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St. Tikhon’s University Review . Series II: History. Russian Church History

St. Tikhon’s University Review II :4 (71)

ARTICLES

Zakharov Georgii

The Roman Synodal Letter Confi dimus Quidem in the Context of Relations Between the Churches of East and West (370–379)

Zakharov Georgii (2016) "The Roman Synodal Letter Confi dimus Quidem in the Context of Relations Between the Churches of East and West (370–379) ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia II : Istoriia. Istoriia Russkoy Pravoslavnoy Tserkvi, 2016, Iss. 71, pp. 7-20 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturII201671.7-20
The article is devoted to the reconstruction of the project of the Arian crisis’s resolution proposed by the Roman and Italian Churches to the local Churches of Illyricum and East (370(1)). According to the author, this project was fixed in the letter of one of the Roman councils in the pontificate of Pope Damasus I (366–384), known as Confi dimus quidem. This text was originally perceived with little enthusiasm by eastern Neo-Nicene bishops and probably also by St. Athanasius the Great, because it attempted to supplement the Nicene creed by theological formula expressed in Latin theological categories. In particular, the letter used the concept of substantia, which could be translated into Greek, not only as οuσία, but also as uπόστασις, while the eastern Neo-Nicene bishops insisted on the distinction between these terms. In addition, in the text there were elements of the ecclesiological conception of Roman centralism. For example the letter proclaims the dependence of ecumenical council decisions’ authority from its reception by Roman bishop. The Church of Rome, apparently, regarded Confi dimus quidem as a document which had to endorse any bishop who wanted to be received in Roman communion. In 379, the Council of Antioch included Confi dimus quidem in the collection of approved Roman doctrinal fragments. This action probably helped to restore communion between the eastern and western Nicene bishops.
Roman Church, Roman councils, Arian controversy, Confi dimus quidem, Damasus I, St. Basil the Great, St. Meletius of Antioch, St. Athanasius the Great.

1. Zaharov G. E. 2016 “Papa Liberij kak uchastnik arianskih sporov” (Pope Liberius as Participant of Arian Controversies), in Zaharov G. E. (ed.) Bozhestvennaja vlast', cerkovnaja ierarhija i duhovnyj avtoritet v rannehristianskoj latinskoj tradicii, Moscow, 2016, pp. 31–73.
2. Amand de Mendieta E. 1963 “Basile de Cesarée et Damase de Rome: Les cause de l’échec de leurs négociations”, in Biblical and Patristic Studies: in Memory of R. P. Casey, Freiburg, 1963, pp. 122–166.
3. Amand de Mendieta E. 1954 “Damase, Athanase, Pierre, Mélèce et Basile. Les rapports de communion ecclésiastique entre les Églises de Rome, d’Alexandrie, d’Antioche et de Césarée de Cappadoce”, in L’Église et les Églises, Chevetogne, 1954, vol. 1, pp. 261–277.
4. Bardy G. 1933 “La concile d’Antioche (379)”, in Revue Bénédictine, 1933, vol. 45, pp. 196–213.
5. Caspar E. Geschichte des Papsttums von den Anfängen bis zur Höhe der Weltherrschaft, Tübingen, 1930, vol. 1.
6. Cavallera F. Le Schisme d’Antioch (IVe–Ve siècle), Paris, 1905.
7. Courtonne Y. Un témoin du IVe siècle oriental. Saint Basile et son temps d’après sa correspondence, Paris, 1973.
8. Duval Y.-M. 1998 “Aquilée et Sirmium durant la crise arienne (325–400)“, in Duval Y.-M. L’extirpation de l’Arianisme en Italie du Nord et en Occident, Aldershot; Brookfield; Singapore; Sydney, 1998, pp. 331–379.
9. Fedwick P. J. The Church and the Charisma of Leadership in Basil of Caesarea, Toronto, 1979.
10. Field L. L. On the Communion of Damasus and Meletius: Fourth-Century Synodal Formulae in the Codex Veronensis LX (with critical edition and translation), Toronto, 2004.
11. Grumel V. 1922 “Saint Basile et le Siège Apostolique”, in Échos d’Orient, 1922, vol. 21, pp. 280–292.
12. Hanson R. P. C. The Search for the Christian Doctrine of God. The Arian Controversy, 318–381, London, 2005.
13. Hefele K. J. Histoire des Conciles d’après les documents originaux, vol. 1/2, Paris, 1907.
14. Joannou P.-P. Die Ostkirche und die Cathedra Petri im 4. Jahrhundert, Stuttgart, 1972.
15. Kannengiesser Ch. 1993 “(Ps.-)Athanasius, Ad Afros Examined“, in Brennecke H. C., Grasmück E. L., Markschies Ch. (eds.) Logos: Festschrift für Luise Abramowski, Berlin, New York, 1993, pp. 264–280.
16. Markschies Ch. Ambrosius von Mailand und die Trinitätstheologie: Kirchen- und theologiegeschichtliche. Studien zu Antiarianismus und Neunizänismus bei Ambrosius und im lateinischen Westen (364–381 n. Chr.), Tübingen, 1995.
17. Marot H. 1957 “Les conciles romains des IVе et Vе siècles et le développement de la primauté”, in Istina, 1957, vol. 4, pp. 435–462.
18. Martin A. Athanase d’Alexandrie et l’Église d’Egypte au IVe siècle (328–373), Rome, 1996.
19. Meslin M. Les Ariens d’Occident, 335–430, Paris, 1967.
20. Monachino V. 1959 “II primato nella controversia Ariana”, in Miscellanea Historiae Pontificiae, Vol. 21: Saggi storici intorno al Papato, Roma, 1959, pp. 17–89.
21. 1911 “Einleitung“, in Parmentier L. Theodoret. Kirchengeschichte, Leipzig, 1911, pp. IX–CVIII.
22. Pietri Ch. Roma Christiana. Recherches sur l’Eglise de Rome, son organisation, sa politique, son idéologie de Miltiade à Sixte III (311–440), Rome, 1976.
23. Reutter U. Damasus, Bischof von Rom (366–384). Leben und Werk, Tübingen, 2009.
24. Richard M. 1951 “La lettre “Confi dimus quidem” du Pape Damase“, in Annuaire de l’Institut de Philologie et d’Histoire Orientales et Slaves, 1951, vol. 11, pp. 323–340.
25. Richard M. 1949 “Saint Basile et la mission du diacre Sabinus”, in Annalecta Bollandiana, 1949, vol. 67, pp. 178–202.
26. Rousseau Ph. Basil of Caesarea, Berkeley; Los Angeles; London, 1994.
27. Scheidweiler F. 1966 “Besitzen wir das latenische Original des römischen Synodalschreibens vom Jahre 371?“, in Annuaire de l’Institut de Philologie et d’Histoire Orientales et Slaves, 1966, vol. 13, pp. 573–586.
28. Schwartz E. 1936 “Über die Sammlung des Cod. Veronensis LX“, in Zeitschrift für neutestamentliche Wissenschaft, 1936, vol. 35, pp. 1 –23.
29. Schwartz E. 1960 “Zur Kirchengeschichte des vierten Jahrhunderts“, in Schwartz E. Gesammelte Schriften 4: Zur Geschichte der alten Kirche und ihres Rechts, Berlin, 1960, pp. 1–110.
30. Simonetti M. La crisi ariana nel IV secolo, Roma, 1975.
31. Stockhausen A., von. Athahasius von Alexandrien Epistula ad Afros: Einleitung, Kommentar und Übersetzung, Berlin; New York, 2002.
32. Taylor J. 1973 “St. Basil the Great and Pope Damasus”, in Downside Review, 1973, vol. 91, pp. 186–203, 262–274.
33. Williams D. H. Ambrose of Milan and the End of the Nicene-Arian Conflicts, Oxford, 1995.
34. Zeiller J. Les origines chrétiennes dans les provinces danubiennes de l’Empire Romain, Paris, 1918.

Zakharov Georgii

Gaginskii Aleksei

Diff erence and Identity: Two Paradigms of Patristic Philosophy

Gaginskii Aleksei (2016) "Diff erence and Identity: Two Paradigms of Patristic Philosophy ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia II : Istoriia. Istoriia Russkoy Pravoslavnoy Tserkvi, 2016, Iss. 71, pp. 21-28 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturII201671.21-28
My main thesis looks as follows. Two fundamental paradigms were developed in Christian culture in the 4th с. AC. and largely determine philosophical and theological thought in East and West: 1) the identity paradigm, which became widespread in the West after Augustine, involves the identification of essence and predicates in God; 2) the paradigm of difference, which became widespread in the East thanks to Cappadocian Fathers, involves fundamental difference between essence and predicates in God. These approaches are not only private theological opinions, but lie at the beginning of the two branches of the Christian metaphysics. I argue that identity paradigm is imperfect from theological and philosophical points of view, while the paradigm of difference has a rich philosophical and theological potential, however, it has not been studied suffi ciently.
difference, identity, patristic philosophy, Arianism, Cappadocian Fathers, Augustine, East, West.

1. Brjedshou D. Aristotel' na Vostoke i na Zapade: Metafizika i razdelenie hristianskogo mira (Aristoteles in East and West: Metaphysics and Division of Christian World), Moscow, 2012.
2. Gaginskij A. M. 2015 “Onto-teologija i preodolenie metafiziki: M. Hajdegger, Zh.-L. Marion i hristianskaja tradicija” (Onto-Theology and Overcoming of Metaphysics: M. Heidegger, J.-L. Marion and Christian Tradition), in Vestnik PSTGU. Ser. I: Bogoslovie. Filosofija, Moscow, 2015, vol. 4/60, pp. 55–71.
3. Plantinga A. Analiticheskij teist: antologija Alvina Plantingi (Analytic Text: Anthology of Alvin Plantinga), Moscow, 2014.
4. Popov I. V. 2005 “Lichnost' i uchenie blazhennogo Avgustina” (Person and Teaching of St. Augustine), in Popov I. V. Trudy po patrologii, Sergiev Posad, 2005, vol. 2.
5. Fokin A. R. Formirovanie trinitarnoj doktriny v latinskoj patristike (Forming of Trinitarian Doctrine in Latin Patristics), Moscow, 2014.
6. Kapriev G. 2002 “Gibt es eine byzantinische Philosophie?“, in Ostkirchliche Studien, Würzburg, 2002, vol. 51, pp. 3–28.
7. Larchet J.-C. La théologie des énergies divines. Des origines à saint Jean Damascène, Paris, 2010.
8. Martzelos G. Ousia kai energiai tou Theou kata ton Megan Basileion. Symbole eis ten istorikogodmatiken diereunesin tes peri ousias kai energeion tou Theou didaskalias tes Orthodoxou Ekklesias (Essence and Energies of God according to Great Basil. Historical-Dogmatical Study on the Teaching of Orthodox Church about Essence and Energies of God), Thessalonike, 1993.

Gaginskii Aleksei

Arteev Mikhail

The Issues of the Diocesan Organization of the Breton Сhurch in the 9th Century

Arteev Mikhail (2016) "The Issues of the Diocesan Organization of the Breton Shurch in the 9th Century ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia II : Istoriia. Istoriia Russkoy Pravoslavnoy Tserkvi, 2016, Iss. 71, pp. 29-42 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturII201671.29-42
Using a considerable variety of sources (chronicles, hagiography, charters, letters) the author of the present article shows a process of formation of the system of the Breton bishoprics during the Carolingian era, when this land was a part of the Frankish empire. There were no regular episcopal sees in Brittany before the 9th century: Dol and Léon were monastery-bishoprics; Tréguier and Aleth, possibly, had the same nature. Bishops appeared there only from time to time. In the middle of the 9th century there were sees in Aleth, Quimper, Léon, and Dol. And they were substituted regularly. Obviously, an attempt to establish episcopal sees in Tréguier and Saint-Brieuc was vain. Along with a territorial expansion of the power of the Breton duke three others bishoprics founded in the Roman and post-Roman times — Nantes, Rennes, and Vannes — became parts of the Breton church. The sought of duke Nominoe for the independence from West-Frankish kingdom led to the «schism» of 849 which actually meant a separation of the most of the Breton bishoprics from the Gallic Church. King Salomon in 860s tried to promote the see of Dol to a metropolitan grade, but with no success due to determined resistance of the pope Nicolas I and the Frankish bishops. But in spite of the absence of archbishopric in Brittany the church of the region from the last third of the ninth century onwards run its quite different from the rest of the Western Сhurch way of life with its own synods and traditions. In this sense the Breton Church resembled other Celtic Churches of the Early Middle Ages.
the Carolingians, Brittany, the Celtic Churches, sees, archbishopric, Dol, Aleth, Tours, Nominoe, Salomon, pope Nicolas I.

1. Arteev M. V. 2014 “Stanovlenie bretonskoj cerkvi v jepohu Merovingov” (Formation of Breton Church in Epoch of Merovings), in Vestnik Voronezhskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. Serija «Istorija. Politologija. Sociologija», 2014, vol. 4, pp. 20–25.
2. Korolev A. A. 2007 “Dol'” (Dol), in Pravoslavnaja jenciklopedija, Moscow, 2007, vol. 15, pp. 590–594.
3. Shevelenko A. Ja. 1972 “Nachal'nye formy feodal'noj sobstvennosti v Bretani” (Early Forms of Feudal Property in Brittany), in Evropa v Srednie veka: jekonomika, politika, kul'tura. K 80-letiju akademika S. D. Skazkina, Moscow, 1972, pp. 32–46.
4. Chédeville A., Guillotel H. La Bretagne des saints et des rois Vè–Xè siècle, Rennes, 1984.
5. Duine F. 1914 “Le schisme breton. L’Eglise de Dol au milieu du IXe siècle, d’après les sources”, in Annales de Bretagne, 1914, vol. 30, pp. 424–472.
6. Fougerolles P. de. 2002 “Tours, Dol et les droits du métropolitain au neuvième siècle”, in Britannia monastic, 2002, vol. 6, pp. 75–82.
7. Giot P.-R., Guigon P., Merdrignac B. The British settlement of Brittany: the first Bretons in Armorica, Stroud, 2003.
8. Landévennec et le monachisme breton dans le haut Moyen Âge: actes du colloque du 15e centenaire de l’abbaye de Landévennec, 25–27 avril 1985, Landévennec, 1986.
9. Lot F. 1906 “Mélanges d’histoire bretonne: Festien «archevêque» de Dol“, in Annales de Bretagne et des Pays de l’Ouest, Rennes, 1906, vol. 22, pp. 10–28.
10. Morice Y. L’abbaye de Landévennec des origines au XIe siècle à travers la production hagiographique de son scriptorium: Culture monastique et idéologies dans la Bretagne du Haut Moyen Age: these pour l’obtention du grade de docteur de l’université Rennes 2: 2 vols, Rennes, 2006.
11. Smith J. M. H. 1982 “The archbishopric of Dol and the ecclesiastical politics of ninth-century Brittany”, in Studies in Church history, 1982, vol. 18, pp. 59–70.
12. Smith J. M. H. Province and Empire: Brittany and the Carolingians, Cambridge, 1992.

Arteev Mikhail

Smekalina Valentina

“Having got Tired of the Storms That Covered Europe, I Retired to Switzerland in Search of the Peace”: F. G. Golovkin in Switzerland

Smekalina Valentina (2016) "“Having got Tired of the Storms That Covered Europe, I Retired to Switzerland in Search of the Peace”: F. G. Golovkin in Switzerland ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia II : Istoriia. Istoriia Russkoy Pravoslavnoy Tserkvi, 2016, Iss. 71, pp. 43-52 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturII201671.43-52
In the article the author analyses one of the examples of the “Russian” “Swiss myth” in the travel notes of Russian travelers in the late 18th — early 19th centuries. Count FedorGolovkin, issuing from a noble Russian family abroad, left extensive and informative notes and letters about this country in which he spent several years. He writes not only about the beauties of the nature in Switzerland, but also depicts its history, social and political life. Herewith he enriches the “classical” “Swiss myth” with the traits of a “nobleman’s idyl” as a serene and quiet life of a philosopher and an aristocrat. Golovkin is not only attached to Switzerland as a country, but also to his friends there and to the cultural scenery of the “alpine republic”. Basing on the analysis of Golovkins memoires and letters the author reflects on the incorporation of the Russian nobility into the European cultural space, and on the influence of the political changes in Europe on the ideology of the noble Russians abroad. It is characteristic that even in Switzerland Golovkin still was anxios about the massive political changes in Europe, which anticipates the later more tragic perception of Europe by the next generations of Russian travelers.
Russia, Switzerland, Golovkin, myth, idyll, culture.

1. Bonnje S. 2003 “Istoricheskoe vvedenie” (Historical Introduction), in Golovkin F. G. Dvor i carstvovanie Pavla I. Portrety, vospominanija (Court and Reign of Pavel I), Moscow, 2003, pp. 40–112.
2. Danilevskij R. Ju. Rossija i Shvejcarija. Literaturnye svjazi XVIII–XIX vv. (Russia and Swiss. Literary Connections of XVIII–XIX Cent.), London, 1984.
3. Ismail-Zade D. 2003 “«Pishu jeti stroki vo cvete let…»” (“I Am Writing These Lines in the Prime of Life”), in Golovkin F. G. Dvor i carstvovanie Pavla I, Moscow, 2003, pp. 5–38.
4. Smekalina V. V. 2013 “Shvejcarskij pojet i uchenyj Al'breht fon Galler” (Swiss Poet and Scholar Albrecht von Galler), in Novaja i novejshaja istorija, 2013, vol. 6, pp. 184–188.
5. Smekalina V. V. Russkie puteshestvenniki v Shvejcarii vo vtoroj polovine XVIII — pervoj polovine XIX v. (Russian Travelers in Swiss in Second Half of XVIII — First Half of XIX Cent.), Moscow, 2015.
6. Tozato-Rigo D. 2014 “Sem'ja Golovkinyh. Russkie aristokraty na respublikanskoj zemle“ (Family of Golovkiny. Russian Aristocrats on Republican Land), in Rodina, 2014, vol. 1, pp. 18–20.
7. Brang P. “„Mein Erstaunen schwand...“. Zum Schweiz-Mythos in der russischen Literatur“, in Neue Zürcher Zeitung, Zürich, 1985, vol. 9/10/3, p. 66.
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12. Jaume L. (ed.) Coppet, creuset de l’esprit liberal, Paris; Aix-en-Provence, 2000.
13. Kloocke K. (ed.) Le groupe de Coppet et l’Europe: 1789–1830, Lausanne, 1994.
14. Reichler C. Le voyage en Suisse: anthologie des voyageurs français et européens de la Renaissance au XXe siècle, Paris, 1998.

Smekalina Valentina

Feofanov Aleksandr

Schoolboys of Noble Boarding School at the Moscow University in 1792

Feofanov Aleksandr (2016) "Schoolboys of Noble Boarding School at the Moscow University in 1792 ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia II : Istoriia. Istoriia Russkoy Pravoslavnoy Tserkvi, 2016, Iss. 71, pp. 53-57 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturII201671.53-57
In the present article the number, social status and career achievements of pupils of the Noble Boarding School at the Moscow University is to be reconstructed on the basis of 1792 list. Despite the fact of the “noble” name of the Boarding School that had been indeed intended for the nobility, from the general list is not all that clear that every student was a member of high aristocracy. Although some certain percent of pure aristocrats had been involved without a doubt. The new source could also clarify information on education of the generals of 1812 year. The author concludes that the heuristic capabilities of this document require the use of new sources, including archival, with the task of creation of synthetic knowledge.
Noble Boarding School at the Moscow University, nobles, generals, career mechanisms, social mobility.

1. Bezotosnyj V. M. Zakalennye jepohoj: Rossijskij generalitet Aleksandra I (Tempered by the Epoch: Russian Generals of Alexander I), Moscow, 2015.
2. Longinov M. N. Vospominanija o Moskovskom universitetskom pansione N. V. Sushkova (Memories about Moscow University Boarding School), Moscow, 1858.
3. Otechestvennaja vojna 1812 goda: Jenciklopedija (Patriotic War of 1812: Encyclopedia), Moscow, 2004.
4. Otechestvennaja vojna 1812 goda: Biograficheskij slovar' (Patriotic War of 1812: Biographical Dictionary), Moscow, 2011.
5. Ponomareva V. V., Horoshilova L. B. Universitetskij Blagorodnyj pansion. 1779–1830 (University Noble Boarding School. 1779-1830), Moscow, 2006.
6. Feofanov A. M. 2013 “Obrazovatel'nyj uroven' rossijskogo generaliteta 1812 goda” (Educational Level of Russian Generals of 1812), in Vestnik PSTGU. Ser. II: Istorija. Istorija Russkoj Pravoslavnoj Cerkvi, 2013, vol. 4/53, pp. 23–30.

Feofanov Aleksandr

Andreev Andrei

The Educational Concepts of F.-C. La Hapre and Their Forming: European Ideals and Russian Realization

Andreev Andrei (2016) "The Educational Concepts of F.-C. La Hapre and Their Forming: European Ideals and Russian Realization ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia II : Istoriia. Istoriia Russkoy Pravoslavnoy Tserkvi, 2016, Iss. 71, pp. 58-73 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturII201671.58-73
As an actual problem in the modern historical studies is discussed how the educational ideals in the Russian culture were formed and developed. The subject of this article reveals the same problem from the biography of the Swiss pedagogue, who was commended to teach the grandsons of the Russian empress Catherine II, Frédéric-César de La Harpe. Inspite of the high reputation of the Swiss tutors at the end of 18th century, La Harpe wasn’t a pedagogue by profession — it was rather by chance that his career in Russia went that way. But at the same time La Harpe made great efforts after his appointment to the Russian court in order to become familiar with the main pedagogical literature of his time, and therefore he could “make himself his own position” among other tutors, becoming de facto the main teacher of Alexander I, and had a great influence on the personality of the future Russian emperor. The pedagogical concepts of La Harpe were closely connected with those of Catherine II, formulated in her “Instruction” for her grandson’s teachers and aimed at the formation of a new enlightened monarch for Russia. The “educational standard” by La Harpe included all principals ciences of the Age of Enlightenment, with the stress on history and philosophy, as well as “civil education”, which was meant to help the future ruler to make a “clear concept of his duties”. But here a lization of these ideas was opposed by the court milieu and lead to the number of conflicts, which caused the generally uncompleted character of the education of Alexander I.
pedagogy, education, La Harpe, Switzerland, Russia, Catherine II, Alexander I.

1. Al'bina L. L. 1990 “Lichnaja biblioteka Frederika Sezara de Lagarpa” (Personal Library of Frederic Cesar de Laharpe), in Kniga v Rossii: Vek Prosveshhenija: Tezisy doklada 4-j Vsesojuzn. nauchn. konf. (Leningrad, 11–13 dek. 1990 g.), Leningrad, 1990, pp. 123–125.
2. Andreev A. Ju. 2013 “Vospitanie velikih knjazej Aleksandra i Konstantina Pavlovichej glazami F.-S. Lagarpa” (Education of Grand Princes Alexander and Constantine Pavlovich in Eyes of Laharpe), in Filaretovskij al'manah, Moscow, 2013, vol. 9, pp. 90–122.
3. Andreev A. Ju. 2013 “«Zapiski» F.-S. Lagarpa kak istochnik po istorii Rossii konca XVIII — nachala XIX v.” (Notices of F.-C. Laharpe as Source for Russian History of End of XVIII — Begin of XIX Cent.), in Vestnik PSTGU. Ser. II: Istorija. Istorija Russkoj Pravoslavnoj Cerkvi, 2013, vol. 4/53, pp. 7–22.
4. Andreev A. Ju. 2014 “Perepiska Aleksandra I s F.-S. Lagarpom: istorija bytovanija” (Correspondence of Alexander I with F.-C. Laharpe: History of Being), in Otechestvennye arhivy, 2014, vol. 2, pp. 21–30.
5. Glinskij B. B. 1888 “Respublikanec pri russkom dvore“ (A Republican in Russian Court), in Istoricheskij vestnik, 1888, vol. 34/10, pp. 54–96.
6. Danilevskij R. Ju. Rossija i Shvejcarija. Literaturnye svjazi XVIII–XIX vv. (Russia and Swiss. Literary Connections of XVIII–XIX Cent.), Leningrad, 1984.
7. Rej M. P. 2011 “Fridrih Cezar' Lagarp, vospitatel' budushhego imperatora Aleksandra I” (Frederic Cesar Laharpe, Teacher of Future Emperor Alexander I), in Chudinov A. V., Rzheuckij V. S. (eds.) Francuzskij ezhegodnik. 2011: Frankojazychnye guvernery v Evrope XVII–XIX vv., Moscow, 2011, pp. 233–244.
8. Safonov M. M. 2005 “«Gospodin Aleksandr» i Saltykovy” (“Master Alexander” and Saltykovy), in Rodina, 2005, vol. 3, pp. 38–42.
10. Sbornik Imperatorskogo russkogo istoricheskogo obshhestva (Collection Book of Russian Emperor Historical Society), Saint-Petersburg, 1870, vol. 5, pp. 1–121.
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12. Smekalina V. V. 2013 “Shvejcarskij pojet i uchenyj Al'breht fon Galler — rodonachal'nik mifa ob Al'pah” (Swiss Poet and Scholar Albrecht von Galler — Founder of Myth about the Alps), in Novaja i novejshaja istorija, 2013, vol. 6, pp. 184–188.
13. Solodjankina O. Ju. 2008 “Fenomen inostrannogo guvernerstva v Rossii (vtoraja polovina XVIII — pervaja polovina XIX v.)” (Phenomenon of Foreign Education in Russia (Second Half of XVIII — First Half of XIX Cent.)), in Otechestvennaja istorija, 2008, vol. 4, pp. 9–23.
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Andreev Andrei

Hierodeacon Rafail (Ivochkin D.)

“Offi cial Section” Smolensk Diocesan Gazette as a Source on the History of Smolensk (1865–1918)

Ivochkin Dem'ian (2016) "“Offi cial Section” Smolensk Diocesan Gazette as a Source on the History of Smolensk (1865–1918) ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia II : Istoriia. Istoriia Russkoy Pravoslavnoy Tserkvi, 2016, Iss. 71, pp. 74-83 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturII201671.74-83
The article reveals the main directions of the publications in the «Offi cial Section» «Smolensk Diocesan Gazette». The study looks at the diocesan statement as a historical source on different aspects of the life of the Smolensk diocese in the second half of 19th — early 20th centuries. Studied such directions of the department, as the current life of the diocese in the period under review, the issues of social and cultural activities and enlightenment Smolensk clergy. Much attention is paid to the analysis of publications about hramostroitelstva, pastoral care of schools of spiritual department, genealogy clergy. While working on the article used an integrated approach, general scientifi c dialectical method of study and analysis of social phenomena, including the principles of objectivity, historicism and systematic. The results will enable objectively present not only the history of the Smolensk diocese, but the Russian Orthodox Church.
Diocese of Smolensk, «Smolensk Diocesan Gazette», a historical source, enlightenment, social activities.

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Hierodeacon Rafail (Ivochkin D.)

Filippov Boris

Franklin Roosevelt, Pius XII, Joseph Stalin and the Problem of the USSR’s Image and Reputation During the Second World War

Filippov Boris (2016) "Franklin Roosevelt, Pius XII, Joseph Stalin and the Problem of the USSR’s Image and Reputation During the Second World War ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia II : Istoriia. Istoriia Russkoy Pravoslavnoy Tserkvi, 2016, Iss. 71, pp. 84-102 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturII201671.84-102
The aggression of Hitler’s Germany against the USSR made our country an ally of the United States and Great Britain. But the decision to help USSR with weapons and hardware (the lend-lease act) faced opposition not only from the American isolationists but also from religious groups. Both Catholics and Protestants were against the very idea of helping the country in which churches were destroyed and the faithful were persecuted. They have considered such an idea to be immoral. To overcome the opposition in Congress, president F. D. Roosevelt and the US diplomats tried to convince Stalin to reject his policies of religious oppression. Roosevelt also asked pope Plus XII for help. At the same time German and Italian ambassadors were trying to convince the Pope to support their “crusade against the godless Bolshevik Russia”. The question of USSR’s image was an important issue throughout the course of war. The article tells the history of the most signifi cant efforts undertaken by the Western allies and Stalin to improve the international reputation of the USSR. First of all, it tells the story of the mysterious letter from Stalin to Plus XII (1942) and about even more mysterious visit of the American priest Stanislav Orlemansky to Moscow and his meeting with Stalin in 1944.
F. D. Roosevelt, Pius XII, J. Stalin, Vaticano, St. Orlemansky, A.Cicognani. freedom of conscience and religion, persecution of religion, «Stalin’s letter to Pius XII», the Lend-Lease Act, the US Congress, American Catholics, USSR foreign policy.

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Filippov Boris

Stankov Kirill

King James II in Foreign Historiography: the Main Scientifi c Trends and Approaches .

Stankov Kirill (2016) "King James II in Foreign Historiography: the Main Scientifi c Trends and Approaches . ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia II : Istoriia. Istoriia Russkoy Pravoslavnoy Tserkvi, 2016, Iss. 71, pp. 103-117 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturII201671.103-117
The fate of the tragic figure of the British king James II Stuart is considered in the article. In this paper the author pays speсial attention to the history of investigation of the character and politics of this person by the British historians, as well as by the leading European and American specialists on the Early Modern Time. The estimates of James II are of vast variety in the British historiography but at the same time diff erent authors have some similar features in their attitude. Except the apologists the British historians on the whole criticized this king and explain that the majority of the problems connected with him are based on the religious factor that is not really right. On the other hand there are some differences in this negative approaches among various scientifi c schools of British historiography. The Whigs stated that James II tried to limit the personal rights of the Englishmen which was the main result of the English revolution of the middle of the 17th century. The Tories proved that the king neglected the gentry’s property rights and tried to transform the dualistic monarchy into absolutism. The Positivists thought that James II supported the Catholic Counterreformation and fought against the Enlightenment. The revisionists and postrevisionists tried to revalue the person of James II based on the true scientific foundations. A special view on James II’ policy is produced by Non-British authors: German, French and American historians.
James II, the jacobites, William III Orange, Louis XIV, historiography, the Whigs, the Tories, positivism, Marxism, revisionism, postrevisionism, apologists, historical anthropology, the Glorious revolution, religion policy, Counterreformation, toleratio

Stankov Kirill

Ul'ianova Galina

Russian Poll-Tax Registers (Soul Revisions) as a Source in Historiography of the 1970s to 2010s

Ul'ianova Galina, Troitskaia Irina, (2016) "Russian Poll-Tax Registers (Soul Revisions) as a Source in Historiography of the 1970s to 2010s ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia II : Istoriia. Istoriia Russkoy Pravoslavnoy Tserkvi, 2016, Iss. 71, pp. 118-135 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturII201671.118-135
The essay describes the period of historiography of the 1970s to 2010s as an important period in the study of poll-tax registers (soul revisions). The intensive development of historical demography characterized with several important research trends, such as application to wide range of mass sources including poll-tax registers not only peasants and mining and metallurgical workers, but also the merchants, the study of demographic behaviour, the selection of families and households for detailed investigation, establishing of their typology. Simultaneously with the increasing complexity of issues of historical and demographic research (especially family history) occurred the formation of new research centers in the capital and regional universities and the Russian Academy of sciences. The essay consists of three sections, which cover such issues as the use of poll-tax registers in historical-demographic studies in the 1970s and 1980s, the expansion into new fields of research, between 1990 and 2015, the formation of research centers in Moscow, St. Petersburg, Tambov, Saransk, Barnaul, in the Urals and Siberia, and especially the study of merchant families on the basis of analysis of poll-tax registers. A considerable amount of documents, especially from local archives was introduced into research space. The essay analyses the works that have studied the different categories of peasants, including the population of the Ural mining districts. From the 1990s preparation of primary mass sources for analysis began to be carried out with the computer technologies. The number of papers that have used poll-tax registers were distinguished by the depth and thoroughness of analysis of marriage, fertility and mortality. The period under consideration has also become an important stage in the study of social structure of cities and rural areas based on the poll-tax registers analysis. In the essay special attention is paid to the family relations in the merchant class.
Historical Demography, Historiography, Urban and Regional History, Russian poll-tax registers or so-called revisions, 18th and 19th Centuries Russian History, Imperial Russia.

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Ul'ianova Galina

PUBLICATIONS

Tsygankov Dmitrii

The Memoirs of Vladimir Guerrier About Moscow Municipal Duma (The introductory article, publication and note by D. Tsigankov)

Tsygankov Dmitrii (2016) "The Memoirs of Vladimir Guerrier About Moscow Municipal Duma (The introductory article, publication and note by D. Tsigankov) ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia II : Istoriia. Istoriia Russkoy Pravoslavnoy Tserkvi, 2016, Iss. 71, pp. 139-149 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturII201671.139-149
The Memoires of Vladimir Guerrier is still not published in full. This is largely due to the fact that the last copy of the manuscript was not prepared by the author. The part of Guerrier manuscript, which was dedicated to the memories of the Moscow municipal. Duma, was reworked by author many times again. In fact, Guerrier has prepared two versions of this Chapter or two parts of one Chapter. The First part was published early and was dedicated colleagues Guerrier at the Duma and focused readers attention on the problem of Duma politicization and radicalization. Below will be presented the second part of memories in which the historian has summed up the results of their own work in the Duma on a post of the Chairman of the Commission of social inventions for Moscow citizens.
Vladimir Guerrier, memories, Moscow city Duma, philanthropy, Commission of social inventions for Moscow citizens.

Tsygankov Dmitrii