Grishchenko Alexander

The chronology of the “Genealogy of Adam through Noah” (Gen 5) in the edited Slavonicrussian Pentateuch of the 15th century: on the origins of Calendric controversy with the “Judaizers”

Grishchenko Alexander (2018) "The chronology of the “Genealogy of Adam through Noah” (Gen 5) in the edited Slavonicrussian Pentateuch of the 15th century: on the origins of Calendric controversy with the “Judaizers” ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia III : Filologiia, 2018, vol. 56, pp. 9-47 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturIII201856.9-47


This article analyses the glosses and emendations in the “Genealogy of Adam through Noah” (Gen 5) from the Edited Slavonic-Russian Pentateuch, known from copies since the end of the 15th century, in the wide context of eschatological expectations ca. 1492, i.e., in 7000 according to the Creation Era of Constantinople, when both Eastern Slavic Orthodox and Eastern European Jewish bookmen were waiting the end of the eorld (the Second Coming for the Christians and the Geulah for the Jews correspondingly). However, the chronology of the Septuagint and the Masoretic Text (and the Vulgate) does not coincide: the latter is rather shorter and, therefore, the year 7000 seems to be far from that time. The “Genealogy” in the Edited Pentateuch also used the chronology of the Masoretic Text rather than the Vulgate, as the names of the antediluvian patriarchs in the forms excluding any Greek of Latin mediation were written on the margins of the manuscript. Thus, the Edited Slavonic- Russian Pentateuch could be hypothesised as the “Russian Judaisers’ Pentateuch”.


heresy of “Judaisers”, Jewish-Christian relations, 15th century, Biblical studies, textual criticism, eschatology, chronology


  1. Alekseev A. A. (1988) “K istorii russkoi perevodcheskoi shkoly 12 v.” [“On the History of the Russian Translation School of the 12th c.”]. Trudy Otdela drevnerusskoi literatury, vol. XLI. Leningrad, pp. 154–196.
  2. Alekseev A. A. (1999) Tekstologiia slavianskoi Biblii [Textology of the Slavic Bible]. St Petersburg, Köln, Weimar, Wien.
  3. Alekseev A. A. (2005) “Masoretskii tekst v Rossii” [“Masoretic Text in Russia], in W. Moskovich et al. (eds.) Jews and Slavs, vol. 15. Jerusalem; Sofi a, pp. 195–210.
  4. Alexeev A. A. (2014) “Russian-Jewish Literary Connections of the Kievan Epoch. Results and Perspectives of Research”, in: W. Moskovich, M. Chlenov, A. Torpusman (eds.) The Knaanites: Jews in the Medieval Slavic World (= Jews and Slavs. Vol. 24). Moscow; Jerusalem, pp. 166–182.
  5. Alekseev A. I. (2012) Religioznye dvizheniia na Rusi poslednei treti 14 — nachala 16 v.: ctrigolniki i zhidovstvuiushchie [Religious Movements in Rus’ of the Last Third of the 14th — Early 14th Centuries]. Moscow.
  6. Anisimova T. V. (2018) “Fragment of the Tihonravov’s Chronograph in the Trinity-Sergiev Monastery’s Biblical Miscellany”, in: Drevnyaya Rus — Voprosy Medievistiki [Ancient Rus’: Medieval Studies], 1 (71), pp. 5–18.
  7. Bondar K. V. (2017) “Texts and Their Translators: On the Typology of Translations from Hebrew in Rus’”, in O. Belova (ed.) Contacts and Confl icts in Slavic and Jewish Cultural Tradition. Moscow, pp. 68–79.
  8. Bondar K. V. (2018) “K voprosu o evreiskom vliianii na bibleiskuiu traditsiiu u slavian” [“Jewish Influence on Biblical Tradition of Slavs”], in Toronto Slavic Quarterly, 63. Winter 2018 (available at http://sites.utoronto.ca/tsq/index.shtml).
  9. Bruni A. M. (2017) “2.5.7 Old Church Slavonic Translations [of the Pentateuch]”, in A. Lange, E. Tov (eds.) The Hebrew Bible. Vol. 1B. Pentateuch, Former and Latter Prophets (= Textual History of the Bible. Vol. 1). Leiden, Boston, pp. 230–239.
  10. Brutskus Ju. D. (1930) “Judaisierende”, in Encyclopaedia Judaica, vol. 9. Berlin, pp. 520–522.
  11. De Michelis C. G. (1993) La valdesia di Novgorod. «Giudaizzanti» e prima riforma (con un’appendice di studi e testi). Torino.
  12. Dmitriev M. V. (2016) “From Anti-Judaism to “Judaizing” in the Orthodox Culture of the Eastern Europe, Late 15th — 16th Centuries”, in M. Boytsov, O. Voskoboynikov (eds.) Polystoria: Tsari, sviatye, mifotvortsy v srednevekovoi Evrope [Poystoria: Tzars, Saints, Myth Creators in Medieval Europe]. Moscow, pp. 207–264.
  13. Džunková K. (2017) “Infl uence of the Czech Bible Translations on Other Slavic and Hungarian Bible Translations”. Vestnik slavianskikh kul’tur, vol. 43, pp. 208–219.
  14. Grishchenko A. I. (2015) “S lista ili na slukh? (Zametki o dvukh bibleizmakh-gapaksakh v slaviano-russkoi knizhnosti)” [“Visually or Aurally? (Notes on Two Hapax Bibleisms in Slavonic-Russian Booklore)”]. Palaeoslavica, 23/2, pp. 303–313.
  15. Grishchenko A. I. (2016) “The Traces of Rabbinic Exegesis for “Jacob’s Blessing to His Sons” (Gen 49) in the Apocryphal Versions of the Palaea Interpretata and Slavonic-Russian Pentateuch Edited according to the Masoretic Text”. Slavia. Časopis pro slovanskou filologii, 85/3–4, pp. 321–332.
  16. Grishchenko A. I. (2016) “Turkic Loanwords in the Slavonic-Russian Pentateuchs Edited According to the Masoretic Text”. Studia Slavica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae, 61/2, pp. 253–273; DOI: 10.1556/060.2016.61.2.1.
  17. Grishchenko A. I. (2017) “The “Wild Beasts” of Sigismund von Herberstein and the List of Clean Ungulates in the Edited Slavonic-Russian Pentateuch”. Slavistična revija, 65/4, pp. 611–628.
  18. Grishchenko A. I. (2017) “The Edited Slavonic-Russian Pentateuch from the 15th Century and the Turkic Targum: A Problem of Mutual Infl uence”. Rossica Olomucensia, 56/2, pp. 5–51.
  19. Grishchenko A. I. (2018) “The Language and Literary Contacts between East Slavs and Jews in the Middle Ages: Results and Perspectives of the Study”. Studi Slavistici, 15/1, pp. 29–60; DOI: 10.13128/Studi_Slavis-20511.
  20. Grishchenko A. I. (2018) “What Were Sturlabi Stolen by Rachel from Laban? (On the Sources of Glosses of the Slavonic-Russian Pentateuch from the 15th Century)”. Drevnyaya Rus — Voprosy Medievistiki, 1 (71), pp. 105–115.
  21. Kazakova N. A., Luria J. S. (1955) Antifeodalnye ereticheskie dvizheniia na Rusi 14 — nachala 16 veka [Anti-Feudal Heretic Movements in Rus’ of the 14th — Early 16th Centuries]. Moscow; Leningrad, 1955.
  22. Kuzenkov P. V. (2014) Khristianskie khronologicheskie sistemy. Istoriia letoschisleniia v sviatootecheskoi i vostochnokhristianskoi traditsii [Christian Chronological Systems. History of World Chronology in Patristic and East Christian Tradition]. Moscow (in Russian).
  23. Kyas V. (1997) Česká bible v dějinách národního písemnictví. Praha.
  24. Luria J. S. (1999) “Poslanie Gennadiia Ioasafu <kommentarii>” [“Gennady’s Epistle to Ioasaf: Commentary”]. Biblioteka literatury Drevnei Rusi, vol. 7. St. Petersburg, pp. 570–574 (in Russian).
  25. Pentkovskiy A. M. (2016) “The Slavic Liturgy of the Byzantine Rite and the Corpus of Slavic Liturgical Books at the End of the 9th and the Beginning of the 10th Centuries”. Slověne, 5/2, pp. 54–120.
  26. Pichkhadze A. A. (1991) “K istorii slavianskogo Parimeinika (parimeinye chteniia knigi Iskhod)” [“To the History of Slavic Parimeinik”], in: V. P. Vomperskiy, ed. Traditsii drevneishei slavianskoi pismennosti i iazykovaia kultura vostochnykh slavian. Moscow, 1991, 147–173.
  27. Pichkhadze A. А. (1996) “Iz istorii chet¸ego teksta slavianskogo Vos¸miknizhiia” [“From the History of the Text of Slavic Octateuch”]. Trudy Otdela drevnerusskoi literatury, vol. XLIX. St Petersburg, pp. 10–21 (in Russian).
  28. Schneider M. (2014) “The “Judaizers” in Muscovite Russia and Kabbalistic Eschatology”, in W. Moskovich, M. Chlenov, A. Torpusman (eds.) The Knaanites: Jews in the Medieval Slavic World (= Jews and Slavs. Vol. 24). Moscow, Jerusalem, pp. 224–260.
  29. Seebohm T. M. (1977) Ratio und Charisma: Ansätze und Ausbildung eines philosophischen und wissenschaftlichen Weltverständnisses im Moskauer Rußland (= Mainzer Philosophische Forschungen, 17). Bonn.
  30. Slavova T. (2002) Tŭlkovnata paleia v konteksta na starobŭlgarskata knizhnina. Sofia.
  31. Taube M. (1995) “The Kievan Jew Zacharia and the Astronomical Works of the Judaizers”, in W. Moskovich et al. (eds.) Jews and Slavs. Vol. 3. Jerusalem, pp. 168–198.
  32. Taube M. (1997) “Posleslovie k “Logicheskim terminam” Maimonida i eres¸ zhidovstvuiushchikh” [“Afterword to Maimonid’s “Terms of Logic” and the Heresy of Judaisers”], in N. M. Botvinnik, E. I. Vaneeva (eds.) In memoriam. Sbornik pamiati Ia. S. Lure. St. Petersburg, pp. 239–246 (in Russian).
  33. Taube M. (2005) “The Fifteenth-Century Ruthenian Translations from Hebrew and the Heresy of the Judaizers: Is There a Connection?” in V. V. Ivanov et al. (eds.) Speculum Slaviae Orientalis: Muscovy, Ruthenia and Lithuania in the Late Middle Ages (= UCLA Slavic Studies IV). Moscow, pp. 185–208.
  34. Taube M. (2012) “Jewish-Christian Collaboration in Slavic Translations from Hebrew”, in V. Izmirlieva, B. Gasparov (eds.) Translation and Tradition in “Slavia Orthodoxa”. München, pp. 26–45.
  35. Taube M. (2016) The Logika of the Judaizers: A Fifteenth-Century Ruthenian Translation from Hebrew. Jerusalem.
  36. Temchin S. Yu. (2006) “Schariya and Skorina: Concerning Sources of the Vilnius’ Copy of the Old Testament (F 19-262)”. Senoji lietuvos literatūra, vol. 21, pp. 289–316.
  37. Temchin S. Yu. (2012) “The Cyrillic 16th Century Manuscript Manual of Hebrew: A General Presentation of the Source”, in J. Jaroslavienė et al. (eds.) Naujausi kalbų ir kultūrų tyrimai. Vilnius, pp. 137–180.
  38. Temchin S. Yu. (2014) “Bible Fragments in the Cyrillic Manuscript Manual of Hebrew (16th Century Copy): Between the Old Church Slavonic and the Ruthenian Language”, in N. Morozova (ed.) Slavianskaia pismennost Velikogo kniazhestva Litovskogo: Kharakternye cherty i spetsifi cheskie osobennosti [Slavic Literature of Great Duchy of Lithuania: Characteristic Features and Specifi c Traits]. Vilnius, pp. 227–238.
  39. Thomson Fr. J. (1998) “The Slavonic Translation of the Old Testament”, in J. Krašovec (ed.) Interpretation of the Bible. Ljubljana; Sheffi eld, pp. 605–920.
  40. Uspenskij B. A. (2012) “The name of God in the Slavic Bible”. Voprosy Jazykoznanija, 6, pp. 93–122.
  41. Uspenskij B. A (2013) “Bukva Ė v drevnerusskikh pevcheskikh tekstakh i v spiskakh bibleiskoi knigi Iskhod” [“The Letter Ė in Old Russian Singing Texts and in Copies of the Book of Exodus”]. Voprosy Jazykoznanija, 6, pp. 79–114.
  42. Uspenskij B. A. (2014) “From the History of Slavic Bible: Slavic-Hebrew Language Contacts in Medieval Russia (Based on Nomina Sacra)”. Voprosy Jazykoznanija, 5, 24–55.
  43. Vilkul T. L. (2015) Kniga Iskhod: Drevneslavianskii polnyi (chetii) tekst po spiskam XIV–XVI vekov [The Book of Exodus: Full Old Russian Text on Copies of the 14th — 16th Centuries]. Moscow.
  44. Vodolazkin E. G. (2007) “Novoe o paleiakh (nekotorye itogi i perspektivy izucheniia paleinykh tekstov)” [“New Data on Palaioi (Some Results and Prospects of Study of Palaioi)”]. Russkaia Literatura, 1, pp. 3–23.
  45. Zhelyazkova V. (2016) “The Book of Exodus in South Slavonic Copies of the 15th — 16th Centuries”. Studi Slavistici, XIII, pp. 243–256; DOI: 10.13128/Studi_Slavis-20432.

Information about the author

Grishchenko Alexander

Academic Degree: Candidate of Sciences* in Philology;
Place of work: Moscow State Pedagogical University; 1/1 Malaya Pirogovskaya Str., Moscow 119991, Russian Federation;
Post: Associate Professor at the Russian Language Department;
ORCID: 0000-0001-7170-365X;
Email: a.i.grishchenko@mpgu.edu.

*According to the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) 2011, the degree of Candidate of Sciences (Cand.Sc.) belongs to ISCED level 8 — "doctoral or equivalent", together with PhD, DPhil, D.Lit, D.Sc, LL.D, Doctorate or similar.


This article was written with the support of the President of the Russian Federation Grant (project “The Linguistic and Textological Study of the Slavonic-Russian Pentateuch Edited according to the Masoretic Text,” МK-1338.2017.6). The author expresses his deep gratitude for the valuable advice and assistance to Prof. Dan Shapira (Bar-Ilan University, Israel).