Shimon Ioann, archpriest
Methods of party and state organs in the closure of Russian orthodox churches in the Crimea in the period of 1948–1961 and attempts to counteract them by archbishop Luka (Voino-Yasenetsky)
Shimon Ioann (2022)
"Methods of party and state organs in the closure of Russian orthodox churches in the Crimea in the period of 1948–1961 and attempts to counteract them by archbishop Luka (Voino-Yasenetsky) ",
Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta.
Seriia II : Istoriia. Istoriia Russkoy Pravoslavnoy Tserkvi
pp. 92-109 (in Russian).
DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturII2022107.92-109
The article examines the policy of the Soviet government in relation to the Russian Orthodox Church in Crimea, traces the changes in the internal state of the Crimean diocese in the period from 1948 to 1961, analyzes the methods of party and state bodies to close the churches of the Russian Orthodox Church in Crimea and attempts to counter this by Archbishop Luka (V.F. Voino-Yasenetsky). The features of the implementation of the episcopal vocation are revealed on the example of the activities of the head of the diocese.During the years of “scientific atheism”, persecutions were aimed at “re-educating” believers, as well as leveling the significance of religion in the eyes of society. The fight against religion was carried out by the forces of not only the law enforcement system, but also the party and Soviet authorities, management and collectives of enterprises, trade unions, the Komsomol, and public organizations. Various methods have been used to achieve these goals. In the press and on the radio, biased and biased materials about religion and the church, as well as notes concerning specific clergymen, were posted. Priests were harassed, removed from registration, and deprived of the opportunity to preach. Pressure was exerted on the heads of dioceses and clergy, and an active propaganda campaign was conducted. On various far-fetched reasons, religious organizations were liquidated, religious buildings were demolished, and applications for the opening of new ones were rejected by the authorities. One of the methods of pressure on the Russian Orthodox Church was to increase the tax burden on religious organizations. The believers were also prosecuted. Representatives of the Council for the Affairs of the Russian Orthodox Church played a significant role in this process.
Russian Orthodox Church, state, anti-church policy, anti-church methods, Crimean diocese, clergy, Archbishop Luke (Voino-Yasenetsky)
- Donenko N. (priest), Filimonov S. (eds) (2004) “Sekretno”: Arkhiepiskop Krymskii Luka (Voino-Iasenetskii) pod nadzorom partiino-sovetskikh organov [“Confi dential”: Archbishop of the Crimea Luka (Voino-Yasenetsky) under surveillance of the party and Soviet services]. Simferopol (in Russian).
- Donenko N. (priest), Filimonov S. (eds) (2011) “Razrabotku Luki prodolzhaem...”: Sviatitel’ Luka (Voino-Iasenetskii) i Krymskaia eparkhiia. 1946–1961 [“We go on with the surveillance of Luka...”: St. Luka (Voino-Yasenetsky) and the Crimean diocese. 1946–1961]. Moscow (in Russian).
- Donenko N. (priest), Zamtaradze R., Filimonov S. (eds) (2015) Krymskaia eparkhiia v dokumentakh sviatitelia Luki (Voino-Iasenetskogo) i nadziraiushchikh organov. 1946–1961 gg. [The Crimean diocese in records of St. Luka (Voino-Yasenetsky) and surveillance service. 1946–1961]. Simferopol (in Russian).
- Fedotov A. (2005) Russkaia Pravoslavnaia Tserkov’ v 1943–2000 gg.: vnutritserkovnaia zhizn’, vzaimootnosheniia s gosudarstvom i obshchestvom [Russian Orthodox church in 1943–2000: internal life of the church, relations with the state and society]. Ivanovo (in Russian).
- Garmash P. (1990) “V Krymu” [In the Crimea], in V. Demidov, V. Kutuzov (eds) Leningradskoe delo [The Leningrad Case]. Leningrad, pp. 241–260 (in Russian).
- Katunin Iu. (2004) Vzaimootnosheniia gosudarstva i Pravoslavnoi Tserkvi v Krymu v 1945–1950 gg. [Relationships of the state and the Orthodox church in the Crimea in 1945–1950]. Simferopol (in Russian).
- Katunin Iu. (2004) Simferopol′skaia i Krymskaia eparkhiia v 1950–1964 gg. [The diocese of Simferopol and the Crimea in 1950–1964]. Simferopol (in Russian).
- Kolymagin B. (2004) Krymskaia ekumena: religioznaia zhizn’ poslevoennogo Kryma [Crimean ecumene: religious life in the post-war Crimea]. St Petersburg (in Russian).
- Konstantinov D. (priest) (1967) Gonimaia Tserkov’ (Russkaia Pravoslavnaia Tserkov’ v SSSR) [The persecuted church (the Russian Orthodox church in the USSR)]. New York (in Russian).
- Kuznechevskii V. (2016) “Leningradskoe delo” [The Leningrad Case]. Moscow (in Russian).
- Kuznetsov V., Drobotushenko E. (2013) “Russkaia Pravoslavnaia Tserkov′ v Chitinskoi oblasti v 1943–1950 gg.” [Russian Orthodox church in Chita region in 1943–1950]. Gumanitarnyi vektor, 2013, № 3 (35), pp. 90–98 (in Russian).
- Marchenko A. (priest) (2010) Religioznaia politika sovetskogo gosudarstva v gody pravleniia N. S. Khrushcheva i ee vliianie na tserkovnuiu zhizn’ v SSSR [Religious policy of the Soviet state in N. S. Khrushchev’s time and its infl uence on church life in the USSR]. Moscow (in Russian).
- Marchenko A (priest) (2011) Episkopy Permskoi eparkhii epokhi «khrushchevskikh gonenii» na Russkuiu Pravoslavnuiu Tserkov’ (1958–1964 gg.): ocherki tserkovno-gosudarstvennykh otnoshenii [Bishops of the diocese of Perm in the period of “Khrushchev’s persecution” on the Russian Orthodox church (1958–1964): essays in church-state relations]. Perm (in Russian).
- Marushchak V. (2008) Zhitie sviatogo ispovednika, arkhiepiskopa Simferopol’skogo i Krymskogo Luki (Voino-Iasenetskogo) [The Life of Luka (Voino-Yasenetsky), the saint confessor, archbishop of Simferopol and the Crimea]. Simferopol (in Russian).
- Shtrikker G. (ed.) (1995) Russkaia Pravoslavnaia Tserkov’ v sovetskoe vremia: Materialy i dokumenty po istorii otnoshenii mezhdu gosudarstvom i Tserkov’iu [Russian Orthodox church in the Soviet time. Materials and records on the history of relations between the state and the church]. Moscow (in Russian).
- Shkarovskii M. (2005) Russkaia Pravoslavnaia Tserkov′ pri Staline i Khrushcheve [Russian Orthodox church in Stalin’s and Khrushchev’s times]. Moscow (in Russian).
- Shubkin V. (2012) “Evoliutsiia gosudarstvenno-tserkovnykh otnoshenii na territorii Orenburgskoi (Chkalovskoi) eparkhii v 1943–1958 gg.” [Evolution of state-church relations in the territory of Orenburg (Chkalov) diocese in 1943–1958]. Vestnik PSTGU. Seriia II: Istoriia. Istoriia Russkoi Pravoslavnoi Tserkvi, 2012, vol. 2 (45), pp. 44–55 (in Russian).
- Shubkin V. (2013) “Orenburgskaia eparkhiia v period khrushchevskikh gonenii (1958–1964)” [Orenburg diocese in the period of Khrushchev’s persecution (1958–1964)]. Vestnik PSTGU. Seriia II: Istoriia. Istoriia Russkoi Pravoslavnoi Tserkvi, 2013, vol. 2 (51), pp. 69–86 (in Russian).
Information about the author
Shimon Ioann, archpriest Student status:
Graduate student; Academic Rank:
Professor; Place of study:
Church of the Martyr Benjamin, Metropolitan of Petrograd and Gdovsk in Simferopol; ORCID: 0000-0002-3503-5786