St. Tikhon’s University Review . Series II: History. Russian Church History

St. Tikhon’s University Review II :90


Feofanov Alexander

Corporate identity of orthodox clergy of the Russian empire: historiography of the topic

Feofanov Alexander (2019) "Corporate identity of orthodox clergy of the Russian empire: historiography of the topic ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia II : Istoriia. Istoriia Russkoy Pravoslavnoy Tserkvi, 2019, Iss. 90, pp. 9-21 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturII201990.9-21
This article examines current historiography of studies of the Orthodox clergy of the Russian Empire with the aim of raising a question about self-identifi cation of pre-revolutionary priests. The article discusses descriptions of the clergy in present-day social and historical studies and identifi es the eff orts to raise a question about corporate identity applied to the clergy. In relevant studies, there is still no clear answer to the questions about how the clergy of the imperial period perceived themselves, what their system of values and their mental agenda were, despite the fact that there has been accumulated considerable data presented in theses, monographs, and articles dealing with the clergy of various dioceses of Synodal period and describing their numbers, incomes, ways of life, education, and other social characteristics. Still, the problem of mentality and corporate identity has only been formulated. It is necessary to broaden the specifi c empirical knowledge based on the analysis of the whole range of sources of personal character dating from the Synodal period (memoirs, notes, diaries of the clergy) in which one can fi nd examples of manisfestation of the corporate identity (related to the social stratum or professional), even if these concepts were not clearly pronounced and are only implicit. The application of interdisciplinary methods, employment of concepts of sociology, social phenomenology and cultural anthropology will help to expose the potential of the sources and give a more in-depth analysis of the data.
corporate identity, Orthodox clergy, historiography, social stratum, history of concepts
  1. Begovatov D. (2016) Gorodskoe pravoslavnoe dukhovenstvo Tverskoi eparkhii v pervoi polovine XIX veka: professional’naia deiatel’nost’ i povsednevnaia zhizn’ [Urban Orthodox Clergy of Tver’ Diocese in the First Half of the 19th Century: Professional Activity and Everyday Life]. Tver’ (in Russian).
  2. Belonogova Y. (2010) Prikhodskoe dukhovenstvo i krest’ianskii mir v nachale XX veka (po materialam Moskovskoi eparkhii) [Parish Clergy and Peasantry in the Early 20th Century (based on materials of Moscow diocese)]. Moscow (in Russian).
  3. Bernshtam T. (2007) Prikhodskaia zhizn’ russkoi derevni: Ocherki po tserkovnoi ehtnografi i [Parish Life of the Russian Village: Studies of Church Ethnography]. St. Petersburg (in Russian).
  4. Elias N. (2001) O protsesse tsivilizatsii: Sotsiogeneticheskie i psikhogeneticheskie issledovaniia [On the Process of Civilisation: Sociogenetical and Psychogenetical Studies]. Moscow; St. Petersburg (in Russian).
  5. Fot A. (2016) Povsednevnaia zhizn’ pravoslavnogo prikhodskogo dukhovenstva Orenburgskoi eparkhii vo vtoroi polovine XIX — nachale XX vv. [Everyday Life of Orthodox Parish Clergy of Orenburg Diocese in the Second Half of the 19th — Beginning of the 20th Centuries]. Orenburg (in Russian).
  6. Freeze G. (1977) The Russian Levites: Parish Clergy in the Eighteenth Century. Harvard University Press.
  7. Giddens A. (1991) Modernity and Self-Identity. Stanford.
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  9. Kamkin A. (1992) Pravoslavnaia tserkov’ na severe Rossii. Ocherki istorii do 1917 goda [Orthodox Church in the North of Russia. Essays in History til 1917]. Vologda (in Russian).
  10. Konyuchenko A. (2006) Tona i polutona pravoslavnogo belogo dukhovenstva Rossii [Colours and Shades of Orthodox Clergy of Russia]. Chelyabinsk (in Russian).
  11. Leont’eva T. (2002) Vera i progress: pravoslavnoe sel’skoe dukhovenstvo Rossii vo vtoroi polovine XIX — nachale XX vv. [Belief in the Progress: Orthodox Rural Clergy of Russia in the Second Half the 19th — Beginning of the 20th Centuries]. Moscow (in Russian).
  12. Leont’eva T. (2006) “Russkoe pravoslavnoe dukhovenstvo i antisemitizm v gody revoliutsii i grazhdanskoi voiny” [Russian Orthodox Clergy and Anti-Semitism in the Time of Revolution and Civil War], in: Vlast’ i obshchestvo. Natsional’naia politika i mezhetnicheskie otnosheniia (istoricheskii opyt i sovremennost’) [State Authorities and Society. National Policy and Interethnic Relations (Historical Experience and Present Days)]. Krasnodar. Pp. 150–155 (in Russian).
  13. Leont’eva T. (2007) “Pravoslavnoe dukhovenstvo i russkaia revoliutsiia” [Orthodox Clergy and Russian Revolution], in: K istorii russkikh revoliutsii. Sobytiia, mneniia, otsenki [On the History of Russian Revolutions. Events, Opinions, Assessments]. St. Petersburg. Pp. 582–603 (in Russian).
  14. Leontieva T. (2007) “The Peasantry and the Rural Clergy in Russia, 1900–1920”. The Soviet and Post-Soviet Review, 27 (1–3), pp. 143–162
  15. Lumann N. (2010) Obshchestvo obshchestva [The Society of Societies]. Moscow (in Russian).
  16. Lur’e S. (1994) Metamorfozy traditsionnogo soznaniia: Opyt razrabotki teoreticheskikh osnov etnopsikhologii i ikh primeneniia k analizu istoricheskogo i etnografi cheskogo materiala [Metamorphoses of Traditional Consciousness. Attempt at Development of Theoretical Grounds of Ethnopsychology and of their Application to Analysis of Historical and Ethnographical Material]. St Petersburg (in Russian).
  17. Makarcheva Е. (2011) Soslovnye problemy dukhovenstva Sibiri i tserkovnoe obrazovanie v kontse XVIII — pervoi polovine XIX veka [Problems of Clergy of Siberia related to Social Stratum, and Church Education at the End of the 18th — First Half of the 19th Centuries]. Novosibirsk (in Russian).
  18. Mangileva A. (2015) Sotsiokul’turnyi oblik prikhodskogo dukhovenstva Permskoi gubernii v XIX — nachale XX v. [Sociocultural Features of the Parish Clergy of Permskaya Guberniya in the 19th — Early 20th Centuries]. Ekaterinburg (in Russian).
  19. Manchester L. (2015) Popovichi v miru: dukhovenstvo, intelligentsiia i stanovlenie sovremennogo samosoznaniia v Rossii [Priests’ Children in Secular Society: Clergy, Intellectuals, and Formation of Modern Consciousness in Russia]. Moscow (in Russian).
  20. Mironov B. (2014) Rossiiskaya imperiia. Ot traditsii k modernu [Russian Empire. From Tradition to the Modernity]. St. Petersburg (in Russian).
  21. Prokof’ev A. (2010) Prikhodskaia reforma 1864 goda i ee vliianie na samosoznanie prikhodskogo dukhovenstva [Parish Reform of 1864 and its Impact in the Consciousness of Parish Clergy]. Moscow (in Russian).
  22. Rozov A. (2003) Sel’skii sviashchennik v dukhovnoj zhizni russkogo krest’ianstva vtoroi poloviny XIX — nachala XX vv. [The Rural Priest in Spiritual Life of Russian Peasantry of the Second Half of the 19th — Beginning of the 20th Centuries]. St. Petersburg (in Russian).
  23. Skutnev A. (2009). Pravoslavnoe dukhovenstvo na zakate imperii [Orthodox Clergy in the Twilight of the Empire]. Kirov (in Russian).
  24. Shiuts A. (2003) Smyslovaia struktura povsednevnosti mira: ocherki po fenomenologicheskoi sotsiologii [Semantic Structure of Everyday World: Essays in Phenomenological Sociology]. Moscow (in Russian).
  25. Vasil’eva A. (2015) Sotsiokul’turnyi oblik pravoslavnogo dukhovenstva v Zapadnoi Sibiri v kontse XIX — nachale XX vv. [Sociocultural Features of Orthodox Clergy in Western Siberia at the End of the 19th — Beginning of the 20th Centuries]. Moscow (in Russian).
  26. Vsevolodov A. (2014) Pravoslavnoe prikhodskoe dukhovenstvo v 1840–1880-e gg.: material’noe obespechenie, korporativnaia organizatsiya, samosoznanie (na materialakh Vologodskoi eparkhii) [Orthodox Parish Clergy in the 1840‒1880s: Financial Situation, Corporate Organisation, Consciousness (on materials of Vologda diocese)]. Cherepovets (in Russian).

Feofanov Alexander

Academic Degree: Candidate of Sciences* in History;
Place of work: St. Tikhon’s Orthodox University; 23b Novokuznetskaya st., Moscow 115184, Russian Federation; Associate Professor of the department of History of Russia;
Post: Associate Professor, Department of Russian History;
ORCID: 0000-0001-7180-0927;
Email: aleksandr-feofanov@yandex.ru.

*According to the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) 2011, the degree of Candidate of Sciences (Cand.Sc.) belongs to ISCED level 8 — "doctoral or equivalent", together with PhD, DPhil, D.Lit, D.Sc, LL.D, Doctorate or similar.

Vinyukova Nadezda

Ministry at Butyrskaya transit prison: experience of priest Joseph Fudel’ (1892‒1907)

Vinyukova Nadezda (2019) "Ministry at Butyrskaya transit prison: experience of priest Joseph Fudel’ (1892‒1907) ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia II : Istoriia. Istoriia Russkoy Pravoslavnoy Tserkvi, 2019, Iss. 90, pp. 22-38 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturII201990.22-38
This article deals with the ministry of the Russian Orthodox Church in prisons with the experience of priest Iosif Iosifovich Fudel’ as an example. He served at Butyrskaya prison in 1892‒1907. The study draws on both archival and published materials, i.e. legislative sources, memoirs of contemporaries, essays and diary of Father Iosif himself. The article sheds light on this period of Father Iosif’s life, whose biography has not been thoroughly studied so far, and shows the role, responsibilities and capabilities of the person in the prison. It also outlines several acute issues of the penitentiary system of that time (degree of punishment, judicial faults, conditions of imprisonment, separation of families, maintenance of children, etc.) The range of the priest’s activities in the prison was truly enormous. Apart from the church service, being a spiritual preceptor, regular visits to all cells, he was responsible for the school, library, infi rmary, as well as dealt with the reunion of families and fi nancial aid to exiles. Having immersed in the milieu of “deprived” ordinary people, Father Iosif, on the one hand, became convinced of the validity of Christian worldview and high standards of the ordinary farmer who was raised in this worldview. On the other hand, he saw the imperfection of the penitentiary system, in many respects inhuman and unable to improve and revive the person. The end of the 15-year long period of his offi ce at Butyrskaya prison fell on the time of the fi rst Russian revolution which signifi cantly changed the situation and types of those imprisoned as well as requirements to the priest. Fudel’s ideas about the pastor’s mission, non-accusatory sermon, and voluntary communication with the fl ock came to be discordant with opinions of the management of the prison. As a result, he was tranferred to the parish of the church of St. Nicholas in Plotniki.
Iosif Fudel, Russian Orthodox Church, pre-revolutionary penitentiary system, prison ministry of Russian Orthodox Church, Butyrskaya prison, priest’s biography
  1. Balashov N., protopriest, Saraskina L. (2011) Sergei Fudel’. Moscow (in Russian).
  2. Gernet M. (1946) Istoriia tsarskoi tiur’my [History of the Tzarist Prison], in 5 vols. Vol. 1. Moscow (in Russian).
  3. Golovkova L. (1993) “Butyrskii tiuremnyi khram: iz istorii Butyrskoi tiur’my” [Church of Butyrskaya Prison: From the History of Butyrskaya Prison]. Moskovskii zhurnal, 2/3, pp. 33–37 (in Russian).
  4. Detkov M. (1990) Ispolnenie nakazaniia v dorevoliutsionnoi Rossii: organizatsionno-pravovye aspekty stanovleniia i razvitiia sistemy ispolneniia nakazaniia v vide lisheniia svobody [Administering the Punishment in Pre-Revolutionary Russia: Organisational and Legal Aspects of the Emergence and Development of the System of Administering Punishment by Imprisonment]. Moscow (in Russian).
  5. Fetisenko O. (ed.) (2012) «Preemstvo ot ottsov»: Konstantin Leont’ev i Iosif Fudel’: Perepiska. Stat’i. Vospominaniia [“Succession from the Fathers”: Konstantin Leontiev and Iosif Fudel’: Correspondence. Articles. Memoirs]. St Petersburg (in Russian).
  6. Fetisenko O. (2010) “Dostoevskii, “russkie mal’chiki” i “pravoslavnye nemtsy” (“Gody ucheniia” Iosifa Fudelia)” [Dostoevsky, “Russian Boys” and “Orthodox Germans” (Iosif Fudel’s “Years of Apprenticeship”)], in: Dostoevskii: Materialy i issledovaniia [Dostoevsky: Materials and Studies]. St Petersburg. Pp. 203–221 (in Russian).
  7. Fetisenko O. (2012) Geptastilisty: Konstantin Leont’ev, ego sobesedniki i ucheniki: Idei russkogo konservatizma v literaturno-khudozhestvennykh i publitsisticheskikh praktikakh vtoroi poloviny XIX — pervoi chetverti XX veka [Konstantin Leontiev, his Interlocutors and Students: Ideas of Russian Conservatism in Fiction and Essayistic Practices of the 2nd Half of the 19th — 1st Quarter of the 20th Centuries]. St Petersburg (in Russian).
  8. Rezvykh T. (2012) “«Ia chuvstvoval sebia kak by ego vnukom — cherez syna — cherez o. Iosifa...» (Otets Sergii Durylin — issledovatel’ tvorchestva K. N. Leont’eva)” [“I felt like his Grandson — through the Son — through Father Iosif” (Revd. Sergiy Durylin, the Explorer of Konstantin Leontiev’s Literary Work]. Khristianstvo i russkaia literatura, 7, pp. 257–357 (in Russian).
  9. Spiridon (Kisliakov G.) (2018) Ispoved’ sviashchennika pered Tserkov’iu [Priest’s Confession in the Face of the Church]. Moscow (in Russian).
  10. Zubanova S. (2010) Sotsial’noe sluzhenie Russkoi Pravoslavnoi Tserkvi v XX veke [Social Ministry of the Russian Orthodox Church in the 20th Century]. Moscow (in Russian).
  11. Zubanova S., Ruzanova N. (2011) Russkaia Pravoslavnaia Tserkov’ v Rossii v XIX veke (sotsial’nyi aspekt deiatel’nosti) [Russian Orthodox Church in Russia of the 19th Century (Social Aspect of Activities). Moscow (in Russian).

Vinyukova Nadezda

Student status: Graduate student;
Academic Degree: Doctor* of Pharmaceutical Sciences;
Place of work: Moscow State University;
Post: Editor of Programme "Кто мы?" at TV channel "Россия-Культура";
ORCID: 0000-0002-3030-086X;
Email: nadinvin1@ya.ru.

*According to ISCED 2011, a post-doctoral degree called Doctor of Sciences (D.Sc.) is given to reflect second advanced research qualifications or higher doctorates.

Alpyspaeva Galya

Archival sources on the implementation of the Decree “On separation of church from state, and school from church” in Kazakhstan in the 1920s (based on materials of Akmola district)

Alpyspaeva Galya (2019) "Archival sources on the implementation of the Decree “On separation of church from state, and school from church” in Kazakhstan in the 1920s (based on materials of Akmola district) ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia II : Istoriia. Istoriia Russkoy Pravoslavnoy Tserkvi, 2019, Iss. 90, pp. 39-54 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturII201990.39-54
Drawing on archival materials, this article examines the role of local authorities in the implementation of the decree of the Council of People’s Commissars of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic of January 23, 1918 “On the separation of church from state, and school from church”. The purpose of the article is to demonstrate the role and signifi cance of archival sources for the study of regional aspects of the implementation by the Bolsheviks of a historical document that determined state-church relations. As a case study, material of the history of Akmola district is employed. The relevance of the topic is due to the scientifi c importance of expanding the range of sources on the subject; it is also necessary to study the practical experience of implementing the decree on the outskirts of the country. The study draws on previously unpublished archival sources from the State Archive of Astana which are made public for the fi rst time. These are records of Akmola workers’ and peasants’ militia (F. 247), records of the administration of Executive committee of Akmola district (F. 259) and of the City council of representatives of workers of Akmola (F. 32); legislative and legal acts and correspondence of authorities of various levels as to the issues of implementing the decree; questionnaires for registering the clergy in the district. Archival materials characterise religious communities in terms of the numbers of their members and their social composition, their fi nancial situation; methods of putting into practice the provisions of the decree; policy of local authorities concerning the religious population. The study of the sources identifi es an important aspect of the problem, i.e. the attitude of religious communities to the Soviet power on the whole and to the decree in particular. The critical analysis of the archival documents allows one to show the regional aspects of the implementation of the decree that are conditioned by political and socio-economical reasons. The implementation of the decree in districts of Kazakhstan with their polyethnicity and numerous confessions commenced later than in the central regions of the country and was carried out in accordance with instructions of authorities of the republic. There was an instruction for local authorities to coordinate their actions towards Muslims with representatives of the Kazakh section at the Council of the district. This caution was due to the general strategy of the Bolsheviks in the outskirts of the country which was directed to overcoming the colonial past and involving the outskirts in the national state development. By the latter half of the 1920s, the state policy as to all religious confessions came to be unifi ed. Rights of religious people were violated, particularly during liquidation of operating centres of confessions.
decree “On separation of church from state, and school from church”, Kazakhstan, Akmola district, religious communities, Soviet power
  1. Beloglazov R. (2016) Normativno-pravovaia baza funktsionirovaniia musul’manskikh konfessional’nykh shkol v Krymskoi ASSR v 1920–e gody [Legislative and Legal Base of Functioning of Muslim Confessional Schools in the Crimean ASSR in the 1920s]. Dostizheniya nauki i obrazovaniya. Nauchno-metodicheskii zhurnal, 5 (6), рр. 28–32 (in Russian).
  2. Emel’yanov S. (2001) Vlast’ i tserkov’: evoliutsiia gosudarstvennoi religioznoi politiki i institutov tserkovnogo upravleniia v guberniiakh Tsentral’nogo Chernozem’ia 1917–1922 [State Authorities and the Church: Evolution of State Religious Policy and Institutions of Church Administration in Provinces of Central Black-Soil Region, 1917‒1922]. Moscow; Kursk (in Russian)
  3. Kashevarov A. (1995) Gosudarstvo i tserkov’. Iz istorii vzaimootnoshenii Sovetskoi vlasti i Russkoi pravoslavnoi tserkvi. 1917-1945 gg. [State and the Church. From the History of Mutual Relations of the Soviet State and Russian Orthodox Church. 1917‒1945]. St. Petersburg (in Russian).
  4. Khayruddinova E. (2011) “Osobennosti vzaimootnoshenii sovetskoi vlasti i musul’man v Krymskoi ASSR (nachalo 20-kh — konets 30-kh gg. XX veka)” [Characteristic Features of Relations between the Soviet Government and Muslims in the Crimean Autonomous Republic (1920–1930)]. Uchenye zapiski Tavricheskogo natsional’nogo universiteta im. V. I. Vernadskogo. Seriya «Istoricheskie nauki», 24 (63), no. 2: History of Ukraine, рр. 134–139 (in Russian).
  5. Kireeva N. (2008) “Realizatsiia Dekreta «Ob otdelenii tserkvi ot gosudarstva i shkoly ot tserkvi» v Bashkirskoi ASSR v 1920-e gody” [Implementation of the Decree concerning the Separation of the Church from the State in Bashkir ASSR in the 1920s]. Izvestiia Rossiiskogo gosudarstvennogo pedagogicheskogo universiteta imeni A. I. Gertsena. Aspirantskie tetradi, 31, рр. 115–118. (in Russian).
  6. Kozlov F. (2012) “Otdelenie tserkvi ot gosudarstva: realizatsiia Dekreta SNK RSFSR ot 23 ianvaria 1918 g. v Mariiskom, Mordovskom i Chuvashskom kraiakh” [Separating the Church from the State: Implementation of the Decree of the Council of People’s Commissars of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic of January 23, 1918 in Mari, Mordva, and Chuvash Regions]. Istoricheskie, filosofskie, politicheskie i iuridicheskie nauki, kul’turologiia i iskusstvovedenie. Voprosy teorii i praktiki, 8 (22), pt. 2, рр. 92–101 (in Russian).
  7. Krivova N. (1997) Vlast’ i tserkov’ v 1922–1925 gg.: Politbiuro i GPU v bor’be za tserkovnye tsennosti i politicheskoe podchinenie dukhovenstva [State Authorities and the Church in 1922‒1925: Politbureau and GPU in the Fight for Church Valuables and for Political Submission of the Clergy]. Moscow (in Russian).
  8. Nechaev M. (2004) Tserkov’ na Urale v period velikikh potriasenii 1917–1922 gg. [Church in the Ural Region in the Period of Great Turmoils of 1917‒1922]. Perm’ (in Russian).
  9. Petrov S. (2004) Dokumenty deloproizvodstva Politbiuro TsK RKP(b) kak istochnik po istorii russkoi tserkvi (1921–1925 gg.) [Documents of Politbureau of the Central Committee of the Communist Party as a Source for the History of Russian Church (1921‒1925)]. Moscow (in Russian).
  10. Petrova E. (2016) “Dekret ob otdelenii tserkvi ot gosudarstva i ego realizatsiia v Saratovskom Povolzh’ie v 1917–1920 godakh” [Decree on the Separation of the Church from the State and its Implementation in Saratov Volga Region in 1917–1920]. Izvestiia Saratovskogo universiteta. Istoriia. Mezhdunarodnye otnosheniia, 16 (4), pp. 479–481 (in Russian).
  11. Shkarovskii M. (1995) Peterburgskaia eparkhiia v gody gonenii i utrat (1917‒1945) [Petersburg Diocese in the years of Persecutions and Losses (1917‒1945)]. St Petersburg (in Russian).
  12. Sipeikin A. (2016) “Antireligioznaia i antitserkovnaia politika sovetskoi vlasti: 1917–1920 gody” [Soviet Anti-Religious and Anti-Church Policy: 1917–1920]. Vestnik Tverskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. Istoriya, 4, рр. 16–38 (in Russian).
  13. Sushko A., Petin D. (2018) “Vy pochli svoevremennym prisposobit’ delenie eparkhii primenitel’no k novomu grazhdanskomu deleniiu…”. Doklad episkopa Omskogo Arkadiia mitropolitu Nizhegorodskomu Sergiiu i Sviashchennomu Sinodu. 1929 g. [“You Have Judged It Opportune to Adjust the Division of Dioceses according to the New Civil Division...’: The Report of Arkadiy, Bishop of Omsk, to Sergiy, Metropolitan of Nizhny Novgorod, and the Holy Synod. 1929]. Vestnik arkhivista, 2, pp. 387‒405 (in Russian).
  14. Tsypin V. (2012) Istoriia Russkoi Pravoslavnoi Tserkvi: Sinodal’nyi i noveishii period. 1700-2005 [History of Russian Orthodox Church: Synodal and Present-Day Periods. 1700‒2005]. Sretenskii stavropigial’nyi monastyr’ (in Russian).
  15. Zaitseva L. (2011) “Realizatsiia Dekreta ob otdelenii tserkvi ot gosudarstva na primere goroda Eniseiska (1920‒1923 gg.)” [Implementation of the Decree about the Separation of the Church from the State with the City of Yeniseisk as an Example (1920‒1923)], in: Molodezh’ i nauka: Sbornik materialov VI Vserossiiskoi nauchno-tekhnicheskoi konferentsii studentov, aspirantov i molodykh uchenykh [Young People and Science: Proceedings of the 6th All-Russian Conference of Under-and Postgraduate Students and Young Researchers]. Krasnoyarsk. Available at http://conf.sfu-kras.ru/sites/mn2010/section7.html (accessed 07.10.2019) (in Russian).

Alpyspaeva Galya

Academic Degree: Doctor of Sciences* in History;
Academic Degree: Doctor of Sciences* in History;
Academic Rank: Associate Professor;
Place of work: Saken Seifullin Kazakh Agrotechnical University; 69 Prospekt Pobedy, Nur-Sultan, 010011, Republic of Kazakhstan;
ORCID: 0000-0002-0672-8292;
Email: galpyspaeva@mail.ru.

*According to ISCED 2011, a post-doctoral degree called Doctor of Sciences (D.Sc.) is given to reflect second advanced research qualifications or higher doctorates.

Тhe article is prepared with fi nancial support from of the Departments of Еducation and science of Republic of Kazakhstan on the program of the State scientifi c grants. Order of Мinister for Еducation and Science of РК № 672 of 06.12. 2018.
Mazyrin Alexander, priest

Evolution of the attitude of metropolitan (patriarch) Sergiy (Stragorodskiy) to the renovationist schism in the 1920–1940s

Mazyrin Alexander (2019) "Evolution of the attitude of metropolitan (patriarch) Sergiy (Stragorodskiy) to the renovationist schism in the 1920–1940s ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia II : Istoriia. Istoriia Russkoy Pravoslavnoy Tserkvi, 2019, Iss. 90, pp. 55-78 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturII201990.55-78
This article deals with changes in the attitude of metropolitan (Patriarch at the end of his life) Sergiy (Stragorodskiy; Russ. Сергий Страгородский) to the Sovietinspired Renovationist schism (Russ. обновленческий раскол) in the Russian Orthodox Church. The article examines the circumstances of metropolitan Sergiy’s fall into the schism in June 1922 and his subsequent activity within this schism. The background of these vicissitudes is development of contradictions in his relations with the “Living Church” (Russ. Живая Церковь). The article also studies the issue of his involvement or non-involvement in the work of the Renovationist “Higher Church Administration” (Russ. Высшее Церковное Управление) in the light of his dismissal from Vladimir see in November 1922. Further, the article looks at metropolitan Sergiy’s stand as to Renovationism after his reunion with Patriarch’s Church, both during the offi ce of Patriarch Tikhon and of Patriarch’s Locum Tenens Metropolitan Petr (1923–1925), and during the time when he himself became head of Moscow Patriarchate as Deputy Locum Tenens. Attention is paid to his strict attitude to the schism which was expressed, among other things, in his requirement to accept those baptised in Renovationism through Chrismation. This being said, his political stance in 1927 came to be quite close to Renovationism, which allowed church zealots to accuse him of some kind of “new Renovationism”. His final attitude to Renovationism was seen in the period of liquidation of the schism during the Great Patriotic War, when the strictness as to the order of acceptance of the repentant combined with oekonomia that admitted in certain cases acceptance of schismatic consecrations. In its conclusion, the article proposes an explanation of fluctuations of this personage as to the Renovationist schism. Presumably, the cause was not only his opportunism, of which he was accused by many contemporaries, but rather the features of his ecclesiological views that attached prime importance to the administrative mechanism of the church.
Russian Orthodox Church, Moscow Patriarchate, Patriarch Sergiy (Stragorodsky), Higher Church Administration, Renovationist schism, “Living Church”, Vladimir diocese, reacceptance of schismatics, opportunism, ecclesiology
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  9. Kuznetsov A. (2002) Obnovlencheskii raskol v Russkoi Tserkvi [Renovationist Schism in Russian Church]. Moscow (in Russian).
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  13. Manuil (Lemeshevsky) (1994) “Patriarkh Sergii i obnovlencheskii raskol” [Patriarch Sergiy and the Renovationist Schism]. Zhurnal Moskovskoi Patriarkhii, 5, pp. 103–106 (in Russian).
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  15. Mazyrin A., Kostryukov A. (2017) Iz istorii vzaimootnoshenii Russkoi i Konstantinopol’skoi Tserkvei v XX veke [From the History of Relations between the Russian and Constantinople Churches in the 20th Century]. Moscow (in Russian).
  16. Mazyrin A., Nikolaev S. (2018). “Chiny priema v Pravoslavnuiu Tserkov’ iz obnovlencheskogo raskola. Dokumenty Patriarkha Tikhona i Patriarshego Mestobliustitelia mitropolita Petra 1923–1925 gg.” [Orders of Reception into the Orthodox Church from the Renovationist Schism. Documents of Patriarch Tikhon and Patriarch’s Locum Tenens Metropolitan Peter, 1923–1925]. Vestnik PSTGU. Series II. History. Russian Church History, 85, pp. 133–149 (in Russian).
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  25. Shevchenko T. (2018) Valaamskie inoki v epokhu gonenii: Moskovskoe podvor’e Valaamskogo monastyria i ego nasel’niki posle revoliutsii 1917 goda [Valaam Monks in the Era of Persecution: Moscow House of Valaam Monastery and its Inhabitants after the Revolution of 1917]. Moscow (in Russian).
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Mazyrin Alexander, priest

Academic Degree: Doctor of Theology;
Academic Degree: Candidate of Sciences* in History;
Academic Rank: Professor;
Place of work: St. Tikhon’s Orthodox University for the Humanities; 6/1 Likhov Pereulok, Moscow 127051, Russian Federation;
Post: professor;
ORCID: 0000-0002-6490-9745;
Email: am_pstbi@mail.ru.

*According to the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) 2011, the degree of Candidate of Sciences (Cand.Sc.) belongs to ISCED level 8 — "doctoral or equivalent", together with PhD, DPhil, D.Lit, D.Sc, LL.D, Doctorate or similar.

Significantly improved version of the report made at the conference "Patriarch Sergius (Stragorodsky). Time and heritage (to the 75th anniversary of his death)" (Moscow, Institute of Russian history, RAS, may 14, 2018). The publication was prepared within the framework of the project "Higher governance in the Russian Orthodox Church in the 1920s-1930s: problems of canonical and practical succession" with the support Of the Fund for the development of STOU.
Shumylo Sergey

Canonised while still alive... Ministry of the confessor of the faith archpriest Alexander Makov (1881‒1985) in Kuban’ region and in Chernigov

Shumylo Sergey (2019) "Canonised while still alive... Ministry of the confessor of the faith archpriest Alexander Makov (1881‒1985) in Kuban’ region and in Chernigov ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia II : Istoriia. Istoriia Russkoy Pravoslavnoy Tserkvi, 2019, Iss. 90, pp. 79-114 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturII201990.79-114
This article studies the life and ministry of the Orthodox Confessor of the Faith (Russ. исповедник) Archpriest Alexander Makov (1881‒1985; Russ. Александр Маков), who survived the revolution and civil war, the Renovationist schism (Russ. обновленческий раскол), the persecution of the Orthodox faith, repression and underground (catacomb) ministry in the USSR. In the 1920s, in Ekaterinodar (Krasnodar), he was the only Orthodox priest who remained faithful to Patriarch Tikhon, whereas the rest of the clergy of the city, headed by the ruling bishop, fell into the Renovationist schism. Not having a single “Tikhon’s” Orthodox church in Krasnodar, he went underground in 1922‒23 and began to perform divine worship at home. Having received special blessing from Patriarch Tikhon, he accepted through repentance priests from Renovationism to Orthodoxy in Kuban’ region. He was repeatedly arrested and persecuted by Soviet authorities. After serving a long sentence in forced labour camps and exiles, he was forbidden to live in Kuban’ region and in the major cities of the USSR. Hiding from persecutors, he moved to the city of Chernigov (Ukraine), where he established an underground (catacomb) community and illegally performed divine service at home up to his repose in 1985. Because of the fact that after his move to Chernigov and his start of underground service, there was no reliable information about him any longer, it was thought that he fi nished his life in the period of mass repression of Stalinist time. Following this opinion, the data about him, borrowed from the book by Revd. Mikhail Pol’skiy (Russ. Михаил Польский), was included in the lists of New Martyrs and Russia’s Confessors of Faith submitted for glorifi cation by the Council of the Russian Orthodox Church Abroad in 1981. At that moment, Revd. Alexander Makov was exactly one hundred years old; consequently, there seemed to be no hope that he could survive such trials and live up to such an age. Nevertheless, in 1981 he was still alive and continued to perform the ministry of the Confessor of the Faith remaining underground. He died in 1985. Such a fact of intra vitam canonisation is unprecedented in the history of church.
Alexander Makov, Patriarch Tikhon, metropolitan Anastasiy Gribanovskiy, patriarch Sergiy (Stragorodskiy), patriarch Alexiy (Simansky), bishop Fotiy (Purlevskiy), Russian Orthodox Church, Russian Orthodox Church Abroad, Renovationism, persecutions of church, catacombs, New Martyrs, Confessors of Faith, canonisation
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Shumylo Sergey

Place of work: The International Institute of the Athonite Legacy; 126 Velyka Vasylkivska ul., offi ce 1, 03150 Kyiv, Ukraine;
Post: Director;
ORCID: 0000-0001-7041-7766;
Email: athosgreec@gmail.com.


Nikolaev Sergey, диакон

The “Аct” of archbishop Serafim (Samoilovich) and polemic in the circle of his intimates in 1933‒1934 concerning his stance

Nikolaev Sergey (2019) "The “Act” of archbishop Serafim (Samoilovich) and polemic in the circle of his intimates in 1933‒1934 concerning his stance ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia II : Istoriia. Istoriia Russkoy Pravoslavnoy Tserkvi, 2019, Iss. 90, pp. 117-148 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturII201990.117-148
Disapproving metropolitan Sergiy’s activity, archbiship Serafi m acutely felt his responsibility for the fate of the church as a former Patriarch’s Locum Tenens who handed over the rights of the Deputy to metropolitan Sergiy “with no conditions”. Having received relative freedom of action on arrival in Arkhangelsk exile in the summer of 1933, he considered himself obliged to step out with the next, more strict, accusation of metropolitan Sergiy and to dissociate himself from the latter, thus clearing conscience of those disagreeing with his activity. Having prepared the relevant “Act”, archbishop Serafi m did not release it in open circulation immediately, but gave it over to his spiritual preceptor archmandrite Neofi t (Osipov) and to his faithful fl ock in Uglich. Substantiating his stance in the corresponence, archbishop Serafi m put emphasis on Sergiy’s falling into heresy and on vapidity of Sergiy’s sacraments. Archmandrite Neofi t advised that he should wait with making the “Act” public, while among the residents of Uglich, whose opinions were more moderate as to metropolitan Sergiy, the “Act” provoked anxiety and accusations of being self-important. Amidst this discussion, archbishop Serafi m entered into correspondence with metropolitan Kirill (Smirnov). Metropolitan Kirill informed him that it was impossible to become head of the church without prior arrangement and without a decision of Locum Tenens metropolitan Petr. He emphasises not the doctrine of metropolitan Sergiy, but the problem of usurping the power that does not belong to him and points to the way of overcoming this by addressing the statute of Holy Patriarch Tikhon of 20 November 1920. This opinion of metropolitan Kirill confused archbishop Serafi m, who came to be even more assured of the necessity to “establish precision in mutual relations” with metropolitan Sergiy and make the “Act” public. Archmandrite Neofi t again persuades him not to hurry. The imminent arrest of archbishop Serafi m fi nally made it impossible to make the “Act” public. The “urges” of archbishop Serafi m helped metropolitan Kirill to defi ne his attitude to church administration in the current situation more precisely and to express it in a clear formula.
nepominayushchie (those not mentioning), archbishop Serafi m (Samoilovich), metropolitan Kirill (Smirnov), archmandrite Neofit (Osipov), correspodence, “Act”, diocese of Uglich, Arkhangelsk
  1. Mazyrin A., priest (2006) Vysshie ierarkhi o preemstve vlasti v Russkoi Pravoslavnoi Tserkvi v 1920–1930-kh godakh [Higher Hierarchs on Succession of Authority in Russian Orthodox Church in the 1920‒30s]. Moscow (in Russian).
  2. Savchenko N. (ed.) Deianie novogo Sviashchennomuchenika Serafi ma Uglichskogo [The Act by Priest-Martyr Serafi m of Uglich]. Pravoslavnaia Rus’, 9. Jordanville. Pp. 7–8 (in Russian).
  3. Volkov V. (ed.) (2013) «Ot sviashchenstva ne otrekus’…» Sviashchennomuchenik Nikolai, protoierei. Lagernye pis’ma pravoslavnoi sem’i Piskanovskikh [“I am not Going to Betray Priesthood...” Priest-Martyr Nikolai, Protopriest. Letters of the Orthodox Family Piskanovsky from Forced Labour Camp]. Moscow (in Russian).
  4. Vorob’ev V., archpriest, Shchelkachev A., priest, Mazyrin A., priest, Khailova O., Kazakov I. (eds) (2014) “«Avvo moi rodnoi!» Pis’ma sviashchennomuchenika mitropolita Kirilla (Smirnova) prepodobnomucheniku arkhimandritu Neofitu (Osipovu) 1933–1934 gg.” [“O my Darling Abba!” Letters of Priest-Martyr Metropolitan Kirill (Smirnov) to Monk-Martyr Archmandrite Neofit (Osipov), 1933‒1934]. Vestnik PSTGU. Series II: Istoriia. Istoriia Russkoi Pravoslavnoi Tserkvi, 2 (57), pp. 117–142 (in Russian).
  5. Vorob’ev V., archpriest, Shchelkachev A., priest, Mazyrin A., priest, Khailova O., Kazakov I. (eds) (2015) “«Milost’ Gospodnia da budet s toboiu!» Pis’ma sviashchennomuchenika mitropolita Kirilla (Smirnova) ispovednitse Iraide Tikhovoi. 1934–1937 gg.” [“Let Lord’s Mercy Stay upon You!” Letters of Priest-Martyr Metropolitan Kirill (Smirnov) to Confessor Iraida Tikhova. 1934‒1937]. Vestnik PSTGU. Series II: Istoriia. Istoriia Russkoi Pravoslavnoi Tserkvi, 2 (63), pp. 143–158 (in Russian).

Nikolaev Sergey, диакон

Place of work: St. Tikhon’s Orthodox University for the Humanities; 6/1 Likhov pereulok, Moscow, 127051, Russian Federation; Centre for the Study of Modern History of Russian Orthodox Church;
Post: Deputy Head of the archive of the the Centre for the Study of Modern History of Russian Orthodox Church;
ORCID: 0000-0001-7896-0157;
Email: nsk_zel@mail.ru.


Kostryukov Andrey

Orthodox Siberia on the threshold of “Hamocracy” — Rev. of Белоус П. В. Тобольская епархия в годы Первой мировой войны (1914 – 1918). Тюмень: Издательство Тюменского государственного университета. 2018. – 288 с.

Kostryukov Andrey (2019) "Orthodox Siberia on the threshold of “Hamocracy”". Rev. of Belous P. V. Tobolyskaia eparhiia v godi Pervoy mirovoy voyni (1914 – 1918). Tyumeny: Izdatelystvo Tyumenskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. 2018. – 288 s., Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia II : Istoriia. Istoriia Russkoy Pravoslavnoy Tserkvi, 2019, Iss. 90, pp. 151-154 (in Russian).


Kostryukov Andrey

Academic Degree: Doctor of Sciences* in History;
Academic Degree: Candidate of Sciences* in Theology;
Place of work: St. Tikhon’s Orthodox University for Humanities; 6/1 Likhov Pereulok, office 219, Moscow 127051, Russian Federation;
Post: Leading Research Fellow, Research Centre for Contemporary History of Russian Orthodox Church; Associate Professor, Department of General and Russian Church History and Canon Law;
ORCID: 0000-0003-4334-1035;
Email: a.kost@mail.ru.

*According to the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) 2011, the degree of Candidate of Sciences (Cand.Sc.) belongs to ISCED level 8 — "doctoral or equivalent", together with PhD, DPhil, D.Lit, D.Sc, LL.D, Doctorate or similar.