Russian church diaspora in independent Finland of the interwar period
Shevchenko Tatyana (2021)
"Russian church diaspora in independent Finland of the interwar period ",
Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta.
Seriia II : Istoriia. Istoriia Russkoy Pravoslavnoy Tserkvi
pp. 127-149 (in Russian).
DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturII2021102.127-149
The article is devoted to the interwar story of the Russian diaspora in Finland and focuses primarily on the fate of the Orthodox Church. The Finnish Orthodox Church grew out of the Diocese of Vyborg and Finland of the Russian Orthodox Church, from which, after the declaration of the independence of Finland, it received autonomy in 1921. In 1923, the young church came, with canonical violations, under the omophorion of the Constantinople Patriarch. A jurisdictional crisis and a calendar split in the Orthodox congregation accompanied this move. The Russian diaspora was opposed to acts of the local church authorities, but the situation of Russian refugees was such as it did not allow them to infl uence the decisions of the authorities. It had its own diffi culties, which, in general, were similar to those experienced by the entire Russian emigration. There were also specifi c features which are described in the article. During the years 1917–1939, about 44,000 refugees from Soviet Russia moved to Finland, many of them later went on to Europe and America. Russian Orthodox Christians who remained in 1926–1927 were able to register two old-style autonomous Orthodox communities in Vyborg and Helsinki, which came under the jurisdiction of Metropolitan Evlogy (Georgievsky) at fi rst, and in 1945 were passed to Moscow Patriarchate and became the basis of the modern Patriarchal Deanery of the Russian Church. The Orthodox Church in Finland, in addition to economic, social and political problems, faced such phenomena as nationalism and interethnic hostility; nevertheless, it was able to preserve a canonical structure and served as a buff er, conciliating hatred and enmity in people who experienced hardships of the time. As a result, in the postwar period it was able to restore the lost churches, to gain authority in society and to achieve normalisation of relations with the Russian Orthodox Mother Church.
Russian Orthodox Church, Finnish Orthodox Church, Russian Church diaspora, emigration, immigration, Russian diaspora, calendar schism, Finnish Archdio cese of Patriarchate of Constantinople, Russian Orthodox Church Abroad, Patriarchal parishes in Finland
- Baryshnikov V. (1997) Ot prokhladnogo mira k zimnei voine. Vostochnaia politika Finliandii v 1930-e gg. [From the lukewarm peace to the Winter War. Finland’s eastern policy in the 1930s]. St. Petersburg (in Russian).
- Baschmakoff N., Leinonen М. (2001) Russian Life in Finland 1917–1939: A Local and Oral History. Studia Slavica Finlandensia. Helsinki: Institute for Russian and East European Studies Publ., vol. XVIII.
- Bashmakoff N. (2000) “Strana namekov i nadezhd…”: Meniaiushchiesia nastroeniia russkikh v Finliandii v 1930-e gody [“The land of hints and hopes...”: changing moods of Russians in Finland in the 1930s], in V. Cherniaev (ed.) Zarubezhnaia Rossiya 1917–1939 gg. [Foreign Russia in 1917–1939]. St. Petersburg, pp. 68–77 (in Russian).
- Bekzhanova N. (ed.) (2003) “A prishlos’ v razluke zhit’ goda...”: rossiskoe zarubezh′e v Finliandii mezhdu dvumia voinami: Materialy k biobibliografi i, 1978–2002 [“One had to live in separation for years...”: Russian diaspora in Finland between the two wars: materials for the bibliography, 1978–2002]. St. Petersburg (in Russian).
- Bocharova Z. (2004) “Pravovoe polozhenie russkikh bezhentsev v Finliandii: Nansenovskii pasport, repatriatsiia” [Legal status of Russian refugees in Finland: Nansen passport, repatriation], in Rossiiskoe zarubezh′e v Finliandii mezhdu dvumia mirovymi voinami [Russian diaspora in Finland between the two World Wars]. St. Petersburg, pp. 32–39 (in Russian).
- Demidova O. (2004) “Iz Rossii v Finliandiiu: granitsa kak ekzistentsial′naya katastrofa” [From Russia to Finland: the border as an existential catastrophe], in Rossiiskoe zarubezh′e v Finliandii mezhdu dvumia mirovymi voinami [Russian diaspora in Finland between the two World Wars]. St. Petersburg, pp. 3–6 (in Russian).
- Doronchenkov I. (1996) “Petrograd — Kuokkala. Cherez granitsu. 1920-e gg.” [Petrograd-Kuokkala. Across the border. 1920s]. Minuvshee: istoricheskii al`manakh, 1996, no. 19, pp. 204–219 (in Russian).
- Dubrovskaia E. (2017) “Mnogomernaia radikalizatsiia: rossiiskie voennye v Finliandii. “Soldatskaia revoliutsiia” i sotsial′nye dvizheniia fi nliandtsev v 1917” [Multifaceted radicalisation: the Russian military in Finland, the “soldiers’ revolution” and Finnish social movements in 1917]. Al′manakh severoevropeiskikh i baltiiskikh issledovanii, 2017, no. 2. pp. 329–253 (in Russian).
- Dubrovskaia E. (2008) Rossiiskie voennosluzhashchie i naselenie Finliandii v gody Pervoi mirovoi voiny (1914–1918) [Russian military personnel and the population of Finland during the First World War (1914–1918)]. Petrozavodsk (in Russian).
- Eneeva N. (2008) “Polozhenie Russkoi Pravoslavnoi Tserkvi v novoobrazovannykh gosudarstvakh, otdelivshikhsia ot Rossii v 1918–1922 gg.” [Position of the Russian Orthodox Church in the newly-formed states that separated from Russia in 1918–1922], in N. Eneeva (ed.) Problemy istorii Russkogo zarubezh′ia: materialy i issledovaniia [Problems of the history of Russian diaspora: materials and studies], vol. 2. Moscow, pp. 47–107 (in Russian).
- Fedorov M., Shevchenko T. (eds) (2018) “Kireev I. A. Ocherk Finliandskoi revoliutsii 1918 g. i vzaimootnoshenii mezhdu Finliandiei i Rossiei” [Kireev I.A. Essay on the Finnish revolution of 1918 and relations between Finland and Russia], in D. Moskovskaia (ed.) Istoriografiia grazhdanskoi voiny v Rossii: issledovaniia i publikatsii arkhivnykh materialov [Historiography of the Civil War in Russia: studies and publication of archive materials], Moscow, pp. 469–534 (in Russian).
- Golovin V. (2004) “Ocherk istorii russkikh dereven′ v Finliandii” [An outline of the history of Russian villages in Finland], in Rossiiskoe zarubezh′e v Finliandii mezhdu dvumia mirovymi voinami [Russian diaspora in Finland between the two World Wars], St. Petersburg, pp. 105–114 (in Russian).
- Iarovoi O., Smirnova I. (1997) Valaamskii monastyr′ i pravoslavnaia tserkov′ v Finliandii, 1880–1930-e gg.: Iz istorii finnizatsii pravoslavnoi konfessii [Valaam Monastery and the Orthodox Church in Finland, 1880–1930: from the history of Finnisation of the Orthodox denomination]. Petrozavodsk (in Russian).
- Karemaa O. (2004) “Moraalisesta närkästyksestä kansalliseksi ohjelmaksi” [From moral indignation to national programme], in T. Vihavainen (ed.) Venäjän kahdet kasvot: Venäjäkuva suomalaisen identiteetin rakennuskivena [Two faces of Russia: the image of Russia as a building element of Finnish identity], Helsinki, 2004, pp. 226–254 (in Finnish).
- Karemaa O. (2006) “Rusofobiia v Finliandii i 1917–1923 gg.” [Russophobia in Finland and the years 1917–1923], in Rossiia i Finliandiia: problemy vzaimovospriiatiya. XVII–XX vv.: materialy rossiisko-finliandskikh simpoziumov istorikov [Russia and Finland: problems of mutual perception. 17th — 20th centuries: materials of the Russian-Finnish symposia of historians]. Moscow, pp. 212–220 (in Russian).
- Karemaa O. (1998) Vihollisia, vainoojia, syöpäläisiä. Venäläisviha Suomessa 1917–1923 [Enemies, pursuers, parasites. Hatred of Russians in Finland in 1917–1923]. Helsinki (in Finnish).
- Khiamialiainen E. (2003) “Iz zhizni russkikh v Finlyandii” [From the life of Russians in Finland]. Finlindskie Tetradi, 1. Helsinki (in Russian).
- Khiamialiainen E. (2004) “Khronika kul′turnoi i obshchestvennoi zhizni russkoi diaspory v Finliandii. 1930-e gg.” [Chronicle of the cultural and social life of the Russian diaspora in Finland. The 1930s]. Finliandskie Tetradi, 3. Helsinki (in Russian).
- Klinge M. (1997) Kaukana ja kotona [In foreign lands and at home]. Helsinki (in Finnish).
- Leinonen M. (1994) “Helsinki: Die russische Emigration in Finnland”, in Der große Exodus. Die russische Emigration und ihre Zentren 1917 bis 1941, Munich, pp. 154–189.
- Loima J. (2001) Muukalaisina Suomessa. Kaakkoisen Kannaksen kreikkalaiskatoliset venäläisseurakunnat kansallisena ongelmana 1889–1939 [Aliens in Finland. Russian Orthodox cong regations of South-Eastern Karelian Isthmus as a national problem, 1889–1939]. Helsinki (in Finnish).
- Magidovich M. (2004) “Russkie khudozhniki v Finliandii — opyt sotsiologicheskogo analiza” [Russian artists in Finland: an attempt at a sociological analysis], in Rossiiskoe zarubezh′e v Finliandii mezhdu dvumia mirovymi voinami [Russian diaspora in Finland between the two World Wars], St. Petersburg, pp. 13–23 (in Russian).
- Mironova E. (2005) “Stanovlenie russkogo antibol′shevistskogo predstavitel′stva v Finliandii: 1918–1921” [Formation of the Russian anti-Bolshevik representation in Finland: 1918–1921]. Severnaia Evropa: Problemy istorii, 6, pp. 147–174 (in Russian).
- Mironova E. (2007) “Russkaia koloniia v Finliandii: istoriia formirovaniia, usloviia vyzhivaniia” [Russian colony in Finland: history of its formation, conditions of survival], in Ezhegodnaia bogoslovskaia konferentsiia PSTGU [Annual theological conference of St. Tikhon Orthodox University for Humanities], Moscow, 2007, vol. 2, pp. 66–71 (in Russian).
- Musaev V. (2014) Mezhdu Zapadom i Vostokom: Pravoslavie v avtonomnoi i nezavisimoi Finliandii (1890–1930-e gg.) [Between the West and the East: Orthodoxy in the autonomous and independent Finland (1890–1930)]. St. Petersburg (in Russian).
- Musaev V. (2007) “Pravoslavnaia Tserkov′ v nezavisimoi Finlyandii (1918–1930-e gg.)” [The Orthodox church in independent Finland (1918–1930s)”]. Vestnik tserkovnoi istorii, 2007, no. 2 (6), pp. 194–212 (in Russian).
- Musaev V. (2007) Rossiia i Finliandiia: migratsionnye kontakty i polozheniia diaspor (konets XIX v. — 1930-e gg.) [Russia and Finland: migraton contacts and the situation of diasporas (late 19th century — the 1930s)]. St. Petersburg (in Russian).
- Musaev V. (2005) “Russkie dachi na Karel′skom Peresheike v kontse XIX — nachale XX vv.” [Russian country houses on the Karelian Isthmus at the end of the 19th — beginning of the 20th centuries]. Istoriia Peterburga, 2005, no. 4 (26), pp. 43–47 (in Russian).
- Nevalajnen P., Leppya M. (eds) (1999) Vyskoi kuin luoja kerjalista. Venajan pakolaiset Suomessa 1917–1939 [Outcasts. Russian refugees in Finland in 1917–1939]. St. Petersburg (Russian translation).
- Onufrii (Makhanov), hierodeacon (2004) “Ostrov Valaam kak tsentr pravoslavnoi zhizni russkoi emigratsii v Finliandii” [Valaam Island as a centre of Orthodox life of Russian emigration in Finland], in Rossiiskoe zarubezh′e v Finliandii mezhdu dvumia mirovymi voinami [Russian diaspora in Finland between the two World Wars], St. Petersburg, pp. 168–180 (in Russian).
- Pachmuss T. (1992) Moving River of Tears: Russia′s Experience in Finland. New York.
- Polian P. (2005) “Emigratsiia: kto i kogda v XX veke pokidal Rossiiu” [Emigration: Who and when left Russia in the 20th century], in O. Glezer, P. Polian (eds) Rossiia i ee regiony v XX veke: territoriia — rasselenie — migratsii [Russia and its regions in the 20th century: territory — settlement — migration], Moscow, pp. 493–519 (in Russian).
- Rozhkov V., protopriest (ed.) (2004) Tserkovnye voprosy v Gosudarstvennoi dume: Materialy po istorii tserkvi [Church issues in the State Duma: materials for the history of the church], Moscow (in Russian).
- Rupasov A. (2004) “Debaty v Eduskunte o bezhentsakh iz Rossii. Ianvar′ 1919 g.” [Debates in Eduskunt about refugees from Russia. January 1919], in Rossiiskoe zarubezh′e v Finliandii mezhdu dvumia mirovymi voinami [Russian diaspora in Finland between the two World Wars], St. Petersburg, pp. 24–31 (in Russian).
- Rupasov A. (2001) Sovetsko-finliandskie otnosheniia: seredina 1920-kh — nachalo 1930-kh gg. [Soviet-Finnish relations: mid-1920s — early 1930s]. St. Petersburg (in Russian).
- Shevchenko T. (2012) Valaamskii monastyr′ i stanovlenie Finliandskoi Pravoslavnoi Tserkvi 1917– 1957 [Valaam Monastery and establishing of Finnish Orthodox Church 1917–1957]. Moscow (in Russian).
- Shkarovskii M. (2016) “Russkaia Nikol′skaia obshchina v Khel′sinki v XX v.” [Russian St. Nicholas Community in Helsinki in the 20th century], in Sankt-Peterburg i strany Severnoi Evropy [St. Petersburg and the Nordic Countries], vol. 17 (1), pp. 255–262 (in Russian).
- Shkarovskii M. (2015) “Russkaia obshchina Pokrova Presviatoi Bogoroditsy v Khel′sinki v XX v.” [The Russian Community of the Intercession of Theotokos in Helsinki in the 20th century], in Sankt-Peterburg i strany Severnoi Evropy [St. Petersburg and the Nordic Countries], vol. 16,pp. 216–224 (in Russian).
- Siluan (Nikitin), hieromonk (2014) “Aleksandr (Karpin) — pervyi pravoslavnyi episkop Khel′sinki” [Alexander (Karpin), the first Orthodox bishop of Helsinki]. Sretenskii sbornik: nauchnye trudy prepodavatelei Sretenskoi Dukhovnoi Seminarii, 2014, no. 5, pp. 377–404 (in Russian).
- Sinisalo-Katajisto P. (ed.) (2004) Russian-speaking immigrant population in Finland: seminar in Helsinki, 25–26 September 2003. Helsinki: Studia Slavica Finlandensia, vol. 21.
- Smolin A. (2000) “Politicheskaia deiatel′nost′ russkoi emigratsii v Finliandii v 1918–1919 gg.” [Political activity of Russian emigration in Finland in 1918–1919], in V. Cherniaev (ed.) Zarubezhnaia Rossiia 1917–1939 gg. [Foreign Russia 1917–1939], St. Petersburg, pp. 65–68 (in Russian).
- Smolin A. (2012) “Formirovanie antifi nliandskikh nastroenii sredi russkikh bezhentsev v Finliandii v 1918–1920 gg.” [Formation of anti-Finlandic sentiment among Russian refugees in Finland in 1918–1920]. Trudy kafedry istorii Novogo i noveishego vremeni SPbGU, 2012, no. 9, pp. 80–93 (in Russian).
- Suomela J. (2004) “Rajantakainen Venäjä: venälälais̈ten emigranttien aatteellis-poliittiset mielipiteet Euroopan venäläisissä sanomalehdissä vuonsina 1918-1940” [Russia abroad: ideological and political views of Russian emigrants in European Russian newspapers in 1918– 1940]. St. Petersburg (Russian translation).
- Teterevleva T. (2005) ““Glukhaia provintsiia russkoi emigratsii”. Poslerevoliutsionnoe Russkoe zarubezh′e na severe Evropy v perepiske emigrantov. 1931–1937 gg.” [“The backwater region of Russian emigration”. Post-revolutionary Russian diaspora in the North of Europe in correspondence of emigrants. 1931–1937]. Istoricheskii arkhiv, 2005, no. 1, pp. 23–55 (in Russian).
- Teterevliova T. (2014) “Porevoliutsionnaia rossiiskaia emigratsiia v Finliandii (1917–1930-gg.) v narrativakh “populyarnoi kul′turnoi pamiati” [Post-revolutionary Russian emigration to Finland (1917–1930s.) in the narratives of the “popular cultural memory”], in I. Takala, A. Tolstikov (eds) Finliandiia i Rossiia: obrazy obshchego proshlogo [Finland and Russia: images of a shared past], Petrozavodsk, pp. 213–226 (in Russian).
- Verigin S. (2018) Protivostoianie: bor′ba sovetskoi kontrrazvedki protiv finskikh spetssluzhb 1939– 1944 [Confrontation: the struggle of Soviet counterintelligence against Finnish special services, 1939–1944]. Petrozavodsk (in Russian).
- Vikhavainen T. (2015) “Otnosheniia Finliandii i Rossii (Sovetskogo Soyuza) 1917–1944 gg.” [Relations of Finland and Russia (Soviet Union) in 1917–1944]. Russkii sbornik, 17, pp. 231–271 (in Russian).
- Vikhavainen T. (2012) “Stoletiia sosedstva: razmyshleniia o finsko-russkoi granitse” [Centuries of neighbourhood: refl ections on the Finnish-Russian border]. St. Petersburg (in Russian).
Information about the author
Shevchenko Tatyana Academic Degree:
Candidate of Sciences*
in History; Academic Degree:
Candidate of Sciences*
in Theology; Place of work:
St. Tikhon’s University for the Humanities; 6/1 Likhov pereulok, 127051, Moscow, Russian Federation; Post:
Senior staff scientist of the Department of the Russian Orthodox Church’s modern history; ORCID: 0000-0002-6497-503X
*According to the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) 2011, the degree of Candidate of Sciences (Cand.Sc.) belongs to ISCED level 8 — "doctoral or equivalent", together with PhD, DPhil, D.Lit, D.Sc, LL.D, Doctorate or similar.