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St. Tikhon’s University Review . Series I: Theology. Philosophy. Religious Studies

St. Tikhon’s University Review I :97

THEOLOGY

Gratsianskiy Mikhail

The issue of delegating prerogatives in the letter of Pope Innocent I to Rufus of Thessalonica

Gratsianskiy Mikhail (2021) "The issue of delegating prerogatives in the letter of Pope Innocent I to Rufus of Thessalonica ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia I : Bogoslovie. Filosofiia. Religiovedenie, 2021, Iss. 97, pp. 11-32 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturI202197.11-32
The article analyses the letter of Pope Innocent I (402–417) to the Bishop of Thessalonica Rufus, sent in 412 and preserved as part of the so-called Collectio Thes salonicensis — a collection of papal letters to Illyrian bishops from the 4th–5th centuries. The letter was a document by which the pope gave to the bishop of Thessalonica the prerogatives to adjudicate ecclesiastical matters in Eastern Illyricum. The objective of the article is to study and clarify the composition and nature of these prerogatives, as well as the legal grounds, which allowed the Pope to believe that he possessed the power to delegate them. Innocent invests Rufus of Thessalonica with the right to consider appeals from the provincial churches “in pope’s place” (vice), which was the fact that gave researchers the reason to claim that Innocent, in fact, created a “papal vicariate” of Thessalonica. Innocent also prescribed to Rufus jurisdictional boundaries and the procedure for considering “church aff airs” within them. The article discusses which canonical and state-administrative decrees could enable the Roman bishop to believe that he possessed full ecclesiastical power, and how this attitude infl uenced the composition and nature of the prerogatives delegated to the bishop of Thessalonica. The popes’ idea that they possessed the fullness of power within the Church, by virtue of which they could delegate prerogatives to the lower (in their opinion) levels of church administration, is compared with the Roman state-legal system, within which the emperor had full power and delegated his judicial and administrative prerogatives to imperial offi cials, which were designated by the term vice sacra iudicantes. The author concludes that the Pope acted within the same logic. In the meantime, not all of the civilian offi cials vice sacra iudicantes were vicars. Therefore, it seems inappropriate to apply either to the bishop of Thessalonica the title of “papal vicar”, which is not attested in the sources, or the name of “papal vicariate” to the churches of Eastern Illyricum.
Pope Innocent I, Rufus of Thessalonica, Collectio Thessalonicensis, papal vicariate, delegation of powers, appeal, plenitudo potestatis, vice sacra iudicantes
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Gratsianskiy Mikhail


Academic Degree: Candidate of Sciences* in History;
Academic Degree: PhD in Philosophy;
Place of work: St. Tikhon’s Orthodox University for the Humanities; 6/1 Likhov per., Moscow, 127051, Russian Federation;
Post: leading researcher;
ORCID: 0000-0002-6981-3216;
Email: gratsianskiy@mail.ru.

*According to the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) 2011, the degree of Candidate of Sciences (Cand.Sc.) belongs to ISCED level 8 — "doctoral or equivalent", together with PhD, DPhil, D.Lit, D.Sc, LL.D, Doctorate or similar.

Tsypina Lada; Sobolnikova Elena

Spiritual pilgrimage in 14th century medieval english mysticism: cognitive schemes and narrative practices

Tsypina Lada, Sobolnikova Elena (2021) "Spiritual pilgrimage in 14th century medieval english mysticism: cognitive schemes and narrative practices ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia I : Bogoslovie. Filosofiia. Religiovedenie, 2021, Iss. 97, pp. 33-56 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturI202197.33-56
This article reconstructs cognitive schemes and narrative practices in medieval vernacular English mysticism of the 14th century through the conceptual metaphor of the pilgrimage of the soul. The two-part nature and methodological productivity of this metaphor determines the purpose and structure of the article. In the fi rst section, the legacy of the virtuosos of spiritual work is analysed in accordance with the hypothesis of spatial representation of form proposed by Lakoff and Johnson. The similarity of the doctrines of Roll, Hilton, the author of the “Cloud of Unknowing”, and Juliana of Norwich is determined by the kinesthetic scheme of the source-path-goal based on the experience of moving in space. It allows us to establish a correlation between the area of movement, the starting point of which is the fallen state of man, and the area of the goal, which is to restore the image of God in man. The orientation of this scheme along the time line is realised as a scenario of human transformation on the way to God. The difference in the types of introverted pilgrimage is explained by the combination of hierarchical ladder structures with the schemes of the part and the whole, of the centre and periphery, of a receptacle. This enables the spiritual pilgrim to discover the infi nity of soul in God. The second section examines the relationship between mysticism and society in the conceptual optics of Bourdieu and Foucault. English vernacular mysticism of the 14th century refl ects the changing ways of mediation between the individual and the generalised canons of traditional culture. It adapts traditional devotional monastic practices, i.e. Bible reading, meditation, prayer, and contemplation to the needs of the laity. In this way, the “island version of modern piety” with its ideal of “mixed life” is formed. The lyrically reinterpreted “grammar of salvation” anticipates the proto-Renaissance concepts of human perfection, restored by the inexhaustible love of God the Father in the Son, and creates the conditions for proto-reformational reconfigurations of the religious fi eld.
vernacular mysticism; pilgrimage of the soul; kinesthetic scheme of the path; narrative practices; anti-metaphors; active, contemplative and blended life; R. Roll; author of the “Cloud of Unknowing”; W. Hilton; Juliana of Norwich
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  51. Watson N. (1995) “Censorship and Cultural Change in Late-Medieval England: Vernacular Theology, the Oxford Translation Debate, and Arundel’s Constitutions of 1409”. Speculum, vol. 70 (4), pp. 822–844.
  52. Watson N. (2015) “The Middle English Mystics”, in D. Wallace (ed.) The Cambridge History of Medieval English Literature, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 539–565.
  53. Watson N. (1991) Richard Rolle and the Invention of Authority. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  54. Whitehead C. (2013) “The Late Fourteen Century English Mystics”, in J. Lamm (ed.) The Wiley- Blackwell Companion to Christian Mysticism, Wiley-Blackwell, pp. 357–372.
  55. Wogan-Browne J. et al. (ed.) (1999) The Idea of the Vernacular: An Anthology of Middle English Literary Theory 1280–1520. Pennsylvania: Pennsylvania State University Press.

Tsypina Lada


Academic Degree: Candidate of Sciences* in Philosophy;
Academic Degree: Candidate of Sciences* in Philosophy;
Academic Rank: Associate Professor;
Place of work: Institute of Philosophy, St Petersburg State University; 7/9 Universitetskaya nab., St. Petersburg 199034, Russian Federation;
Post: assistant professor;
ORCID: 0000-0001-7307-3874;
Email: l.cypina@spbu.ru.

*According to the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) 2011, the degree of Candidate of Sciences (Cand.Sc.) belongs to ISCED level 8 — "doctoral or equivalent", together with PhD, DPhil, D.Lit, D.Sc, LL.D, Doctorate or similar.


Sobolnikova Elena


Academic Degree: Candidate of Sciences* in Philosophy;
Academic Degree: Candidate of Sciences* in Philosophy;
Academic Rank: Associate Professor;
Place of work: Mechnikov North-West State Medical University; Piskarevsky Prospekt, 47, Saint Petersburg, 195067, Russian Federation;
Post: assistant professor;
ORCID: 0000-0001-8129-1855;
Email: sobolnikova@list.ru.

*According to the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) 2011, the degree of Candidate of Sciences (Cand.Sc.) belongs to ISCED level 8 — "doctoral or equivalent", together with PhD, DPhil, D.Lit, D.Sc, LL.D, Doctorate or similar.

The reported study was funded by RFBR, project number № 20-111-50446.

PHILOSOPHY

Chernyaev Anatoly; Tsygankov Alexander

Nikolai A. Berdyaev in the Netherlands: on the history of the catholic reception of russian thought in the 1920s–1930s

Tsygankov Alexander, Chernyaev Anatoly (2021) "Nikolai A. Berdyaev in the Netherlands: on the history of the catholic reception of russian thought in the 1920s–1930s ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia I : Bogoslovie. Filosofiia. Religiovedenie, 2021, Iss. 97, pp. 59-72 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturI202197.59-72
This article proposes a historical and philosophical reconstruction of the Catholic reception of Nikolai A. Berdyaev in the Netherlands in the 1920s–1930s. It draws on materials from Dutch periodicals (newspaper articles, interviews and lecture programmes) from the studied period and reconstructs the history of the Dutch speeches of the philosopher in 1929, 1931 and 1937, as well as the history of his contacts with representatives of the Dutch intellectual community. Specifi cally, the article analyses of the thematic directions of the Catholic reception of Nikolai A. Berdyaev’s ideas, among which one should particularly note the criticism of Soviet Communism and the secularisation processes within the liberal capitalist system. It is established that the concept of Nikolai A. Berdyaev was positively received by Dutch Catholics, who held the position of “integral humanism” and strove to overcome the cultural crisis that affected Western Europe by revitalising religiosity. The signifi cance of the Dutch episode in Nikolai A. Berdyaev’s biography is determined in the context of his ideological evolution. The historical and philosophical analysis of the philosopher’s presentations given in the Netherlands allows us to make more clear the history of the formation and implementation of the conception of a number of his key works. It is shown that lecture trips to Holland gave Nikolai A. Berdyaev the opportunity for a fruitful dialogue with representatives of the Dutch philosophical and religious community, during which the philosopher could disseminate, clarify and develop his ideas.
Russian philosophy in emigration, foreign reception of Russian philosophy, New Middle Ages, Nikolai A. Berdyaev, Jacques Maritain
  1. Berdyaev N. (1926) “Le Destin de la culture”, in: Le Roseau d’or, no. 10, pp. 73–100.
  2. Berdyaev N. (1930) “Vostok i Zapad” [East and West]. Put′, no. 23, pp. 97–109 (in Russian).
  3. Berdyaev N. (1932) “Psychologie der russischen Gottlosigkeit”. Hochland, bd. 2, h. 29, pp. 193–206.
  4. Berdyaev N. (1937) Sinn und Schicksal des Russischen Kommunismus. Lucerne, Switzerland: Vita Nova Verlag.
  5. Berdyaev N. (1955) Istoki i smysl russkogo kommunizma [The origins and meaning of Russian communism]. Paris: Ymca-Press (in Russian).
  6. Iantsen V. V. (2002) “Pis′ma russkikh myslitelei v Bazel′skom arkhive Fritsa Liba: N. A. Berdyaev, Lev Shestov, S. L. Frank, S. N. Bulgakov (1926‒1948)” [Letters of Russian thinkers in the Basel archives of Fritz Lieb: N. A. Berdyaev, Lev Shestov, S. L. Frank, S. N. Bulgakov (1926‒1948)], in: Issledovaniia po istorii russkoi mysli. Ezhegodnik za 2001‒2002 gg. [Studies on the history of Russian thought, yearbook for 2001‒2002], Moscow: Tri Kvadrata Publ., pp. 227‒563 (in Russian).
  7. Jacobs F., Jacobs F. (2016) Markante denkers. 100 jaar fi losofi e aan de Internationale School voor Wijsbegeerte. Leusden.
  8. Khazan V., Janzen V. (eds) (2019) Nikolai Berdiaev and Yehoshua Shor: A correspondence between two corners (1927–1946). Jerusalem: The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, 2019.
  9. Maritain R. (1954) Die großen Freundschaften. Begegnungen mit Henri Bergson, Léon Bloy, Jacques Maritain, Pierre van der Meer de Walcheren, Charles Péguy, Ernest Psichari, Georges Rouault, Pierre Termier und anderen Zeugen des Glaubens. Heidelberg.
  10. Maters M. (1998) Van zachte wenk tot harde hand: persvrij heid en persbreidel in Nederlands-Indië, 1906–1942. Amsterdam.
  11. Tsygankov A. S., Obolevich T. (2020) Gollandskii episod v fi losofskoi biografi i S. L. Franka (novye materialy) [Dutch episode in the philosophical biography of S. L. Frank (new materials)]. Moscow (in Russian).
  12. Vermeulen Н. (1994) De Maasbode. De bewogen geschiedenis van «de beste courant van Nederland». Zwolle: Waanders.
  13. Volkogonova O. D. (2010) Berdyaev. Moscow (in Russian).
  14. Witte R. (1998) De Indische radio-omroep: overheidsbeleid en ontwikkeling, 1923–1942. Amsterdam.

Chernyaev Anatoly


Academic Degree: Candidate of Sciences* in Philosophy;
Place of work: Institute of Philosophy of the Russian Academy of Sciences; 12/1 Goncharnaya Str., Moscow, 109240, Russian Federation;
Post: leading researcher;
ORCID: 0000-0002-2019-5330;
Email: chernyaev@iph.ras.ru.

*According to the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) 2011, the degree of Candidate of Sciences (Cand.Sc.) belongs to ISCED level 8 — "doctoral or equivalent", together with PhD, DPhil, D.Lit, D.Sc, LL.D, Doctorate or similar.


Tsygankov Alexander


Academic Degree: Candidate of Sciences* in Philosophy;
Place of work: Institute of Philosophy of the Russian Academy of Sciences; 12/1 Goncharnaya Str., Moscow, 109240, Russian Federation;
Post: researcher;
ORCID: 0000-0002-1216-1042;
Email: m1dian@yandex.ru.

*According to the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) 2011, the degree of Candidate of Sciences (Cand.Sc.) belongs to ISCED level 8 — "doctoral or equivalent", together with PhD, DPhil, D.Lit, D.Sc, LL.D, Doctorate or similar.

This article has been prepared for publication with the fi nancial support from The Russian Foundation for Basic Research, grant № 19‒011‒00764 А.
Petrova Liubov

The apophatic theology in the philosophical studies of Jacques Derrida: the experience of pure prayer and the analogic language of the hymn

Petrova Liubov (2021) "The apophatic theology in the philosophical studies of Jacques Derrida: the experience of pure prayer and the analogic language of the hymn ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia I : Bogoslovie. Filosofiia. Religiovedenie, 2021, Iss. 97, pp. 73-88 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturI202197.73-88
This article examines the image of negative theology in the works of Jacques Derrida using the example of the theology of Pseudo-Dionysius the Areopagite. In his essay “How to Avoid Speaking: Denials”, Derrida refers to the texts of Dionysius to clarify his stance on negative theology and to answer the question how it can be compared with the main provisions of deconstruction. Derrida marks the boundary that separates deconstruction from the strategies of negative theology presented in the Areopagitics, placing it in the “ontological wager of hyperessentiality” inherent to negative theology. According to Derrida, the desire to transcend being, which is typical for Dionysius and other authors of the Christian apophasis, is constituted by the “intuitive telos”, the hyperessential referent of speech, the inevitability of which is contained in the very structure of language. One of the forms of detection of this “intuitive telos” is “addressing to another”, which is manifested in prayer and praise included in the discourse of negative theology. Speaking of prayer, Derrida understands it very strictly and narrowly, as an act of addressing to another, expressed in a request, search for a help, plea, etc., without any form of predication, including the naming the addressee. In this regard, the Christian prayer of Dionysius is not what Derrida calls a “pure experience of prayer”, since it contains elements of the hymn, in particular an indication of the Trinity and hyperessentiality of God. In both Derrida and Dionysius, prayer is a mode of access to the mystery beyond affi rmation and negation. But if the mystery of unknowing of Dionysius tends to be the mystery of the Trinity, then, in the case of Derrida, we are talking about the mystery of the total otherness of God not only “without Being”, but also outside of Revelation. The article shows that the theology of Dionysius the Areopagite, which does not distinguish between prayer and hymn, is an example of apophasis in derridianist deconstructivist view, which fails to maintain the purity of its principle and leans towards an ontotheological disposition.
negative theology, Derrida, apophaticism, Dionysius the Areopagite, deconstruction, prayer, hymn, panegyric, praise, ontotheology
  1. Andia Ysabel de (2012) Henosis: L’Union Dieu Chez Denys L’Ariopagite. Moscow: Institut filosofii, teologii i istorii sv. Fomy (Russian translation).
  2. Andia Ysabel de (ed.) (2016) Pseudo-Denys l’Aréopagite Les Noms divins & La Théologie mystique. Paris: Les éditions du Cerf.
  3. Avtonomova N. S. (2011) Filosofskii iazyk Zhaka Derrida [The philosophical language of Jacques Derrida]. Moscow: ROSSPEN (in Russian).
  4. Bradley А. (2004) Negative Theology and Modern French Philosophy. London, New York: Routledge.
  5. Caputo J. (1997) The Prayers and Tears of Jacques Derrida: Religion without Religion. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
  6. Derrida J. (1964) “Violence et métaphysique: Essai sur la pensée d’Emmanuel Levinas (première partie)”. Revue de Métaphysique et de Morale, vol. 3, pp. 322–354.
  7. Derrida J. (1972) “La Diff érance”, in Marges de la philosophie, Paris: Les Éditions de Minuit, pp. 1–29.
  8. Derrida J. (1987) “Comment ne pas parler: Dénégations”, in Psyché. Inventions de l’autre, Paris: Galilée, pp. 535–596.
  9. Drobyshev V. N. (2014) Fenomenologiia apofazisa [Phenomenology of apophasis]. St Petersburg: RHGA (in Russian).
  10. Gurko E. (1999) Teksty dekonstrukcii [The texts of deconstruction]. Tomsk: Vodolei (in Russian).
  11. Gurko E. (2001) Dekonstruktsiia: teksty i interpretatsiia [Deconstruction: texts and interpretation]. Minsk: Ekonompress (in Russian)
  12. Iampolskaia A. (2011) “Fenomenologiia kak sniatie metafi ziki?” [Phenomenology as a sublation of metaphysics?]. Logos, vol. 3 (82), pp. 107–123 (in Russian).
  13. Konacheva S. A. (2019) Bog posle Boga: puti postmetafi zicheskogo myshleniia [God after God: Trends in postmetaphysical thinking]. Moscow: RGGU (in Russian).
  14. Manoussakis J. P. (2007) God after Metaphysics: A theological Aesthetic. Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press.
  15. Petrov V. (2013) “Uchenie ob anagogicheskoi molitve u Iamvlikha i Prokla i ego retseptsiya v khristianskom platonizme” [The doctrine of anagogic prayer in Iamblichus and Proclus and its reception in Christian Platonism]. Platonovskii sbornik, vol. 2, pp. 242–263 (in Russian).
  16. Prokhorov G. M. (ed.) (2002) Dionisii Areopagit. Sochineniia. Tolkovaniia Maksima Ispovednika [Dionysius the Areopagite. The writings. Interpretation by Maximus the Confessor]. St. Petersburg: Aleteia.

Petrova Liubov


Academic Degree: Candidate of Sciences* in Philosophy;
Academic Degree: Candidate of Sciences* in Philosophy;
Academic Rank: Senior Research Fellow;
Place of work: Sociological Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences; 25/14 Sed′maya Krasnoarmeiskaya ul., St. Petersburg 190005, Russian Federation;
Post: senior researcher;
ORCID: 0000-0002-5857-8636;
Email: par-excellence@yandex.ru.

*According to the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) 2011, the degree of Candidate of Sciences (Cand.Sc.) belongs to ISCED level 8 — "doctoral or equivalent", together with PhD, DPhil, D.Lit, D.Sc, LL.D, Doctorate or similar.

The research was supported by the Russian science Foundation, project no. 18-18-00134, "The Legacy of Byzantine philosophy in Russian and Western European philosophy of the XX-XXI centuries».

RELIGIOUS STUDIES

Shizhenskiy Roman

Religious nativism in Russia in the coronavirus period

Shizhenskiy Roman (2021) "Religious nativism in Russia in the coronavirus period ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia I : Bogoslovie. Filosofiia. Religiovedenie, 2021, Iss. 97, pp. 91-104 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturI202197.91-104
The changes caused by the spread of Covid-19 not only aff ected the economic and social spheres, but also had a signifi cant impact on the religious component of the life of Russian society. While information on the impact of the pandemic on traditional confessions is regularly covered in the media and in reports of the authorities, the data on the state of the nativist segment of the religious space of the Russian Federation remain outside the informative fi eld and, therefore, outside the academic fi eld. It should be noted that, despite the young age of the neo-pagan movement as one of the brightest directions of new religious movements (Russian Rodnoverie originates in the late 1970s, whereas the similar Polish movement started as early as at the beginning of the 19th century) and the relatively small number of the permanent group, i.e. the community of adepts (according to the community leaders, in the Russian Federation the number of representatives of Slavic paganism ranges from one hundred and twenty to three hundred and twenty thousand people, whereas in the Republic of Poland the number of “Rodzimovets” makes up about two thousand followers), nativism is actively developing and is in the stage of permanent proliferation. The representatives of the constructed ethno-oriented pre-Abrahamic worldview are fully obliged to the fixed passionarity to the fi gure of the ideologist of the association and the movement as a whole. It is the leaders — a priest, an elder, a shaman, a sorcerer — who act as the only accumulators of ideas and practices, as conductors of nativism. The article draws on the Internet interviewing of representatives of the 21st century nativism phenomenon (Russia, Poland) and examines the complex of reactions of the studied community to the consequences of the emergence and spread of the virus. Leaders and rank-andfi le representatives of Slavic Rodnoverie, Neo-Tradition (non-traditional paganism), shamanism, Lithuanian paganism, Asatru (German-Scandinavian tradition), Shuy Way (left hand path), Iron Din (Ossetian traditional faith) took part in the survey. Despite the lack of a unifi ed point of view when characterising the eff ect of the virus on nativism, the analysis of the material obtained revealed three main types of responses of nativists to the spread of the pandemic. These include mythology-based, conspirological and sanitation theories.
Covid-19, nativism, modern Slavic paganism, survey, holiday, isolation, pagan gods, community
  1. Gal′tsin Dmitry D. (2020) Liki Proteia: istoriia sovremennogo iazychestva kak religioznoi identichnosti [Faces of Proteus: the history of modern paganism as a religious identity], St. Petersburg (in Russian).
  2. Gavrilova Julia V., Zhironkina Marina A. (2020) “Religii v usloviiakh pandemii Covid-19: opyt Rossii” [Religions in the context of the Сovid-19 pandemic: Russia′s experience], in Obshhestvo: filosofiia, istoriia, kul′tura [Society: philosophy, history, culture], Krasnodar: HORS, рр. 36–40 (in Russian).
  3. Iazkova Veronika E. “Katolicheskaia tserkov′ v Italii v usloviiakh pandemii koronavirusa” [Catholic church in Italy in conditions of the Coronavirus pandemic]. Sovremennaia Evropa, vol. 4 (97), рр. 165–175.
  4. Lunkin Roman N. (2020) “Mekhanizmy religioznoi reaktsii na pandemiiu kоronavirusa” [Mechanisms of religious response to the Coronavirus pandemic]. Nauchno-analiticheskii vestnik instituta Evropy RAN, 2020, vol. 2 (14), рр. 104–109 (in Russian).
  5. Panin Stanislav. Pagan Communities in the Time of Pandemic, available at https://talkabout.iclrs.org/2020/08/06/pagan-communities-in-the-time-of-pandemic/?fbclid=IwAR32UflcPpnnQCJC-0kq7xlNnwbAobNmbD49Jkl9kQhzK6qHHw3frG_2ZM (26.10.2020).
  6. Simonov Veniamin V. (2020) “Tserkovnyi universalizm i sekuliarnyi globalizm na perekrestke mirovogo krizisa” [Church universalism and secular globalism at the crossroads of the World Crisis]. Rossiiskii zhurnal istorii tserkvi, vol. 1, no 2, pp. 5–21 (in Russian).
  7. Surovegina Ekaterina S. (2017) “Interv′iu s Temnogorom (Alekseem Vladimirovichem Temnogorom)” [Interview with Temnogor (Alexey Vladimirovich Temnogor)]. Colloquium Heptaplomeres: nauchnyi al′manakh, vol. 4, рр. 146–149 (in Russian).
  8. Trinkunas Jonas (ed.) (1999) Of Gods and Holidays: The Baltic Heritage. Vilnius: Tverme (Russian translation).

Shizhenskiy Roman


Academic Degree: Candidate of Sciences* in History;
Academic Rank: Associate Professor;
Place of work: Baltic Federal University; 56A Ul. Chernyshevskogo, Kaliningrad 236022, Russian Federation;
Post: researcher;
ORCID: 0000-0002-8765-2241;
Email: heit@inbox.ru.

*According to the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) 2011, the degree of Candidate of Sciences (Cand.Sc.) belongs to ISCED level 8 — "doctoral or equivalent", together with PhD, DPhil, D.Lit, D.Sc, LL.D, Doctorate or similar.

This research was supported from the Russian Academic Excellence Project at the Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal University.
Prilutskii Alexander; Sokolov Roman

Categorical semiotics of the vaccinophobic discourse of the conspirological myth

Prilutskii Alexander, Sokolov Roman (2021) "Categorical semiotics of the vaccinophobic discourse of the conspirological myth ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia I : Bogoslovie. Filosofiia. Religiovedenie, 2021, Iss. 97, pp. 105-120 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturI202197.105-120
In this article, the vaccinophobic myth is understood as a set of narratives that have no evidence base and demonise the consequences of the use of biological drugs for medical purposes aimed at the formation of immunity to infectious diseases in humans. The conspiracy hermeneutics of the modern pandemic situation forms new mythologemes, including those arising as a result of the convergence of the mythologeme of harmful vaccination and the mythologeme of eschatological chipping: this is the origin of the concepts of a liquid chip and a nanochip, which were not previously recorded in the studied discourse. One of the basic mythologemes of the modern medical vaccinophobic myth is the mythologeme of chipping. The article examines its semantic structure. It comprises the following conceptions: total use of chips is an eschatological omen; everything marked with a “chip” becomes ritually impure and potentially dangerous; people marked with a chip become easily suggestible and generally easy to control; the chip is in a semiotic relationship with the “seal of the Antichrist”, being either its metaphor or its symbol. Within the framework of the vaccinophobic discourse, the mythologemes of chipping are presented in several versions, namely: (1) mythologeme “Liquid Chip” injected into the human body under the guise of a vaccine against coronavirus infection; (2) the mythologeme “Nanochip” does not diff er signifi cantly from the mythologeme “Liquid Chip” and is, in fact, its semiotic duplication; (3) mythologemes of forced chipping which are in an explicit semantic relationship with the theologeme “Seal of the Antichrist”. In addition to the mythologemes associated with chipping, in the modern vaccinophobic discourse we have identifi ed the following stable semantic complexes of varying degrees of mythologisation. These are “infection through disinfection”; “secret collection of biological material”; a complex of conspiracy mythologemes of malicious concealment of ways of simple and safe treatment of Coronavirus infection; connection of vaccination with “secret eugenics”. This mythological complex is used to symbolically include the concept of vaccination in the semantic fi eld of German Nazism for its complete discrediting.
eschatology, conspiracy, medical myth, fundamentalism, semiotics, chipping, technophobia
  1. Allington D., Duff y B., Wessely S., Dhavan N., Rubin J. (2020) “Health-protective behaviour, social media usage and conspiracy belief during the COVID-19 public health emergency”. Psychological Medicine, vol. 1–7, pp. 1–7.
  2. Andrade Gabriel (2020) “Medical conspiracy theories: cognitive science and implications for ethics”. Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy, vol. 23, pр. 505–518.
  3. Berman D. M., Dees P. (2013) “Vaccines and the Internet”. Vaccinophobia and Vaccine Controversies of the 21st Century, N. Y.: Springer, pp. 399–419.
  4. Chagadaeva O. (2019) “Nas morit′ hotiat! Ub′em doktora!” [“They want to kill us! Let’s kill the doctor!”]. Rodina, vol. 3, pp. 102–106 (in Russian).
  5. Golovushkin D. A. (2018) “Sovremennyi pravoslavnyi fundamentalizm or psevdofundamentalizm?” [Modern Orthodox fundamentalism or pseudo-fundamentalism?]. Izvestiia Irkutskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. Seriia: Politologiia. Religiovedenie, vol. 25, pp. 92–102 (in Russian).
  6. Huremović Damir (2019) “Brief History of Pandemics (Pandemics Throughout History)”. Psychiatry of Pandemics, 2019 May 16, pр 7–35.
  7. Kadurina N. V. (2013) “Konspirologicheskie podkhody k reprezentatsii politicheskikh protsessov” [Conspirological approaches to the interpretation of political processes]. Sovremennye issledovaniia sotsial′nykh problem (elektronnyi nauchnyi zhurnal), vol. 6, p. 26 (in Russian).
  8. Kata A. A. (2010) “Postmodern Pandora’s box: Anti-vaccination misinformation on the Internet”. Vaccine, vol. 28 , pp. 1709–1716.
  9. Lebedev V. Iu. (2019) “Transplantologicheskie mify i eroziia privatnosti” [Transplantological myths and erosion of privacy]. Vestnik transplantologii i iskusstvennykh organov, vol. 21, p. 184 (in Russian).
  10. Mullins E. (1988) Murder By Injection The Story of the Medical Conspiracy Against America. Staunton: The National Council for Medical Research.
  11. Prilutskiy A. M. (2019) “Semiotika modal′nostei sovremennogo konspirologicheskogo mifa v diskursah marginal′nogo pravoslaviia” [Semiotics of modalities of the present-day conspirological myth in discourses of marginal Orthodoxy]. Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriya I: Bogoslovie. Filosofiya. Religiovedenie, vol. 82, pp. 94–107 (in Russian).
  12. Prilutskiy A. M., Golovushkin D. A., Vorontsov A. V. (2018) “Mifologema ritual′nogo tsareubiistva v kontekste sovremennogo konspirologicheskogo mifa” [The mythologem of ritual regicide in the context of modern conspirological myth]. Sotsiologicheskie issledovaniia, vol. 10 (414), pp. 122–129 (in Russian).
  13. Reznik O. N., Prilutskiy A. M., Lebedev V. Iu., Mikhel′ D. V. (2019) “Nepriiatie obshchestvom problemy posmertnogo donorstva organov: prichiny i struktura mortal′nykh strakhov” [Defl ection of deceased organ donation by society: reasons and structure of mortal fears]. Vestnik transplantologii i iskusstvennykh organov, vol. 21 (1), pp. 169–179 (in Russian).
  14. Savitskii V. M. (2006) Osnovy obshchei teorii idiomatiki [Foundations of the general theory of idioms]. Moscow (in Russian).
  15. Shmonin D. V. (2007) V teni Renessansa [In the shadow of the Renaissance]. St. Petersburg (in Russian).
  16. Sunstein Cass R. (2014) Conspiracy Theories and Other Dangerous Ideas. N. Y.: Simon & Schuster.
  17. Volkov V. N. (2013) “Arkhaika russkoi kul′tury i modernizatsiia rossiiskogo obshchestva” [The archaism of Russian culture and the modernisation of Russian society]. Vestnik Mariiskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta, vol.11, pp. 30–33 (in Russian).

Prilutskii Alexander


Academic Degree: Doctor of Sciences* in Philosophy;
Student status: Graduate student;
Academic Rank: Professor;
Place of study: Russian State Pedagogical University; 48/20 Naberezhnaya reki Moiki, St. Petersburg 119186, Russian Federation;
ORCID: 0000-0002-7013-9935;
Email: alpril@mail.ru.

*According to ISCED 2011, a post-doctoral degree called Doctor of Sciences (D.Sc.) is given to reflect second advanced research qualifications or higher doctorates.


Sokolov Roman


Academic Degree: Doctor of Sciences* in History;
Academic Rank: Associate Professor;
Place of work: Russian State Pedagogical University; 18 Gorokhovaya, St. Petersburg 119186, Russian Federation;
Post: professor;
ORCID: 0000-0002-3206-7635;
Email: romansokolow@mail.ru.

*According to ISCED 2011, a post-doctoral degree called Doctor of Sciences (D.Sc.) is given to reflect second advanced research qualifications or higher doctorates.

DISCUSSION

Shokhin Vladimir

Vaccinophobia, “fundamentalism” and the fine tuning of the present-day pandemic

Shokhin Vladimir (2021) "Vaccinophobia, “fundamentalism” and the fine tuning of the present-day pandemic ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia I : Bogoslovie. Filosofiia. Religiovedenie, 2021, Iss. 97, pp. 123-137 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturI202197.123-137
This article is a response to the paper that discloses the unwillingness to get vaccination against Covid-19 as based on the apocalyptic mentality. This topic is extended so that I analyse not only subjective but also objective reasons for the phenomenon which in the above-mentioned paper is termed vaccinophobia. I go even further and examine not only the consequences but also the cause, i.e. the pandemic itself and the various aspects of its impact on society and religion. I argue that the understanding of Covid is possible not only in the domain of doctors, sociologists, politologists, but also of theologians. I study the following main directions of its impact, i.e. being the instument used to destroy the traditional historical, cultural, and even biological identity of present-day Westerners; abnormal control over society on the pretext of caring for people, and extreme pressure on church life under the same pretext. My conclusion is that it is possible to see analogies between the fi ne tuning of Creation and coordination of the factors listed above in the context of the pervading purposeful set of objectives which are initially oppossed to the divine plan and are becoming more and more sophisticated. I cite opinions of prominent virusologists about the artifi cial origin of Covid as well as the arguments in favour of the view that the Christian teaching about hell can no longer be seen as a remnant of Middle Ages but constitutes an integral part of the Christian doctrine and fully retains validity in the present day.
COVID, vaccinophobia, fundamentalism, alarmism, conspiracy theory, church life, teleology, rational plan, fi ne tuning, Christian teaching about hell
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Shokhin Vladimir


Academic Degree: Doctor of Sciences* in Philosophy;
Academic Rank: Professor;
Place of work: Institute of Philosophy, Russian Academy of Sciences; Goncharnaya Str. 12/1, Moscow 109240, Russian Federation;
Post: Head of the Sector of Philosophy of Religion;
ORCID: 0000-0002-2111-8740;
Email: vladshokhin@yandex.ru.

*According to ISCED 2011, a post-doctoral degree called Doctor of Sciences (D.Sc.) is given to reflect second advanced research qualifications or higher doctorates.

BOOK REVIEWS

Khangireev Ilya

Rev. of Philology and Textual Criticism. Proceedings of the Second International Colloquium of the Dominique Barthélemy Institute held at Fribourg on 10–11 October, 2013 / I. Himbaza, J. Joosten, eds. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2020 (Forschungen zum Alten Testament. 2. Reihe; Bd. 118). VIII, 155 p.

Khangireev Ilya (2021) Rev. of Philology and Textual Criticism. Proceedings of the Second International Colloquium of the Dominique Barthélemy Institute held at Fribourg on 10–11 October, 2013 / I. Himbaza, J. Joosten, eds. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2020 (Forschungen zum Alten Testament. 2. Reihe; Bd. 118). VIII, 155 p., Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia I : Bogoslovie. Filosofiia. Religiovedenie, 2021, Iss. 97, pp. 141-146 (in Russian).

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Khangireev Ilya


Place of work: St. Tikhon’s Orthodox University for the Humanities; 6/1 Likhov pereulok, Moscow 127051, Russian Federation;
Post: Head of Scientific-Administrative department of the Theological faculty;
ORCID: 0000-0001-9590-9046;
Email: khangireev@gmail.com.
Khokhlova Polina

St. John Chrysostom’s preaching in the perspective of contemporary social problems — Rev. of Revisioning John Chrysostom: New Approaches, New Perspectives / Edited by Chris L. de Wet and Wendy Mayer. Boston, 2019 — 840 p.

Khokhlova Polina (2021) "St. John Chrysostom’s preaching in the perspective of contemporary social problems". Rev. of Revisioning John Chrysostom: New Approaches, New Perspectives / Edited by Chris L. de Wet and Wendy Mayer. Boston, 2019. — 840 p., Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia I : Bogoslovie. Filosofiia. Religiovedenie, 2021, Iss. 97, pp. 146-150 (in Russian).

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Khokhlova Polina


Student status: Graduate student;
Place of study: St. Tikhon’s Orthodox University for the Humanities; 6/1 Likhov per., Moscow, 127051 Russian Federation;
ORCID: 0000-0002-4754-4924;
Email: khokh@mail.ru.
Leontyeva Anna

Rev. of Мутафова К., Калицин М., Андреев С. Православни структури на Балканите през XVII–XVIII век съгласно документи от Истанбулския османски архив. Велико Търново: Абагар, 2019. 672 с.

Leontyeva Anna (2021) Rev. of Mutafova K., Kalitsin M., Andreev S. Pravoslavni strukturi na Balkanite prez XVII–XVIII vek saglasno dokumenti ot Istanbulskiia osmanski arhiv. Veliko Tarnovo: Abagar, 2019. 672 s., Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia I : Bogoslovie. Filosofiia. Religiovedenie, 2021, Iss. 97, pp. 150-154 (in Russian).

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Leontyeva Anna


Place of work: St. Tikhon’s Orthodox University for the Humanities; 6/1 Likhov per., Moscow, 127051 Russian Federation;
Post: guest researcher;
ORCID: 0000-0001-7543-6085;
Email: leontanna@gmail.com.