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St. Tikhon’s University Review . Series II: History. Russian Church History

St. Tikhon’s University Review II :2 (57)

ARTICLES

Starikov Iurii

The receptions of literary disputes against heretics in Josephite literacy (based on «The Word about the Incarnation» by Daniel Metropolitan)

Starikov Iurii (2014) "The receptions of literary disputes against heretics in Josephite literacy (based on «The Word about the Incarnation» by Daniel Metropolitan) ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia II : Istoriia. Istoriia Russkoy Pravoslavnoy Tserkvi, 2014, Iss. 57, pp. 9-22 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturII201457.9-22
The article investigates the literary controversy in the Russian Church in the fi rst half of the XVI century. Author conducted a literary and textual analysis of one of the largest polemical writings of Metropolitan Daniel of Moscow — «The word of the Incarnation of our Lord Jesus Christ.» This work was part of the composition «Sobornik slov» of Metropolitan Daniel, however, was never published and attracted the attention of researchers. At the same time it is the only writing in ancient russian literacy, where polemics with «netlennomnimaya» heresy, in which during the council in 1531, Daniel has accused the prince-monk Vassian (Patrikeev). The author established the county direct textual relationship «Sudnoe delo» of Vassian from «the Incarnation of the Word.» In addition, based on the study of ancient lists of «Words» author identifi ed the major literary devices and methods of Josephite polemicists school in the beginning of XVI century. «The word of the Incarnation» and many other works of Metropolitan Daniel examined in the paper as complex literary works, where identifies several levels of meaning. Analysis of a compilation of the «Word» has allowed the author to identify the strict sequence of citing biblical and patristic texts, and to identify the logic of argument advocated by Metropolitan Daniel. In this regard, the author attempts to refute the preconceived idea that the scribes Josephite schools were compilers, and destitute of original art. The author came to conclusion that existing in the national historiography technique of studying polemical writings of Russian medieval writers is in need of major changes.
Metropolitan Daniel, bookishness of medieval Russia, heresy, avtartodoketizm, Josephites, church council, theology, controversy, patrology, apologetics.

1. Alekseev A. I. Sochinenija Iosifa Volockogo v kontekste polemiki 1480–1510-h gg. (Works of Joseph Volockij in Context of Polemic 1480–1510), SPb., 2010.
2. Davydenkov O., prot. Dogmaticheskoe bogoslovie (Dogmatic Theology), M., 2013.
3. Zhmakin V. I. Mitropolit Daniil i ego sochinenija (Metropolit Daniil and His Works), M., 1881.
4. Kazakova N. A. Vassian Patrikeev i ego sochinenija (Vassian Patrikeev and His Works), M.; L., 1960.
5. Kloss B. M. Nikonovskij svod i russkie letopisi XVI–XVII vv. (Nikonovskij Code and Russian Chronicles of XVI–XVII Cent.), M., 1980.
6. Makarij (Bulgakov), mitr. (1872) “Sochinenija Moskovskogo mitropolita Daniila” (Works of Metropolit Daniil of Moscow), in Hristianskoe chtenie, 1872, vol 10, pp. 181–275.
7. Pliguzov A. I. Polemika v Russkoj Cerkvi pervoj treti XVI v. (Polemic in Russian Chirch of First Third of XVI Cent.), M., 2002.
8. Florovskij G. Puti russkogo bogoslovija (Ways of Russian Theology), Parizh, 1937.

Starikov Iurii

Gaida Fedor

The Council of Ministers and the problems of Russian Orthodox Church (1906–1914)

Gaida Fedor (2014) "The Council of Ministers and the problems of Russian Orthodox Church (1906–1914) ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia II : Istoriia. Istoriia Russkoy Pravoslavnoy Tserkvi, 2014, Iss. 57, pp. 23-37 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturII201457.23-37
The article focuses on representations of the Russian government on the main problems of the Orthodox Church in the early twentieth century. The fi rst Russian revolution of 1905-1907 led to the proclamation of the principle of freedom of conscience, which must be reconciled with the maintaining principle of the dominant Church. For political reasons, the government embarked on a search for union with the Old Believers, but the Church was against this trend. The procurator of the Holy Synod P. P. Izvolsky tried to defend its interests in the government, but rarely found support. Meanwhile, Stolypin`s government feared complications of their relationship with the Synod. The government originally set itself the task of fully implement all the principles of the decree 17 April 1905. The revival of parish life was the main task in the field of Church according to the government. This problem was more urgent as political stability was realized. These particular problems are identified the appointment of V. C. Sabler to offi ce of the procurator of the Holy Synod. Sabler adjusted its policies in the confrontation with the III State Duma. It castigated the Synod and the alleged abolition of parochial schools. Sabler drafted a reform of the parish, which unlike Izvolsky and Duma`s projects did not imagine electing clergy, moreover, he retained bishop`s control over the parish council. Sabler developed parish reform, but its implementation is complicated by the opposition of the executive and legislative powers. However Sabler could not get consent from the Council of Ministers in carrying out reforms parish bypassing legislative chambers. Policy of the Council of Ministers are supported by the monarch, who used his supreme power by the prime minister or the procurator only in special cases.
Russian Orthodox Church, Orthodox parish, clergy, the Council of Ministers, Russian Empire, P. A. Stolypin, P. P. Izvolskii, V. K. Sabler, the State Duma, the freedom of conscience, the Old Believers

1. Belov Ju. S. Pravitel'stvennaja politika po otnosheniju k nepravoslavnym veroispovedanijam Rossii v 1905–1917 gg. Dis. ... kand. ist. nauk (Government’s Politics for Attitude of Non-Orthodox Confessions in Russia in 1905–1917. Dissertation), SPb., 1999.
2. Gajda F. A. (2008) “Russkaja politicheskaja obshhestvennost' poslednih let Imperii o vere i Cerkvi” (Russian Politic Publicity of the Last Years of Empire about Faith and Church), in Materialy Mezhdunarodnoj nauchnoj konferencii «1917-j: Cerkov' i sud'by Rossii. K 90-letiju Pomestnogo Sobora i izbranija Patriarha Tihona», M.: Izd-vo PSTGU, 2008, pp. 16–24.
3. Djakin V. S. Samoderzhavie, burzhuazija i dvorjanstvo v 1907–1911 gg. (Autocracy, Bourgeoisie and Nobility in 1907–1911), L., 1978.
4. Ilarion (Alfeev), ep. Svjashhennaja tajna Cerkvi: Vvedenie v istoriju i problematiku imjaslavskih sporov (Saint Mystery of the Church: Introduction in the History of Problems of Imiaslavie Disputes), SPb., 2007.
5. Lukojanov I. V. U istokov rossijskogo parlamentarizma: istoriko-dokumental'noe izdanie (Sources of Russian Parliamentarism: Historical-Documental Edition), SPb., 2003.
6. Pinkevich V. K. Veroispovednye reformy v Rossii v period dumskoj monarhii (1906–1917 gg.) (Confession Reforms in Russia in Time of Duma’s Monarchy (1906–1917)), M., 2000.
7. Rozhkov V., prot. Cerkovnye voprosy v Gosudarstvennoj dume (Church Problems in State Duma), M., 2004.
8. Safonov A. A. Pravovoe regulirovanie funkcionirovanija religioznyh ob#edinenij v Rossii v nachale XX veka. Dis. … d-r jurid. nauk (Law Regulation of Functioning of Religious Organizations in Russia in Begin of XX Century. Dissertation), M., 2008.
9. Russkaja Cerkov' nakanune peremen (konec 1890-h — 1918 g.) (Russian Church before Changes (End of 1890-s — 1918)), M., 2002.
Leonov Sergei

Anti-church Terror during the October Revolution Through the Prism of the Historiografy

Leonov Sergei (2014) "Anti-church Terror during the October Revolution Through the Prism of the Historiografy ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia II : Istoriia. Istoriia Russkoy Pravoslavnoy Tserkvi, 2014, Iss. 57, pp. 38-55 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturII201457.38-55
The article reviews the historiographical data on the Bolshevik repressions against The Russian Orthodox Church during The October Revolution (1917-1921). It explores the main trends and peculiarities of the historiography, starting from its genesis and up to the present days. It points out that in the Soviet historical literature this subject was actually prohibited; and at best, it was addressed only en passant. Only to the end of the “Perestroika” these subjects was actively discussed, but in the press. The basis for the historiography of the anti-church terror during the October Revolution was laid by the Russian emigrants, first of all by A. A. Valentinov and M. Pol’skij . Essential knowledge was added by the Western historiography, but until 1990’s it had been also restrained by the lack of sources. In contemporary Russia, many studies have appeared on the wave of unprecedented interest to the history of the Church, which review one or another aspect of repressions against clergy and laity during the October revolution. Nevertheless, several key issues still remains disputable since they have never been properly explored, e.g. the directly goals of the Bolsheviks’ policy toward the Church and factors of anti-Church terror; relation of the terror “from above” (official/ government structures) to the one “from below”; attitudes of the majority of the rural and urban populations; numbers of repressed members of clergy and laity, etc. As a whole, the problem of anti-Church terror during the October revolution still remains underexplored.
Anti-church terror, historiography, Orthodox Church, The October Revolution, The Russian Civil Ware, repressions, victims, appraisals, disputable problems.

1. Valentinov A. A. Chernaja kniga (Shturm nebes): Sb. dokument. dannyh, harakterizujushhih bor'bu sovetskoj kommunisticheskoj vlasti protiv vsjakoj religii, protiv vseh ispovedanij i cerkvej (Black Book (Storm of Heaven): Collection of Documental Data, Characterizing the Struggle of Soviet Communist Party against Every Religion, All Confessions and Churches), Parizh, 1925.
2. Vasil'eva O. Ju. (1993) “Russkaja Pravoslavnaja Cerkov' i sovetskaja vlast' v 1917–1927 gg.” (Russian Orthodox Church and Soviet Power in 1917–1927), in Voprosy istorii, 1993, vol. 8, pp. 40–54.
3. Damaskin (Orlovskij), ierom. Mucheniki, ispovedniki i podvizhniki blagochestija Russkoj Pravoslavnoj Cerkvi 20-go stoletija (Martyrers, Confessors and Devotees of Piety of Russian Orthodox Church of XX Century), Tver', 1992–2003, vol. 1–7.
4. Emel'janov N. E. Ocenka statistiki gonenij na Russkuju Pravoslavnuju Cerkov' 1917–1952 gg. (po dannym na janvar' 2004 g.) (Estimation of Persecution Statistics of Russian Orthodox Church of 1917-1952), in http://www.pstbi.ru/bin/code.exe/nmstat4.html?/ans
5. Kashevarov A. N. Pravoslavnaja Rossijskaja Cerkov' i Sovetskoe gosudarstvo (1917–1922) (Russian Orthodox Church and Soviet State (1917–1922)), M., 2005.
6. Kosik O. V. Golosa iz Rossii: Ocherki istorii sbora i peredachi za granicu informacii o polozhenii Cerkvi v SSSR (1920-e — nachalo 1930-h gg.) (Voices from Russia: Essays on History of Gathering and Transmitting of Information Abroad about the Position of the Church in USSR (1920-s — Begin of 1930-s Years)), M., 2011.
7. Krapivin M. Ju. Nepridumannaja cerkovnaja istorija (Nonfictional Church History), Volgograd, 1997.
8. Makarov Ju. N. Organy VChK–GPU–OGPU i Pravoslavnaja Rossijskaja Cerkov' (1919–1927 gg.) (Organs of VChK–GPU–OGPU and Russian Orthodox Church (1919–1927)), Sochi, 2007.
9. Nechaev M. G. Krasnyj terror i Cerkov' na Urale (Red Terror and Church in Ural), Perm', 1992.
10. Pol'skij M. Novye mucheniki rossijskie: V 2 kn. (New Russian Martyrers: in 2 Books), M., 1994.
11. Petrov M. N. Krest pod molotom (Cross under Hammer), Vel. Novgorod, 2000.
12. Plaksin R. Ju. Krah cerkovnoj kontrrevoljucii (1918−1923) (Fail of Church Counterrevolution), M., 1968.
13. Pospelovskij D. V. Russkaja Pravoslavnaja Cerkov' v XX v. (Russian Orthodox Church in XX Cent.), M., 1995.
14. Titov Ju. P. (1988) “Revoljucionnye tribunaly v bor'be s cerkovnoj kontrrevoljuciej” (Revolutional Tribunals in Struggle against Church Counterrevolution), in Istoriko-pravovye voprosy vzaimootnoshenij gosudarstva i Cerkvi v istorii Rossii: Sb. nauch. trudov VJuZI, M., 1988, pp. 147–167.
15. Cypin V., prot. Istorija Russkoj Cerkvi. 1917–1997 (History of Russian Church. 1917–1997), M., 1997.
16. Shkarovskij M. V. Russkaja Pravoslavnaja Cerkov' v XX v. (Russian Orthodox Church in XX Cent.) M., 2010.
17. Curtiss J. C. The Russian Church and the Soviet State, 1917–1950, Boston, 1953.
18. Luukkanen А. The Party of Unbelief. The religious policy of the Bolshevik Party. 1917–1929, Helsinki, 1994.

Leonov Sergei

Beglov Aleksei

The Orthodox parish in the Russian Empire as an object of fi scal policy of the secular and ecclesiastical authorities in the late XIX — early XX centuries

Beglov Aleksei (2014) "The Orthodox parish in the Russian Empire as an object of fi scal policy of the secular and ecclesiastical authorities in the late XIX — early XX centuries ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia II : Istoriia. Istoriia Russkoy Pravoslavnoy Tserkvi, 2014, Iss. 57, pp. 56-81 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturII201457.56-81
In the article the system of taxation of Orthodox parishes of the Russian Empire in the late XIX — early XX centuries is reconstructed on the new archival materials and the numerous contributions that the parishes carried out from its own funds in favor of the diocesan institutions and charitable organizations are described. Attempt are made to estimate the number of different charges, which existed in this period (the author now includes over 80 items) and their size and severity for the parish budget. In this regard, it is concluded that such deductions in some cases accounted for more than half of the income of the parish churches. The author describes the reasons for turning the formally voluntary fees in favor of charitable institutions in virtually compulsory. It investigates the failed attempts of the Supreme Church leadership to reform the system of parish charges in the early XXth century, in particular, the work of the two synodal committees (active in 1905 under the chairmanship of Archbishop Nikon (Sofi yskiy) and in 1909, under the chairmanship of Archbishop Anthony (Khrapovitsky)). The author comes to the conclusion that these charges were not the only cause of poverty of many parishes (especially rural parishes in Central Russia), but they weakened the parish as a religious community, for the charges were a pretext for permanent discontent among the parishioners about the parish clergy and diocesan authorities. Not the last role here was played by the fact that the diocesan institutions, which were funded by the parish funds were of an estate character.
The History of the Russian Orthodox Church, discussions about the Church reforms, the reform of the Orthodox parish, fees from the parishes, the fee from selling the candles, charity fees, collections of money during the church services, imposts on the d

1. Beglov A. L. (2012) “Zakonodatel'stvo Rossijskoj imperii o pravoslavnom prihode k nachalu 1890-h gg.: Obzor osnovnyh zakonodatel'nyh aktov” (Laws of Russian Empire about Orthodox Parish in Begin if 1890-s Years), in Religii mira. Istorija i sovremennost'. 2006–2010, M., SPb.: Nestor, 2012, pp. 371–388.
2. Beglov A. L. Zemskie proekty pereustrojstva pravoslavnogo prihoda. 1860–1890-e gg. (Land Projects of Rearrangement of Orthodox Parish. 1860–1890-s Years) (in print).
3. Beglov A. L. (2013) “Soslovnost' pravoslavnogo prihodskogo duhovenstva v Rossii v nachale XX veka: regional'nye osobennosti” (Estateness of Orthodox Parish Clergy in Russia in Begin of XX Century: Regional Features), in Jelektronnyj nauchno-obrazovatel'nyj zhurnal «Istorija», M., 2013. vol. 5/21. URL: http://mes.igh.ru/s207987840000561-6-1 (date: 10.12.2013).
4. Vert P. Pravoslavie, inoslavie, inoverie: Ocherki po istorii religioznogo raznoobrazija Rossijskoj imperii (Orthodoxy, Other Christian Confessions and Other Religions: Essays of History of Religious Diversity of Russian Empire), M., 2012.
5. Emel'jah L. I. Antiklerikal'noe dvizhenie v period pervoj russkoj revoljucii (Anticlerical Movement in Period of the First Russian Revolution), M., 1965.
6. Ivancov-Platonov A. M., prot. O russkom cerkovnom upravlenii. Dvenadcat' statej iz №№ 1–16 gazety «Rus'» 1882 goda (About Russian Church Government. Twelve Articles from vol. 1–16 of the Newspaper “Rus’” of 1882), SPb., 1898.
7. Runovskij N. Cerkovno-grazhdanskie zakonopolozhenija otnositel'no pravoslavnogo duhovenstva v carstvovanie imperatora Aleksandra II (Church-Civil Laws about Orthodox Clergy in Time of Emperor Alexander II), Kazan', 1898.
8. Samarin D. F. Sobranie statej, rechej i dokladov. T. 1: Krest'janskoe delo (Collection of Articles, Speeches and Reports, vol. 1: Peasants’ Affair), M., 1903. T. 2: Stat'i o prihode. Stat'i raznorodnogo soderzhanija (Vol. 2: Articles about Parish. Articles of Different Content), M., 1908.
9. Shevcova V.F. Pravoslavie v Rossii nakanune 1917 g. (Orthodoxy in Russia before 1917), SPb., 2010.
10. (1983) “The Parish Clergy” in Freeze G. L. Nineteenth-Century Russia: Crisis, Reform, CounterReform, Princeton, 1983.

Beglov Aleksei

Kostriukov Andrei

Епископ Нолинский Александр (Малинин): забытый исповедник

Kostriukov Andrei (2014) "Episkop Nolinskiy Aleksandr (Malinin): zabitiy ispovednik ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia II : Istoriia. Istoriia Russkoy Pravoslavnoy Tserkvi, 2014, Iss. 57, pp. 82-89 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturII201457.82-89
The article describes life of Vyatka diocese vicar bishop of Nolinsk Alexander (Malinin). Currently fates of hierarch who was ordained in 1920–1930 isn’t investigated. One of the problems in biography of bishop Alexander is mistake of Metropolitan Elevfery (Bogoyavlensky). He called this hierarch John in his book “A week in Patriarhiya”. As a result, bishop Alexander was mentioned twice in all directories — under his own name and under name “bishop John of Glazov”. Life of bishop Alexander was almost unknown. But his biography was managed to establish. According to an investigative case he was arrested two weeks later, after bishop’s ordination in the night from 10-th to 11-th of December. He was arrested because he said reckless statement during his ordination. In his speech he spoke about persecution of the Church and bishop’ arrests. This speech was pronounced in the in the presence of foreign hierarch — Elevfery (Bogoyavlensky). Bishop Alexander was blamed of trying to transmit information abroad about persecution of the Orthodox Church. He was senteneed to three years in camps. He died when he arrived of the place. In the article is concluded that we should approach to source (such as “A week in Patriarhiya”) with precautions. Moreover, author pay attention that until recently name of bishop Alexander absented in passionless of casualties of Communist repressions. So, we must explore feats of Martyrs and Russian confessors more actively.
Moscow Patriarchate, Spirit academy in Kazan, Pokrov monastery in Moscow, New Russian Martyrs, the book “A week in Patriarhiya”, Patriarch Sergy (Stragorodsky), Metropolitan Elevfery (Bogoyavlensky), Metropolitan Manuil (Lemeshevsky), bishop Alexander

1. Emel'janov N. (2008) “30 000 za Hrista postradavshih v Baze dannyh PSTGU. Analiz podviga russkogo naroda” (30000 Victims for Christ in Database of PSTGU. Analysis of the Feat of Russian People), in Materialy Mezhdunarodnoj nauchnoj konferencii «1917-j: Cerkov' i sud'by Rossii. K 90-letiju Pomestnogo Sobora i izbranija Patriarha Tihona», M.: PSTGU. 2008, pp. 221–231.
2. Istorija ierarhii Russkoj Pravoslavnoj Cerkvi (History of Hierarchy of Russian Orthodox Church), M.: PSTGU, 2006.
3. M[itropolit] M[anuil]. (ed.) Russkie Pravoslavnye ierarhi perioda s 1893 po 1965 gody (vkljuchitel'no) (Russian Orthodox Hierarchs of the Period 1893–1965 (Inclusive)), Kujbyshev, 1966.
4. M. V. Shkarovskij i D. P. Anashkin (eds.). Pravoslavnoe cerkovnoe soprotivlenie v SSSR: Biograficheskij spravochnik. 1927–1988 gg. (Orthodox Church Resistance in USSR: Biographical Reference Book. 1927–1988), M.: Rossijskaja politicheskaja jenciklopedija (ROSSPJeN), 2013.
5. Cypin V., prot. Istorija Russkoj Cerkvi. 1917–1997 (History of Russian Orthodox Church. 1917–1997), M., 1997, vol. 9.

Kostriukov Andrei

Mazyrin Aleksandr, priest

The Last Case and Death of «Moscow Metropolitan» Boris (Rukin): to the Issue of His Suicide

Mazyrin Aleksandr (2014) "The Last Case and Death of «Moscow Metropolitan» Boris (Rukin): to the Issue of His Suicide ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia II : Istoriia. Istoriia Russkoy Pravoslavnoy Tserkvi, 2014, Iss. 57, pp. 90-97 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturII201457.90-97
The author investigates circumstances of the last arrest and the death of bishop (in schism — «the Moscow metropolitan») Boris (Rukin) in detention in 1931 on the basis of his Case from the documents of the Central archive of FSB of the Russian Federation. The author studies the arrest’s reason (the attempt to bribe a soviet clerk), assorts in details the course of investigation and analyzes its result — death of bishop Boris in the hospital of the Butyrsky insulator. In the article the basic attention was occupied with checking of the official version of church-historical literature about suicide of the bishop. The author considers the death of the prisoner, «the metropolitan Moscow», has followed soon after accusing him of a counterrevolutionary propaganda. It was his words to «churchmen» about the possibility to bribe the Soviet power. Materials of the investigatory case do not contain any data to support the version of suicide. At the same time, they allow to assume the interest of the OGPU bodies in the distribution of this version with the purpose to justify the refusal to give out the body of late «metropolitan» Boris for his church burial. The materials have also indirectly testified to the interest in elimination of «the Moscow metropolitan» of some «churchmen» connecting with him. First of all, it was «metropolitan» Bessarion (Zorin) who headed the Gregorian split. He obtained a Boris’s apartment under the decision of VCIK. The article can be useful at drawing up of biographic directories, at writing of historical monographies about the Gregorian split, the Moscow diocese and the Russian Orthodox Church as a whole.

1. Mazyrin A., svjashh., Helemendik M. (20008) “«Borisovshhina» — grigorianskij raskol v Moskve” (“«Borisovshhina» — Grigorianskij Split in Moscow), in Kadashevskie chtenija: Sb. dokladov konferencii, M., 2008, vol. 3, pp. 58–73.
2. Cypin V., prot. (2003) “Boris (Rukin)”, in Pravoslavnaja jenciklopedija, M., 2003, vol. 6, pp. 38–40.
3. Mazyrin A. (publ.) (2012) “«Delo jeto ochen' neprijatnoe…»: Pokazanija episkopa Borisa (Rukina). 1925 g.” (“The Case is Very Unpleasant”: Testimonies of Bishop Boris (Rukin). 1925), in Istoricheskij arhiv, 2012, vol. 5, pp. 91–111.
4. Vorob'ev V. prot. (ed.). Kifa — Patriarshij Mestobljustitel' svjashhennomuchenik Petr, mitropolit Krutickij (1862–1937) (Kifa — Patriarch’s Deputy Martyrer Petr, Metropolitan of Kruticy), M., 2012.
5. Manuil (Lemeshevskij), mitr. Russkie pravoslavnye ierarhi perioda s 1893 po 1965 g. (vkljuchitel'no) (Russian Orthodox Hierarchs of the Period 1893–1965 (Inclusive)), Erlangen, 1981.
6. Ioann (Snychev), mitr. Cerkovnye raskoly v Russkoj Cerkvi 20-h i 30-h godov XX stoletija — grigorianskij, jaroslavskij, iosifljanskij, viktorianskij i drugie, ih osobennosti i istorija (Church Splits in Russian Church of 1920–1930 Years — Grigorianskij, Jaroslavskij, Iosifljanskij, Viktorianskij and Others, Their Features and History), Samara, 1997.

Mazyrin Aleksandr, priest

Khondzinskii Pavel, archpriest

The Orthodox Doctrine of Salvation» by Archimandrite Sergius (Stragorodsky) and its criticism by Confessor of the Faith Victor (Ostrovidov) and Archbishop Seraphim (Sobolev)

Khondzinskii Pavel (2014) "The Orthodox Doctrine of Salvation» by Archimandrite Sergius (Stragorodsky) and its criticism by Confessor of the Faith Victor (Ostrovidov) and Archbishop Seraphim (Sobolev) ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia II : Istoriia. Istoriia Russkoy Pravoslavnoy Tserkvi, 2014, Iss. 57, pp. 98-113 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturII201457.98-113
«The Orthodox Doctrine of Salvation», a well-known work by Archimandrite Sergius (Stragorodsky) that was defended by him as a master’s thesis at the Moscow Theological Academy in 1895, is still considered an etalon in Orthodox theology. Meanwhile, in the first half of the 20th century, it was heavily criticized by at least two prominent members of the Church hierarchy of that time: Confessor of the Faith Victor (Ostrovidov) and Archbishop Seraphim (Sobolev). This article does not only examine their arguments, but also provides the researcher’s personal understanding of the main theses of the work by Archimandrite Sergius. The researcher’s work in this case is complicated by a large number of patristic texts, which are given by Archimandrite Sergius and the abundance of which hampers the identification of his own original ideas. Nevertheless, the carried out analysis reveals that the dissertation doesn’t contain not only patristic, but any kind of a clear doctrine of the Fall, or of man’s state after the Fall, or of redemption, or of man’s assimilation of redemption fruits. Besides, the theses illustrated in the dissertation by the texts of the Holy Fathers belong not so much to them as to the first Slavophiles, Archimandrite Anthony (Khrapovitsky), the teacher and the senior friend of Archimandrite Sergius, and finally to Immanuel Kant. Consequently, in his doctrine of freedom anticipating grace, Archimandrite Sergius comes dangerously close to Pelagianism. These findings recognize the truth of complaints against the work of Archimandrite Sergius by Confessor of the Faith Viktor (Ostrovidov) and Archbishop Seraphim (Sobolev).
Sergius (Stragorodsky), Victor (Ostrovidov), Seraphim (Sobolev), Orthodox doctrine of salvation, new theology, pure love, patristic literature, Pelagianism, Metropolitan Anthony (Khrapovitsky), redemption.

1. Viktor (Ostrovidov), svjashhennoisp. (2006) “Otvety episkopa Viktora (Ostrovidova) na pjatnadcat' voprosov OGPU / Publ. i vstup. st. iereja Aleksandra Mazyrina” (Mazyrin A. ierei (publ.). Answers of Bishop Viktor (Ostrovidov) on Fifteen Questions of OGPU), in Vestnik PSTGU II: Istorija. Istorija Russkoj Pravoslavnoj Cerkvi, 2006, vol. 3/20, pp. 136–147.
2. Viktor (Ostrovidov), svjashhennoisp. [Strannik] (1912) “Novye bogoslovy” (New Theologians), in Cerkov', 1912, vol. 16, pp. 381–383.
3. Sergij (Stragorodskij), arhim. Pravoslavnoe uchenie o spasenii: opyt raskrytija nravstvenno-sub#ektivnoj storony spasenija na osnovanii Sv. Pisanija i tvorenij svjatootecheskih (Orthodox Teaching about Salvation: Experience of Exposure of Ethic-Subjective Side of Salvation on Basis of Holy Scripture and Works of Holy Fathers), Kazan', 1898.
4. Serafim (Sobolev), arhiep. Iskazhenie Pravoslavnoj istiny v russkoj bogoslovskoj mysli (Distortion of Orthodox Truth in Russian Theological Thought), Sofija, 1943.
5. Atonij (Hrapovickij), mitr. Izbrannye trudy. Pis'ma, Materialy (Selected Works. Letters, Materials), M., 2007.
6. Gnedich Petr, prot. Dogmat iskuplenija v russkoj bogoslovskoj nauke (Dogma of Atonement in Russian Theological Science), M., 2007.
7. Janyshev I. L. Sushhnost' hristianstva s nravstvennoj tochki zrenija (Essence of Christianity from the Ethic Point of View), SPb., 1887.
8. Katanskij A. L. Uchenie o blagodati Bozhiej v tvorenijah drevnih Otcov i Uchitelej Cerkvi do blzh. Avgustina (Teaching of God’s Grace in Works of Ancient Fathers and Teachers of the Church to St. Augustine), SPb., 1902.
9. Svt. Feofan Zatvornik. Nachertanie hristianskogo nravouchenija (Pattern of Christian Ethic Teaching), M., 2010.
10. Svt. Feofan Zatvornik. Sobranie pisem (Collection of Letters), M., 2000, vol. 2/8.
11. Svt. Feofan Zatvornik. Put' ko spaseniju (Way to Salvation), M., 2003.
12. Koljupanov N. Biografija Aleksandra Ivanovicha Kosheleva (Biography of Aleksandr Ivanovich Koshelev), M., 1889–1892, vol. 2.
13. Mihail (Gribanovskij), ep. Sochinenija. Pis'ma. Zhizneopisanija (Works. Letters. Vitas), M., 2011.
14. Kant I. Sochinenija (Works), M., 1965, vol. 4.

Khondzinskii Pavel, archpriest

PUBLICATIONS

Vorob'ev Vladimir, archpriest

«My Dear Abba!» Letters of St. Martyr Metropolitan Cyril (Smirnov) to St. Martyr Archimandrite Neophyte (Osipov) 1933–1934

Vorob'ev Vladimir, Mazyrin Aleksandr, Shchelkachev Aleksandr, Khailova Ol'ga, Kazakov Ivan, , , , (2014) "«My Dear Abba!» Letters of St. Martyr Metropolitan Cyril (Smirnov) to St. Martyr Archimandrite Neophyte (Osipov) 1933–1934 ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia II : Istoriia. Istoriia Russkoy Pravoslavnoy Tserkvi, 2014, Iss. 57, pp. 117-142 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturII201457.117-142
This is the first publication of letters of st. martyr metropolitan Cyril (Smirnov), the first candidate for the post of the Patriarchal locum tenens, to st. martyr archimandrite Neophyte (Osipov) since August, 1933 till March, 1934. Archimandrite Neophyte was the personal secretary of St. Patriarch Tikhon. These letters were found in the PSTGU archive among other documents of the archive of martyr Seraphim (Samoylovich) which has been kept by his spiritual daughter st. confessor Iraida Tikhonova. The major questions of the church life in the end of 1920th — the first half of 1930th have been mentioned in published letters. Particularly this is the questions connecting with the relation to the Moscow Patriarchy which has been heading by metropolitan Sergius (Stragorodsky). Many outstanding figures of the Russian Orthodox Church of 1920th–1930th, including who were canonized nowadays, were mentioned in letters, such as st. martyrs Seraphim (Samoylovich), Damascene (Zedrik) and Joasaph (Udalov), st. confessors Athanasius (Sakharov) and Basil (Preobrazhenskiy). A special interest is the detailed description by metropolitan Cyril of his meeting with metropolitan Sergius which has occurred in Moscow in December, 1933. This meeting has not been described in details somewhere before. Letters reveal ecclesiological views of st. martyr Cyril, clarify the essence of his disagreement with supporters of centralization of the church power on terms of the soviet governments. At the same time the letters characterize expressively the position of metropolitan Sergius, which was expressed by him in the conversation with metropolitan Cyril. According letters, metropolitan Sergius promised, in case of death of Patriarchal locum tenens metropolitan Peter (Poljansky), to pass a higher church power to metropolitan Arsenius (Stadnitsky).
New Martyrs and Confessors of Russia, persecution against the Russian Orthodox Church, succession of supreme church power, the “right” opposition to the Moscow Patriarchate, ecclesiology, church archives, st. martyr Cyril (Smirnov), st. martyr Neophyte (

Vorob'ev Vladimir, archpriest

BOOK REVIEWS

Kornilov Aleksandr

Archpastor of the Restless XX-th century — Rev. of Gavrilin A.V. Under the Protecting of the Tikhvin Icon of the Mother of God. John’s (Garklavs) Way of Archpastor. St. Petersburg: «Alaborg», Tikhvin: Publishing service of the Tikhvin monaster

Kornilov Aleksandr (2014) "Archpastor of the Restless XX-th century". Rev. of Gavrilin A.V. Under the Protecting of the Tikhvin Icon of the Mother of God. John’s (Garklavs) Way of Archpastor. St. Petersburg: «Alaborg», Tikhvin: Publishing service of the Tikhvin monaster, Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia II : Istoriia. Istoriia Russkoy Pravoslavnoy Tserkvi, 2014, Iss. 57, pp. 145-149 (in Russian).

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Kornilov Aleksandr

Slezin Anatolii

Rev. of The Confiscation of Church Properties in the Don Area. 1922. The Book of Documents / A.V. Shadrina, L.V. Tabunshchikova; [managing editor A.V. Venkov; scientific editor N.V. Kiselyova]. Rostov-on-Don: Publishing house JUNT

Slezin Anatolii (2014) Rev. of The Confiscation of Church Properties in the Don Area. 1922. The Book of Documents / A.V. Shadrina, L.V. Tabunshchikova; [managing editor A.V. Venkov; scientific editor N.V. Kiselyova]. Rostov-on-Don: Publishing house JUNT, Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia II : Istoriia. Istoriia Russkoy Pravoslavnoy Tserkvi, 2014, Iss. 57, pp. 149-151 (in Russian).

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Slezin Anatolii

Kail' Maksim

Rev. of Iannuary (Nedachin), archimandrite. Clergy of the Smolensk diocese in persecutions 1917 — the beginnings of 1919. M: Publishing house of the Solovki monastery, 2013

Kail' Maksim (2014) Rev. of Iannuary (Nedachin), archimandrite. Clergy of the Smolensk diocese in persecutions 1917 — the beginnings of 1919. M: Publishing house of the Solovki monastery, 2013, Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia II : Istoriia. Istoriia Russkoy Pravoslavnoy Tserkvi, 2014, Iss. 57, pp. 152-156 (in Russian).

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Kail' Maksim

CHRONICLE

Krivosheeva Nataliia

X St. Patriarch Tikhon International conference «the Good Pastor»

Krivosheeva Nataliia (2014) "X St. Patriarch Tikhon International conference «the Good Pastor» ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia II : Istoriia. Istoriia Russkoy Pravoslavnoy Tserkvi, 2014, Iss. 57, pp. 159-162 (in Russian).

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Krivosheeva Nataliia