God of the Bible and Talmud / Eds. Y. Hazony and D. Johnson. 2019. VIII + 231 pp. (Philosophy of Religions; 8), Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia III : Filologiia, 2021, Iss. 69, pp. 163-167 (in Russian).

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Golovnina Natalia


Place of work: St. Tikhon’s Orthodox University for Humanities; 6/1 Likhov pereulok, Moscow, 127051, Russian Federation;
Post: senior lecturer, deputy head of Department of the Oriental Churches;
ORCID: 0000-0003-1754-5165;
Email: n_golovnina@list.ru.