/

Petrov Stanislav

The relation of the Russian Orthodox Church to the Bolsheviks in 1917–1918 in modern historiography


Petrov Stanislav (2015) "The relation of the Russian Orthodox Church to the Bolsheviks in 1917–1918 in modern historiography ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia II : Istoriia. Istoriia Russkoy Pravoslavnoy Tserkvi, 2015, vol. 64, pp. 31-43 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturII201564.31-43

Abstract

The paper is given the survey of the domestic and foreign historiography, which illuminates the relation of Russian Orthodox Church to the Bolsheviks in the fi rst year after their accession to power as a result of October revolution 1917. Main attention is paid to the work of the well-known contemporary researchers of the church history of the first years of the Soviet power. The purpose of the article — to assess the state of current scientific literature on the topic of research, its factual and conceptual constructs. The largest directions in the historiography are examined in accordance with the problematic-chronological principle: the works of the soviet, religious, emigrant, foreign and russian authors. The contribution to the study of the problem of such well-known contemporary historians as V. A. Alekseyev, O. Yu. Vasil’yeva, A. N. Kashevarov, D. V. Pospelovsky, S. L. Firsov, V. A. Tsypin, M. V. Shkarovsky and G. Schulz, is analyzed. The existing in the historiography marginal works, which are not entered in the main trajectories of the development of historical science, are considered. The already existing historiographical surveys of the Russian and foreign literature about the interrelation of Russian Orthodox Church and Bolsheviks in the first years of the Soviet power are noted. In the historiography of attention continues to focus on resolutions and appeals of the Landed Council, the message of Patriarch Tikhon, anti-religious decrees and activities of Soviet power, the activities of the Church’s Commissions for interaction with the Soviet government, anti-Soviet protests of the clergy and believers, the organization of religious processions, the creation of orthodox brotherhoods and societies protection of the Church. Changes in research approaches of the last two and a half decades can be called a kind of attempt to convergence of domestic and western scientifi c literature into a single modern historiography. Researchers have come to the conclusion that the negative attitude of the Russian Orthodox Church to the Bolsheviks and the first steps of the new government to implement the anti-religious policies and practices.

Keywords

the Russian Orthodox Church, the Landed Council 1917–1918, patriarch Tikhon, church-state relations, Bolsheviks, Soviet power, modern scientifi c literature, historiography

References


1. Alekseev V. A. Illjuzii i dogmy (Illusions and Dogmas), Moscow, 1991.
2. Andreeva O. V. Kritika anglo-amerikanskoj burzhuaznoj istoriografii sovremennogo polozhenija pravoslavnoj religii i cerkvi v SSSR: avtoref. dis. … kand. ist. nauk (Critic of Enlish-American Burgeois Historiography of Modern Condition of Orthodox Religion and Church in USSR: Dissertation Abstract), Moscow, 1987.
3. Bogolepov A. A. Cerkov' pod vlast'ju kommunizma (Church under Communist Power), Munich, 1958.
4. Vasil'eva O. Ju. 1993 “Russkaja pravoslavnaja cerkov' i Sovetskaja vlast' v 1917–1927 gg.” (Russian Orthodox Church and Soviet Power in 1917–1927), in Voprosy istorii, 1993, vol. 8, pp. 40–54.
5. Vvedenskij A. I., prot. Cerkov' i revoljucija (Uhod s dolzhnosti patriarha Tihona) (Church and Revolution (Retirement of Patriarch Tikhon)), Petrograd, 1922.
6. Vvedenskij A. I., prot. Cerkov' i gosudarstvo: Ocherk vzaimootnoshenij cerkvi i gosudarstva v Rossii 1918–1922 gg. (Church and State: Survey on Correlations of Church and State in Russia in 1918–1922), Moscow, 1923.
7. Vvedenskij A. I., prot. Cerkov' patriarha Tihona (Church of Patriarch Tikhon), Moscow, 1923.
8. Emeljah L. I. Krest'jane i cerkov' nakanune Oktjabrja (Peasants and Churhc before October), Leningrad, 1976.
9. Kandidov B. P. Religioznaja kontrrevoljucija 1918–1920 gg. i intervencija: Ocherki i materialy (Religious Counterrevolution of 1918–1920 and Intervention: Essays and Materials), Moscow, 1930.
10. Kandidov B. P. Oktjabr'skie boi v Moskve i cerkov' (October Fights in Moscow and Church), Moscow, 1931.
11. Kartashev A. V. 1942 “Revoljucija i Sobor 1917–1918 gg.: Nabroski dlja istorii Cerkvi nashih dnej” (Revolution and Council of 1917–1918: Sketches for Church History of Our Days), in Bogoslovskaja mysl', Paris, 1942s vol. 4, pp. 75–101.
12. Kashevarov A. N. Cerkov' i vlast': Russkaja Pravoslavnoj Cerkov' v pervye gody sovetskoj vlasti (Church and Power: Russian Orthodox Church in First Years of Soviet Power), Saint-Petersburg, 1999.
13. Kashevarov A. N. 2001 “Gosudarstvenno-cerkovnye otnoshenija pervyh let sovetskoj vlasti v zarubezhnoj istoriografii” (State-Church Relations of First Years of Soviet Power in Foreign Historiography), in Novyj chasovoj: russkij voenno-istoricheskij zhurnal, 2001, vol. 11/12, pp. 60–67.
14. Kashevarov A. N. Pravoslavnaja Rossijskaja Cerkov' i sovetskoe gosudarstvo (1917–1922) (Russian Orthodox Church and Soviet State (1917–1922)), Moscow, 2005.
15. Klimenko V. A. Moskva. Revoljucija. Cerkov' (1917–1920 gg.) (Moscow. Revolution. Church (1917–1920)), Moscow, 2010.
16. Klimenko V. A. Moskva. Cerkov' protiv Oktjabrja. 1917–1920 gg. (Moscow. Church against October. 1917–1920), Moscow, 2012.
17. Konstantinov D. Gonimaja Cerkov': Russkaja Pravoslavnaja Cerkov' v SSSR (Persecuted Church: Russian Orthodox Church) in USSR, New York, 1967.
18. Korzun M. S. Russkaja pravoslavnaja cerkov'. 1917–1945: Izmenenie social'no-politicheskoj orientacii i nauchnaja nesostojatel'nost' verouchenija (Russian Orthodox Church. 1917–1945: Change of Social-Political Orientation and Scientific Failure of Faith), Minsk, 1987.
19. Lisavcev Je. I. Kritika burzhuaznoj fal'sifikacii polozhenija religii v SSSR (Critic of Burgeois Falsification of Religion’s Condition in USSR), Moscow, 1971.
20. Pavlov D. B. 2011 “Russkaja Pravoslavnaja Cerkov', gosudarstvo i obshhestvo pervoj chetverti XX v. v zarubezhnoj istoriografii” (Russian Orthodox Church, State and Society of First Quarter of XX Cent. in Foreign Historiography), in Rossijskaja istorija, 2011, vol. 5, pp. 163–172.
21. Pavlov D. B. “Russkaja Pravoslavnaja Cerkov'–gosudarstvo–obshhestvo pervoj chetverti XX v. v zarubezhnoj istoriografii i arheografii” (Russian Orthodox Church — State — Society of First Quarter of XX Cent. in Foreign Historiography), in Klio: zhurnal dlja uchenyh, 2011, vol. 5/56, pp. 25–37.
22. Persic M. M. Otdelenie cerkvi ot gosudarstva i shkoly ot cerkvi v SSSR (Separation of Church from State and School in USSR), Moscow, 1958.
23. Plaksin R. Ju. Krah cerkovnoj kontrrevoljucii v 1917–1923 gg. (Failure of Church Counterrevolution in 1917–1923), Moscow, 1966.
24. Plaksin R. Ju. Tihonovshhina i ee krah: Pozicija pravoslavnoj cerkvi v period Velikoj Oktjabr'skoj socialisticheskoj revoljucii i Grazhdanskoj vojny (Tihonovshhina and Its Failure: Position of the Orthodox Church in Time of Great October Socialistic Revolution and Civil War), Leningrad, 1987.
25. Platonov N. F. 1961 “Pravoslavnaja cerkov' v 1917–1935 gg.: Protivodejstvie cerkvi ustanovleniju i uprocheniju Sovetskoj vlasti” (Orthodox Church in 1917–1935: Resistence of Church against Establishment and Hardening of Soviet Power), in Ezhegodnik Muzeja istorii religii i ateizma, Moscow, Leningrad, 1961, vol. 5, pp. 206–271.
26. Pospelovskij D. V. Russkaja pravoslavnaja cerkov' v XX v. (Russian Orthodox Church in XX Cent.), Moscow, 1995.
27. Rar G. Plenennaja cerkov': Ocherk razvitija vzaimootnoshenij mezhdu Cerkov'ju i vlast'ju v SSSR (Captivated Church: Survey of Development of Relation of Church and Power in USSR), Frankfurt-am-Main, 1954.
28. Russkaja Pravoslavnaja Cerkov'. 988–1988 (Russian Orthodox Church. 988–1988), Moscow, 1988, vol. 2: Ocherki istorii 1917–1988 gg. (Essays of History 1917–1988).
29. Firsov S. L. «Vlast' i ogon'»: Cerkov' i sovetskoe gosudarstvo: 1918 — nachalo 1940-h g.: Ocherki istorii (“Power and Fire”: Church and Soviet State: 1918 — Begin of 1940-s Years), Moscow, 2014.
30. Cypin V., prot. Istorija Russkoj Cerkvi. 1917–1997 (History of Russian Church. 1917–1997), Moscow, 1997.
31. Cypin V., prot. 2000 “Russkaja Pravoslavnaja Cerkov' v novejshij period. 1917–1999 gg.” (Russian Orthodox Church in Newest Time. 1917–1999), in Pravoslavnaja jenciklopedija: Russkaja Pravoslavnaja Cerkov', Moscow, 2000.
32. Shkarovskij M. V. Russkaja Pravoslavnaja Cerkov' pri Staline i Hrushheve: Gosudarstvenno-cerkovnye otnoshenija v SSSR v 1939–1964 gg. (Russian Orthodox Church by Stalin and Khrushchev: State-Church Relations in USSR in 1939–1964), Moscow, 1999.
33. Shkarovskij M. V. Russkaja Pravoslavnaja Cerkov' v XX v. (Russian Orthodox Church in XX Cent.), Moscow, 2010.
34. Shul'c G. 2000 “Obzor dejanij tret'ej sessii Pomestnogo Sobora Russkoj Pravoslavnoj Cerkvi” (Survey of Third Session of Council of Russian Orthodox Church), in Svjashhennyj Sobor Pravoslavnoj Rossijskoj Cerkvi 1917–1918 gg.: Obzor dejanij. Tret'ja sessija, Moscow, 2000, pp. 10–26.
35. Shul'c G. 2001 “Vvedenie” (Introduction), in Svjashhennyj Sobor Pravoslavnoj Rossijskoj Cerkvi 1917–1918 gg.: Obzor dejanij. Vtoraja sessija, Moscow, 2001, pp. 7–22.
36. Shul'c G. 2002 “Pomestnyj Sobor 1917–1918 gg. i ego mesto v istorii Russkoj Pravoslavnoj Cerkvi” (Council of 1917–1918 and Its Place in History of Russian Orthodox Church), in Svjashhennyj Sobor Pravoslavnoj Rossijskoj Cerkvi 1917–1918 gg.: Obzor dejanij. Pervaja sessija, Moscow, 2002, pp. 7–19.
37. Pospielovsky D. A History of Soviet Atheism in Theory, and Practice, and the Believer, New York, 1987, vol. 1: A History of Marxist-Leninist Atheism and Soviet Anti-Religions Policies (1917–1987).
38. Schulz G. Das Landeskonzil der Orthodoxen Kirche in Russland 1917/18 — ein unbekanntes Reformpotential; Archivbestande und Editionen; Struktur und Arbeitsweise; Einberufung und Verlauf; Verabschiedung der neuen Gemeindeordnung, Gottingen, 1995.

Information about the author

Petrov Stanislav