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St. Tikhon’s University Review . Series II: History. Russian Church History

St. Tikhon’s University Review II :6 (61)

ARTICLES

Gerd Lora

The Secularization of the Estates of the Eastern Monasteries and Churches in Wallachia and Moldavia in the Early 1860-s and Russia

Gerd Lora (2014) "The Secularization of the Estates of the Eastern Monasteries and Churches in Wallachia and Moldavia in the Early 1860-s and Russia ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia II : Istoriia. Istoriia Russkoy Pravoslavnoy Tserkvi, 2014, Iss. 61, pp. 7-34 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturII201461.7-34
The article is the fi rst attempt to trace in details, basing on inedited archive materials from Russian and Rumanian archives, the history of the secularization of the so called “inclined” monastic properties in the united principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia during the reign of Alexander Kuza. Attempts (though without any suffi cient result) to reduce the rights of the foreign owners of the estates (1/4 of the territory of the country) were undertaken already in the fi rst half of the 19th century. After the Crimean war with weakening of Russian infl uence and strengthening of French one such an action could count on better results. According to Protocol 13 of the Paris Conference of 1858 the Principalities should have solved their problem with the Greek owners of the properties. In case of misunderstanding an international commission consisting of commissioners from the powers had to take place. Such a commission started its work in Constantinople in 1862, and as it’s well preserved documentation shows, did not bring any positive result. Russia was the only to support the rights of the Greek owners, while the position of Britain and Austria was wavering, and France was in open opposition to any actions against the secularization. The inconsistent behavior of the Greek Patriarchs and the attempts of Patriarch Joachim II to turn the aff air in his own benefi t only was in the way of solution of the question. Another idea, of a monetary compensation for the estates was not carried through either, though the Greek bankers of Constantinople seemed ready to support it. Meanwhile Kuza, basing on the support of Napoleon III, carried through the fi nal confi scation of the lands. This act became one of the most suffi cient in his policy for unifi cation of Rumania and creating an independent national state.
Inclinated properties, Romanian Church, Orthodox East, Russian foreign policy, Patriarchate of Constantinople, great powers, Ottoman Empire, United Principalities, Phanariots, monastic properties

1. Arsenij (Stadnickij), ep. Issledovanija i monografii po istorii Moldavskoj Cerkvi (Studies and Monographies on History of Moldavian Church), Saint-Petersburg, 1904.
2. Vinogradov V. V. Ocherki obshhestvenno-politicheskoj mysli v Rumynii (Essays on Social-Politician Thought in Rumania), Moscow, 1975.
3. Volkov M. 1863 “O posvjashhennyh monastyrjah” (About Devoted Monasteries), in Golos, Saint-Petersburg, 1863, vol 323, p. 127.
4. Vostochnyj vopros vo vneshnej politike Rossii. Konec XVIII — nach. XIX v. (Eastern Question in the Foreign Policy of Russia. End of XVIII — Begin of XIX Cent.), Moscow, 1978.
5. Grekov Ju. Rumynija v licah (Rumania in Persons), Kishinev, 1996.
6. Druzhinina E. I. Kjuchuk-Kajnardzhijskij mir (Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca), Moscow, 1955.
7. L. E. Semenova, V. N. Vinogradov i dr. Kratkaja istorija Rumynii s drevnejshih vremen do nashih dnej. Moscow, 1987.
8. Kurganov F. A. Nabroski i ocherki iz novejshej istorii Rumynskoj Cerkvi (Sketches and Essays on Newest History of Rumanian Church), Kazan', 1899.
9. Lopuhin A. P. Istorija Hristianskoj Cerkvi v XIX veke (History of Christian Church in XIX Century), Saint-Petersburg, 1901, vol. 2.
10. Mezhdunarodnye otnoshenija na Balkanah. 1856–1878 (International Relations in Balkans. 1856–1878), Moscow, 1986.
11. Nekljudov V. 1863 “Slovo o posvjashhennyh monastyrjah” (Word about Devoted Monasteries), in Moskovskie vedomosti, Moscow, 1863, vol. 181, p. 3.
12. Polozhenie Pravoslavnoj Cerkvi i monastyrej v Moldavii (Position of the Orthodox Church in Moldavia), Saint-Petersburg, 1864.
13. Chertan E. E. Velikie derzhavy i formirovanie Rumynskogo nezavisimogo gosudarstva (Great Powers and Forming of Rumanian Independent State), Kishinev, 1980.
14. Bobagno G. J. The Emergence of the Romanian National State, New York, 1979.
15. Bossy R. V. L’ Austriche et les Principautés Unies, Bucurest, 1938.
16. Davison R. H . 1976 “«Russian Skill and Turkish Imbecility»: the Treaty of Kuchuk Kainardji Reconsidered”, in Slavic Review, Sept. 1976, vol. 35/3, pp. 463–483.
17. [Ghika I.]. Mémoire sur les couvents Roumains placés sous l’invocation des Saints-Lieux d’ Orient, Bucurest, 1863.
18. Iancu C. 1974 “Napoleon III et la Politique Française à l’ égard de la Roumanie”, in Revue d’ Histoire Diplomatique, 1974, vol. 88/1–2, pp. 59–85.
19. Istoria Bisericii Romîne, Bucureşti, 1958.
20. Ivănescu D. 2011 “La France et la création de l’ État national Roumain modern”, in G. Leanca (ed.). La politique extérieure de Napoleon III, Paris, 2011, pp. 127–136.
21. Jelavich B. 1965 “Russia and the Double Election of Alexandru Cuza, 1858–1859. The letters of S. I. Popov to N. K. Giers” in Südost–Forschungen, 1965, Bd. 24.
22. Jelavich B. Russia and the Rumanian National Cause, 1858–1859, Bloomington: Indiana University, 1959.
23. Jelavich B. Russia and the Formation of the Romanian National State, 1821–1878, Cambridge, 1984.
24. Mémoire sur les Couvents Roumains, Constantinople, 1863.
25. Odobescu A. Étude sur les droits et obligations des monasteries dédiés aux Saint-Lieux, Bucurest, 1863.
26. Riker T. V., Oxon B. L. The Making of Roumania. A Study of an International Problem, 1836–1866, London, 1931.
27. Stamatopoulos D. 2008 “The Bulgarian schism revisited”, in Modern Greek Studies Yearbook, Minneapolis, 2008, pp. 106–120.
Beglov Aleksandr

Was it possible to reform the Orthodox parish in 1890-s? The diocesan hierarchs on the transformation of the parish council of trustees (prihodskie popechitel’stva)

Beglov Aleksandr (2014) "Was it possible to reform the Orthodox parish in 1890-s? The diocesan hierarchs on the transformation of the parish council of trustees (prihodskie popechitel’stva) ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia II : Istoriia. Istoriia Russkoy Pravoslavnoy Tserkvi, 2014, Iss. 61, pp. 35-57 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturII201461.35-57
In the article for the fi rst time in historiography the reviews of the diocesan bishops of the prospects of the reform of the parish council of trustees (prihodskie popechitel’stva) at Orthodox churches are analysed in details. These reviews were submitted on request of the Ober-Procurator in the 1890s and they are analysed in the context of a more general transformation of the Orthodox parish, planned by K.P. Pobedonostsev. The reviews of the diocesan authorities about the possibilities of reforming the parish council of trustees were in fact revealing their attitude on the possibility of the parish reform in general. The author comes to the conclusion that the main idea of the reviews was to give the council of trustees more «church» character. The hierarchs saw two ways of realising this task. One of them could be called the administrative way, another one — the more natural one. The majority of hierarchy was in favor of the fi rst approach. They wanted to include the council of trustees in the existing system of diocesan administration, but subordinating them to the administrative control of the deans and the Consistory. Another group of hierarchs, which constituted the tenth part of all, who had submitted the reports, saw it necessary to transform the council of trustees into the voluntary parish brotherhoods, thereby choosing the religious active backbone of the parish. It is clear from the reports that they considered the experience of the Western Slavonic brotherhoods and the orthodox charity organisations which existed in America. However, neither of these projects was capable of solving the most important problem of parish life, that is the effi ciency of the parish economy, which was largely dependent on decisions of the peasant community. Bishops considered it possible to seek the help of the civil authorities in collecting the money from the parishioners. And only few were ready to give the parish organization the rights to be economically independent.
History of Russia of the XIX century, the history of the Russian Orthodox Church, Church reform, the reform of the Orthodox parish, the parish council of trustees (prihodskie popechitel’stva), the reform of the council of trustees (prihodskie popechitel’

1. Alekseeva S. I. Svjatejshij Sinod v sisteme vysshih i central'nyh gosudarstvennyh uchrezhdenij poreformennoj Rossii. 1856–1904 gg. (Holy Synode in System of High and Central State Institution of Russa after Reform. 1856–1904), Saint-Petersburg, 2006.
2. Beglov A. L. 2012 “Zakonodatel'stvo Rossijskoj imperii o pravoslavnom prihode k nachalu 1890-h gg.: Obzor osnovnyh zakonodatel'nyh aktov” (Legislation of Russian Empire about Orthodox Parish in Begin of 1890-s Years: Survey of Main Law Acts), in Religii mira. Istorija i sovremennost'. 2006–2010, Moscow, Saint-Petersburg: «Nestor», 2012, pp. 371–388.
3. Beglov A. L. 2014 “Prihodskie popechitel'stva pri pravoslavnyh cerkvah Rossijskoj imperii v 1890-e gg.: itogi 30-letnego razvitija” (Parish Trusteeships by Orthodox Churces in Russian Empire in 1890-s Years: Results of 30-Years of Evolution), in Rossijskaja istorija, 2014, vol. 6, pp. 104–127.
4. Zaozerskij N. A. 1894 “Bratskoe delo v pravoslavnoj Rossii: Po povodu broshjur gospodina Papkova i svjashhennika Fudelja o cerkovnyh bratstvah i prihodskih popechitel'stvah” (Brotherhoods in Orthodox Russia: On Brochures of Mr Papkov and Priest Fudel about Church Brotherhoods and Parish Trusteeships), in Bogoslovskij vestnik, 1894, vol. 4/10, pp. 174–197 (2nd pagination).
5. Kurljandskij I. A. 2004 “Zakonodatel'stvo Rossijskoj imperii i problemy cerkovnoj blagotvoritel'nosti: 1700–1917 gody” (Legislation of Russian Empire and Problems of Church Charity: 1700–1917), in Religii mira: Istorija i sovremennost', 2004, Moscow, 2004, pp. 175–181.
6. Pankrat T. V. Blagotvoritel'naja dejatel'nost' prihodskih popechitel'stv Moskvy: vtoraja polovina XIX — nachalo XX stoletija (Charity Activity of Parish Trusteeships of Moscow: Second Half of XIX — Begin of XX Centuries), Moscow, 2011.
7. Papkov A. Cerkovno-obshhestvennye voprosy v jepohu carja-osvoboditelja (Church-Social Questions in Time of the Tsar-Liberator), Saint-Petersburg, 1902.
8. Polunov A. Ju. Pod vlast'ju ober-prokurora. Gosudarstvo i cerkov' v jepohu Aleksandra III (Under the Reign of Ober-Procurator. State and Church in Time of Alexander III), Moscow, 1996.
9. Rimskij S. V. Rossijskaja Cerkov' v jepohu Velikih reform: Cerkovnye reformy v Rossii 1860–1870-h godov (Russian Church in Time of Great Reforms: Church Reforms in Russia in 1860–1870-s Years), Moscow, 1999.
10. Runovskij N. Cerkovno-grazhdanskie zakonopolozhenija otnositel'no pravoslavnogo duhovenstva v carstvovanie imperatora Aleksandra II (Church-Civil Laws about Orthodox Clergy unter Reign of Emperor Alexander II), Kazan', 1898.
11. Smolich I. K. Istorija Russkoj Cerkvi. 1700–1917 (History of Russian Church. 1700–1917), Moscow, 1996–1997, vol. 1–2.
12. Fedorov V. A. Russkaja Pravoslavnaja Cerkov' i gosudarstvo. Sinodal'nyj period. 1700–1917 (Russian Orthodox Church and State. Synodal Period. 1700–1917), Moscow, 2003.
13. Fudel' I. I., svjashh. K reforme prihodskih popechitel'stv (To a Reform of Parish Trusteeships), Moscow, 1894.
14. Fudel' I. I., svjashh. Osnovy cerkovno-prihodskoj zhizni (Foundations of Church Parish Life), Moscow, 1894.
15. 1983 “The Parish Clergy” in Freeze G. L. Nineteenth-Century Russia: Crisis, Reform, CounterReform, Princeton, 1983.
16. Freeze G. L. 2001 “All Power to the Parish? The Problems and Politics of Church Reform in Late Imperial Russia”, in Madhavan K. Palat (ed.). Social Identities in Revolutionary Russia, Palgrave Macmillan (UK), 2001, pp. 174–208.

Beglov Aleksandr

Ikonnikov Sergei

Activity of Russian Orthodox clergy in establishing parochial schools in the second half of XIX — the beginning of the XX century

Ikonnikov Sergei (2014) "Activity of Russian Orthodox clergy in establishing parochial schools in the second half of XIX — the beginning of the XX century ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia II : Istoriia. Istoriia Russkoy Pravoslavnoy Tserkvi, 2014, Iss. 61, pp. 58-72 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturII201461.58-72
The article analyses activity of parish clergy of Voronezh Diocese in the area of national education in the second half of XIX and the beginning of the XX century. On the basis of archival and published sources the author have made a thorough research on the contribution of Orthodox clergy to improving the literacy rate of population through establishment of church schools on the example of Voronezh Diocese. Overwhelming quantity of peasants had absolutely no education then. Deep-rooted superstitions and prejudices were widespread among the population of Voronezh region. Local selfgovernment institutions carried out establishing national schools, but their eff orts were not suffi cient. Moreover, teachers of national schools weren’t loyal to the traditional orthodox values, preferring to teach children new “progressive” ideas. Church authorities made deacon a staff member in tructure of Russian orthodox parishes to provide more eff ective work. In 1884, government of Alexander III appealed to the church to make better contribution to national education among peasant population of the Empire. The clergy were aware of importance of the newly established responsibilities and actively engaged in the work on opening church schools. Local pastors conducted the work to raise awareness of importance of basic ducation among peasants. This article analyzes the work of Voronezh Diocese Clergy on development church schools, discusses both the positive aspects of activity of parochial clergy and obvious defects. The author comes to the conclusion that the priests had made a signifi cant contribution to the development of public education despite the lack of support from the state, the rejection of church schools by zemstvo and the diffi culties associated with poor economic standing of the clergy.
Orthodox Church, the Russian empire, Voronezh Diocese, parish clergy, parochial schools, national schools, zemstvo

1. Blagovidov F. V. Dejatel'nost' russkogo prihodskogo duhovenstva v otnoshenii k narodnomu obrazovaniju v carstvovanie imperatora Aleksandra II (Activity of Russian Parish Clergy Regarding People Education in Time of Emperor Alexander II), Kazan', 1891.
2. Nikol'skij P. V.1906–1907 “Cerkovno-prihodskie shkoly Voronezhskoj eparhii s 1884 goda” (Parochial Schools of Voronezhskaja Diocese from 1884), in Voronezhskie eparhial'nye vedomosti, 1906, vol. 16, pp. 750–768; vol 18, pp. 812–823; vol 20, pp. 876–890; vol. 23, pp. 1006–1024; vol. 24, pp. 1072–1088; 1907, vol. 5, pp. 179–196; vol. 7, pp. 229–251; vol. 10, pp. 441–456; vol. 15, pp. 489–508.
3. Petrov S., arhiep. Istorija Voronezhskoj eparhii ot ejo uchrezhdenija i do 1960-h godov (History of Voronezhskaja Diocese from Its Foundation till 1960-s Years), Voronezh, 2011.
4. Popov P., svjashh. 1900 “Uchastie zemstv v soderzhanii cerkovnyh shkol” (Participation of Zemstvo in Support of Church Schools), in Voronezhskie eparhial'nye vedomosti, 1900, vol. 12, pp. 521–531.
5. Rimskij S. V. Rossijskaja Cerkov' v jepohu Velikih reform. Cerkovnye reformy v Rossii 1860–1870-h godov (Russian Church in Time of Great Reforms. Church Reforms in Russia in 1860–1870-s Years), Moscow, 1999.

Ikonnikov Sergei

Tsys' Valerii

Pilgrimage of West Siberian Residents to Palestine at the end of XIX – beginning of XX century

Tsys' Valerii, Tsys' Ol'ga, (2014) "Pilgrimage of West Siberian Residents to Palestine at the end of XIX – beginning of XX century ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia II : Istoriia. Istoriia Russkoy Pravoslavnoy Tserkvi, 2014, Iss. 61, pp. 73-90 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturII201461.73-90
The article elaborates upon organization and stages of pilgrimage of West Siberian residents to Palestine at the end of XIX — beginning of XX century. The author makes an attempt to show the motives behind the pilgrimage, as well as organizational and household challenges. The article outlines some details of Siberians’ stay in Russian courtyards in Jerusalem and describes fi nancial situation enabling the pilgrims to travel to Palestine and back. The study is based on personal sources describing the impressions and experience the Western Siberians had when visiting the Holy Land. The author concludes that Russian pilgrims would usually spend about half a month at the Russian courtyards and that the accommodation, catering and living conditions of their stay were quite adequate at the beginning of the XXth century. It is noted that the number of pilgrims from West Siberian provinces at that period reached several dozen people a year. Social and age compound of pilgrims is described. The article outlines local peculiarities of pilgrims, such the predominance of men, including a small number of indigenous residents of Siberia. It is noted that the vast number of pilgrims were farmers and elderly people. The article shows some examples of pilgrims sharing their impressions and spiritual experience with family members, relatives, friends and neighbors after returning to homeland. The paper demonstrates the contribution of the Imperial Orthodox Palestine Society to improvement of pilgrimage routes and services to pilgrims during the above mentioned timeframe. Despite the fact that those the pilgrimages didn’t become a widespread phenomenon, they seized to be something of an extraordinary nature.
Palestine, The Imperial Orthodox Palestine Society, pilgrimage, Western Siberia, Jerusalem, Russian courtyards, paperwork, travel expenses, travelling conditions and motives, transportation

1. Bernshtam T. A. Prihodskaja zhizn' russkoj derevni: Ocherki po cerkovnoj jetnografii (Parish Life of Russian Village: Essays on Church Ethnography), Saint-Petersburg, 2005.
2. Vejsensel P R. 1992 “Soobshhenija russkih krest'jan-palomnikov o Palestine kak otobrazhenie zhizni russkoj sel'skoj obshhiny” (Messages of Russian Peasants-Pilgrims about Palestine as Reflection of Life of Russian Village Community), in Palestinskij sbornik, Moscow, 1992, vol. 31/94, pp. 37–44.
3. Vorob'eva I. A. Russkie missii v Svjatoj zemle v 1847–1917 godah (Russian Missions in Holy Land in 1847–1917), Moscow, 2001.
4. Dmitrievskij A. A. 1906 “Noch' pod Rozhdestvo Hristovo v Ierusalime v 1887 g. (iz vpechatlenij ochevidca)” (Night before Christmas in Jerusalem in 1887), in SIPPO, 1906, vol. 17/1, pp. 85–93.
5. Dmitrievskij A. A. Tipy sovremennyh russkih palomnikov v Svjatuju Zemlju (Types of Modern Russian Pilgrims in Holy Land), Saint-Petersburg, 1912.
6. Dmitrievskij A. A. Imperatorskoe Pravoslavnoe Palestinskoe obshhestvo i ego dejatel'nost' za istekshuju chetvert' veka: 1882–1907 (Emperor Orthodox Palestine Society and Its Activity for Passed Quarter of Age: 1882–1907), Moscow, Saint-Petersburg, 2008.
7. Dmitrievskij A. A. Sel'skij pastyr' — vostorzhennyj pochitatel' Sv. Zemli i shhedryj zhertvovatel' na ee nuzhdy. Protoierej Petr Prokof'evich Zatvornickij (umer 25.01.1912 g.) (Village Pastor — Exalted Admirer of Holy Land and Lavish Benefactor for Its Needs. Archpriest Petr Prokof'evich Zatvornickij (Died 25.01.1912)), Saint-Petersburg, 1913.
8. Lisovoj N. N. 2008 “Imperatorskoe Pravoslavnoe Palestinskoe obshhestvo: 125 let sluzhenija Cerkvi i Rossii” (Emperor Orthodox Palestine Society: 125 Years of Service for Church and Russia), in Dmitrievskij A. A. Imperatorskoe Pravoslavnoe Palestinskoe obshhestvo i ego dejatel'nost' za istekshuju chetvert' veka: 1882–1907, Moscow, Saint-Petersburg, 2008, pp. 371–432.
9. Poplavskaja H. V. Narodnaja tradicija pravoslavnogo palomnichestva v Rossii v XIX–XX vv. (Po materialam Rjazanskogo kraja): Dis… kand. ist. Nauk (Folk Tradition of Orthodox Pilgromage in Russia in XIX–XX Cent. (according to Materials of Rjasanskij Province). Dissertation), M., 2000.
10. V. K. Beloborodov (ed.). Samarovskij peterburzhec: pis'ma zemljakov k H. M. Loparevu (Samara's Resident of St Petersbourg: Letters of Countrymen to H. M. Loparev), Saint-Petersburg, Hanty-Mansijsk, 2008.
11. Turinskij svjashh. S-l-h-v. 1906–1909 “O palomnicheskom stranstvovanii moem na Blizhnij Vostok v Turcii” (About My Pilgrimage to Near East in Turkey), in Tobol'skie eparhial'nye vedomosti. 190 lic, ostanavlivajushhihsja na Russkom Sergievskom podvor'e, 1906, vol. 16, Otdel neofic., pp. 422–425; vol. 20, pp. 527–531; 1907, vol. 2, Otdel neofic., pp. 28–34; vol. 7, Otdel neofic., pp. 198–202; vol. 13, pp. 373–380; vol. 17, Otdel neofic., pp. 493–501; 1908, vol. 12, Otdel neofic, pp. 214–215; vol. 16, Otdel neofic., pp. 302–306; 1909, vol. 7, Otdel neofic., pp. 177–184; vol. 12, Otdel neofic., pp. 296–303; vol. 13, Otdel neofic, pp. 339–343; vol. 17, Otdel neofic., pp. 460–463.
12. Ustav Imperatorskogo Pravoslavnogo Palestinskogo obshhestva (Regulations of Emperor Orthodox Palestine Society), in http://www.ippo.ru/ (istoriya-ippo/ustav-imperatorskogo-pravoslavnogo-palestinskogo-obschestva-1882-g.html (Date: 17.01.2014 g.)).

Tsys' Valerii

Zimina Nina

«Semi-Renovationism» in the Patriarch Tikhon Church in the Middle of 1920s: Bishop Iacov (Mascaev) at Orenburg cathedra (1923–1925)

Zimina Nina (2014) " «Semi-Renovationism» in the Patriarch Tikhon Church in the Middle of 1920s: Bishop Iacov (Mascaev) at Orenburg cathedra (1923–1925) ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia II : Istoriia. Istoriia Russkoy Pravoslavnoy Tserkvi, 2014, Iss. 61, pp. 91-112 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturII201461.91-112
The article is devoted to analysis of Church politics of Bishop Iacov (Maskaev) at the Orenburg cathedra in 1923–1925. It is shown that before his consecration, Iacov Maskaev supported the dual tactics of the Orenburg Bishop Aristarch (Nickolaevsky), which recognized the schismatic Supreme Ecclesiastical Administration, but opposed the activities of the renovationist authorized representative on imposition of a schism. In this regard, the consecration of Iacov (Maskaev) to the Orsk vicar cathedra in March 1923 was considered as an important step in strengthening of Episcopal authority in the Orenburg diocese in contrast to the tactics of schismatics. However, the question about validity of his consecration, performed by renovationist bishops, was fi nally resolved only in October 1923, when Patriarch Tikhon recognized Iacov as the Bishop of Orsk and appointed him a temporary administrator of the Orenburg diocese. At the same time, under the pressure of the OGPU Bishop Iacov gave a covert subscription about submission to the renovationist «synod» and received its decree, dated November 1923, on the appointment the ruling Orenburg Bishop. This decree was not announced in the diocese. Thus, Bishop Iacov became «the secret schismatic», although went on to declare himself the Orthodox hierarch. In the autumn of 1923 Bishop Iacov issued a declaration outlining his new, “Semi-Renovationist” Church platform, including distancing from the “counterrevolutionary” politics of Patriarch Tikhon, administrative ubordination to the Renovationist “synod” when saving the canonical obedience to the Patriarch, Church reforms, consolidation with schismatics. The result of politics of Bishop Iacov (Maskaev) became the legalization of the Orenburg Diocesan administration in December 1923. The period of “Secret Renovationism” of Bishop Iacov was completed in January 1925, when he was banned from serving, dismissed from the Department and repressed for the rejection an open transition into schism. The analysis of the activity of Bishop Iacov has allowed to conclude that the main purpose of his Church policy, very controversial in the canonical respect, was the legalization of diocesan administration while maintaining the canonical and covert administrative ties with Patriarch Tikhon. The “Declaration” of Bishop Iacov (Maskaev) opened a period in Church history, related with “Semi-Renovationist” policy of many bishops who tried to settle the legal status of the dioceses through serious compromises with the civil authorities. This period was over in 1927 with the wellknown “Declaration” of Metropolitan Sergey (Stragorodsky) on behalf of the entire Russian Church.
Renovationist schism, the problem of the Russian Orthodox Church legalization in the Soviet state in 1920s, «Semi-Renovationism», «Secret Renovationism», «Semi-Renovationist» church platforms, the Diocese of Orenburg, the Orsk vicariate, Bishop Aristarch

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Shishkin Evgenii, priest

The Russian Orthodox Church in the occupied territories of the Caucasus in August 1942 — February 1943

Shishkin Evgenii (2014) "The Russian Orthodox Church in the occupied territories of the Caucasus in August 1942 — February 1943 ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia II : Istoriia. Istoriia Russkoy Pravoslavnoy Tserkvi, 2014, Iss. 61, pp. 113-127 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturII201461.113-127
The status and activities of the Russian Orthodox Church in the 1942-1943 is analysed on the material of the North Caucasus and the Kuban. Battle for the Caucasus and the Battle of Stalingrad — the crucial events of the World War II — were accompanied by the fi rst phase of the occupation of a large part of the South of Russia. We study both positive and tragic facets of church life in the occupied territories of the enemy. The process of spontaneous legalization of the clergy and parish communities, the Soviet government outlawed in the preceding period, traced the fate of the Orthodox pastors and churches — returning to serve and die at the hands of the Nazis, open to the service and destroyed by Hitler’s army. The internal problems of religious policy of the German Headquarters and especially its implementation in the region, as well as hierarchical and jurisdictional problems caused by the Renovationist schism, and their perspective in conditions of military everyday are examined. Marked combining processes in the church community and the formation at the local level prerequisites for overcoming the disunions ecclesiastic of the 1920s — 1930s.
The Russian Orthodox Church, renovationist schism, the Great Patriotic war, occupation, religious policy, the North Caucasus, Archbishop Flavian (Ivanov), Archbishop Nicholas (Autonomov), Metropolitan Joseph (Chernov).

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Shishkin Evgenii, priest

PUBLICATIONS

Smoliakova Inna

The Letters of the Holy Martyr Benjamin, Metropolitan of Petrograd to Holy hierarch Tikhon, the Patriarch Moscow and All Russia (the publication)

Smoliakova Inna (2014) "The Letters of the Holy Martyr Benjamin, Metropolitan of Petrograd to Holy hierarch Tikhon, the Patriarch Moscow and All Russia (the publication) ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia II : Istoriia. Istoriia Russkoy Pravoslavnoy Tserkvi, 2014, Iss. 61, pp. 131-146 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturII201461.131-146
The publication off ers the unknown letter metropolitan Benjamin to Holy Patriarch Tikhon (the Moscow metropolitan in that time) in September, 1917 — July, 1918. In letters the actual questions of the church life in the revolutionary era were raised.
The Petrograd diocese, The Petrograd Bureau of the Holy Synod, Alexander Nevsky Lavra, Alexander Nevsky brotherhood, The Council Of People’s Commissars, Bishop Procopius (Titov), Bishop Gennady (Tuberozov), Bishop Ambrose (Libin).

Smoliakova Inna

BOOK REVIEWS

Kosik Viktor

Rev. of Horhordina T. I. , Popov A. V. Archive Heuristics: Textbook. Kolomna, 2014.

Kosik Viktor (2014) Rev. of Horhordina T. I. , Popov A. V. Archive Heuristics: Textbook. Kolomna, 2014., Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia II : Istoriia. Istoriia Russkoy Pravoslavnoy Tserkvi, 2014, Iss. 61, pp. 149-149 (in Russian).

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Kosik Viktor