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St. Tikhon’s University Review . Series I: Theology. Philosophy. Religious Studies

St. Tikhon’s University Review I :82

THEOLOGY

Shokhin Vladimir

Philosolhical and Theological Discourse and Defnitions of Dogmata in Spiritual and Academic School of Synodal Period

Shokhin Vladimir (2019) "Philosolhical and Theological Discourse and Defnitions of Dogmata in Spiritual and Academic School of Synodal Period ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia I : Bogoslovie. Filosofiia. Religiovedenie, 2019, Iss. 82, pp. 11-33 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturI201982.11-33
This article outlines the defi nitions of the dogmata in the most infl uential and mainstream tradition in Russian theology of the Synodal period, beginning from the “Dogmatic Theology” (Russ. Догматическое богословие) by archimandrite (future archbishop) Antony (Amfi teatrov) (1848) and concluding with the benchmarking article by Alexey Vvedensky “The Issue of Methodological Reform of Orthodox Dogmatics” (1904; Russ. К вопросу о методологической реформе православной догматики). The article shows that certain well-known modern handbooks in dogmatics render synodal interpretations. The article also reconstructs three aspects in understanding of the dogmata in the academic spiritual school. These are termed aletheological, institutional, and soteriological; attention is paid to discording opinions of spiritual and academic experts which manifested themselves most vividly at the end of the 19th — beginning of the 20th centuries. Besides, the “synodal defi nitions” and understandings of the dogmata come to be an object of critical analysis, particularly with regard to the lack of both historism and attention to the humanistic side of the synergetic nature of the “matter” of the dogmata on the whole.
philosophical theology, Christian dogmata, dogmatics, theological academies, Synodal period, theory of doctrinal development, Pope’s infallibility, inerrancy of Bible, caesaropapism
  1. Achtemeier P. (1999) Inspiration and Authority: Nature and Function of Christian Scripture. Massachusetts.
  2. Averintsev S. (1988) “Vizantiia i Rus’: dva tipa dukhovnosti” [Byzantium and Rus’: Two Types of Spirituality]. Novyi mir, vol. 7, pp. 210‒220; vol. 9, pp. 227‒239 (in Russian)
  3. Antonii (Amfi teatrov), archbishop (2006) Dogmaticheskoe bogoslovie pravoslavnoi kafolicheskoi vostochnoi tserkvi [Dogmatic Theology of the Orthodox Catholic Eastern Church]. St Petersburg (in Russian).
  4. Bradshaw D. (2012) Aristotel’ na Vostoke i Zapade: metafi zika i razdelenie khristianskogo mira [Aristotle East and West: Metaphysics and the Division of Christendom]. Russ. translation. Moscow.
  5. Davydenkov O., archpriest (2014) Dogmaticheskoe bogoslovie. Uchebnoe posobie [Dogmatic Theology. A Handbook]. Moscow (in Russian).
  6. Demarest B., Lewis G. (1987) Integrative Theology: Knowing Ultimate Reality, the Living God. Grand Rapids.
  7. Dolenc B. (2011) “Newman’s Essay on the Development of Christian Doctrine: its Genesis and its Enduring Relevance”. Bogoslovni vestnik, vol. 71, pp. 525–541.
  8. Dvoretskii I. (1958) Drevnegrechesko-russkii slovar’ [Ancient Greek-Russian Dictionary]. Мoscow (in Russian).
  9. Glubokovskii N. (2002) Russkaia bogoslovskaia nauka v ee istoricheskom razvitii i noveishem sostoianii [Russian Theological Science in its Historical Development and Modern State]. Мoscow (in Russian).
  10. Lattier D. (2011) “The Orthodox Rejection of Doctrinal Development”. Pro Ecclesia, vol. XX, no 4, pp. 389‒410.
  11. Levinskaia I. (2008) Deyaniya apostolov. Glavy 9‒28. Istoriko-filologicheskii kommentarii [Acts of the Apostles. Chapters 9‒28. Historical and Philological Commentary]. St Petersburg (in Russian).
  12. Lindsell H. (1981) The Battle for the Bible. Grand Rapids.
  13. Lisovoi N. “Obzor osnovnykh napravlenii russkoi bogoslovskoi akademicheskoi nauki v XIX — nachale XX stoletiia” [Overview of the Main Directions of Russian Theological Academic Science in the 19th — Early 20th Centuries]. Bogoslovskie trudy, vol. 37, pp. 6–126 (in Russian).
  14. Mikhailov P. (2013) “Problema razvitiia v bogoslovii i dogmatike” [Problem of Development in Theology and in Dogmatics]. Vestnik PSTGU. Seriia 1: Bogoslovie. Filosofi ia. Religiovedenie, vol. 6 (50), pp. 9‒23 (in Russian).
  15. Newman J. (1989) Essay on the Development of Christian Doctrine. Notre Dame University.
  16. Newman J. (1997) Fifteen Sermons Preached before the University of Oxford. University of Notre Dame.
  17. Shokhin V. (2016) Filosofskaia teologiia: dizainerskie fasety [Philosophical Theology: Designers’ Facets]. Moscow (in Russian).
  18. Shokhin V. (2018) Filosofskaia teologiia: kanon i variativnost’ [Philosophical Theology: the Canon and the Variability]. Moscow (in Russian).
  19. Wolterstorff N. (1995) Divine Discourse: Philosophical Refl ections on the Claim that God Speaks. New York.

Shokhin Vladimir


Academic Degree: Doctor of Sciences* in Philosophy;
Academic Rank: Professor;
Place of work: Institute of Philosophy, Russian Academy of Sciences; Goncharnaya Str. 12/1, Moscow 109240, Russian Federation;
Post: Head of the Sector of Philosophy of Religion;
ORCID: 0000-0002-2111-8740;
Email: vladshokhin@yandex.ru.

*According to ISCED 2011, a post-doctoral degree called Doctor of Sciences (D.Sc.) is given to reflect second advanced research qualifications or higher doctorates.

Emelyanov Nikolay, archpriest

Significance of family of orthodox priest in pastoral ministry: theological approach

Emelyanov Nikolay (2019) "Significance of family of orthodox priest in pastoral ministry: theological approach ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia I : Bogoslovie. Filosofiia. Religiovedenie, 2019, Iss. 82, pp. 34-50 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturI201982.34-50
This article deals with a theological topicalisation of the issue of the priest’s family. Analysing Russian courses in pastoral theology, both pre-revolutionary and designed in Russian theological high schools and in emigration in Soviet times, one can easily notice that the priest’s family is only discussed in the perspective of practical problems in choosing the fi ancée, the degree of participation of the wife of the priest in the life of the parish, specifi c problems of the priest’s family life, etc. In Russian literature, there is almost no theological interpretation of the priest’s family and its significance in pastoral service. This article attempts to give such interpretation through the notion of fatherhood, and through protective, maintaining and limiting role and missionary signifi cance of the priest’s family. The conclusion is that the priest’s family makes up one of the determining factors in pastoral ministry.
pastoral theology, theology of priesthood, theology of the family, families of the clergy, pastoral ministry, work-life balance, work-family balance, theology of Christian marriage, marriage in Eastern Orthodoxy, sacrament of marriage, family studies
  1. Aleksii, patriarch (2000) Doklad na Iubileinom Arkhiereiskom Sobore Russkoi Pravoslavnoi Tserkvi 13–16 avgusta 2000 g. [Report at the Anniversary Bishop Council of the Russian Orthodox Church, 13th — 16th August 2000], available at https://mospat.ru/archive/page/sobors/2000-2/369.html (10.04.2019) (in Russian).
  2. Allen J. (ed.) (2001) Vested in Grace: Priesthood and Marriage in the Christian East. Brookline, Massachusetts.
  3. Antonii, metropolitan (2006) “Besedy na konferentsii zhen sviashchennikov v Piterboro 11‒12 maia 1971 g.” [Conversations at the Conference of Priests’ Wives in Peterborough, 11th — 12th May 1971]. Al’fa i Omega, vol. 2 (46), pp. 289–302 (in Russian).
  4. Aphenagoras (Kokkinakis), bishop (1958) Parents and Priests as Servants of Redemption. An Interpretation of the Doctrines of the Eastern Orthodox Church of the Sacraments of Matrimony and Priesthood. New York.
  5. Beauregard T., Henry L. (2009) “Making the Link between Work-Life Balance Practices and Organizational Performance”. Human Resource Management Review, vol. 19, pp. 9–22
  6. Chernyi A. (2013) “Bogoslovie tserkovnogo sluzheniia i shtatnye dolzhnosti dlia mirian v Katolicheskoi Tserkvi Germanii posle Vtorogo Vatikanskogo sobora” [Theological Foundations for Church Ministry and Staff Positions for Lay Persons in the German Catholic Church after the Second Vatican Council]. Vestnik PSTGU I: Bogoslovie. Filosofiya, vol. 5 (49), pp. 26–40 (in Russian).
  7. Chetverukhin I. (1992) Vospominaniia [Memories], in S. Chetverukhin (ed.) Tolmachi: Vospominaniia ob ottse [Tolmachi: Memoirs about the Father]. Moscow (in Russian).
  8. Dulles A. (1990) Models for Ministerial Priesthood, in Origins Document: CNS — Catholic News Service, vol. 20.
  9. Dulles A. (1997) The Priestly Office. A Theological Reflection. New York.
  10. Evdokimov P. (2011) Tainstvo liubvi. Taina supruzhestva v svete pravoslavnogo predaniia [Sacrament of Love: the Mystery of Marriage in the Light of Orthodox Tradition]. Moscow (in Russian).
  11. Goleva M., Pavliutkin I. (2016) “Sotsial’nye seti i rozhdaemost’” [Social Networks and Birth Rate]. Ekonomicheskaia sotsiologiia, vol. 1 (17), pp. 83–98 (in Russian).
  12. Greenhaus J., Powell G. (2006) “When Work and Family are Allies: A Theory of Work-Family Enrichment”. Academy of Management Review, vol. 31 (1), pp. 72–92.
  13. Kaleda G. (2007) Domashniaia Tserkov’ [Domestic Church], in Sviashchennik Gleb Kaleda — uchenyi i pastyr’ [Priest Gleb Kaleda as a Scholar and Pastor]. Moscow (in Russian).
  14. Katekhizis Katolicheskoi tserkvi [Catechism of the Catholic Church] (1996) Moscow.
  15. Kiprian (Kern), archimandrite (2000) Pravoslavnoe pastyrskoe sluzhenie [Orthodox Pastoral Ministry]. (in Russian).
  16. Khondzinskii P. Prihodskoe dukhovenstvo kontsa XIX — nachala XX veka v russkoi dukhovnoj traditsii [Parish Clergy of the Late 19th — Early 20th Centuries in Russian Spiritual Tradition], available at http://pstbi.ru/news/show/132-doklad_prot_Pavel_Khondsinskiy (15.11.2017) (in Russian).
  17. Kosik O. (ed.) (2000) “Molitva vsekh vas spaset”: Materialy k zhizneopisaniiu sviatitelia Afanasiia, episkopa Kovrovskogo [“Prayer Will Save You All”: Materials for Biography of St. Afanasii, Bishop of Kovrov]. Moscow (in Russian).
  18. Krest’iankin I. (2014) Rassuzhdenie s sovetom. Sobranie pisem [Refl ections with Advice. Collection of Letters]. Moscow (in Russian).

Emelyanov Nikolay, archpriest


Academic Degree: Candidate of Sciences* in Philosophy;
Place of work: St. Tikhon’s Orthodox University for the Humanities, 6/1 Likhov pereulok, Moscow 127051, Russian Federation; Research Fellow, Ecclesiastical Institutions Research Laboratory;
ORCID: 0000-0001-5940-9140;
Email: pr_nikolay@mail.ru.

*According to the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) 2011, the degree of Candidate of Sciences (Cand.Sc.) belongs to ISCED level 8 — "doctoral or equivalent", together with PhD, DPhil, D.Lit, D.Sc, LL.D, Doctorate or similar.

The project was supported by the Russian Science Foundation in a form of a grant (project № 18-78-10089).

PHILOSOPHY

Pylaev Maxim

Moral religion in Tolstoy’s religious philosophy and in W. Herrmann’s liberal theology

Pylaev Maxim (2019) "Moral religion in Tolstoy’s religious philosophy and in W. Herrmann’s liberal theology ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia I : Bogoslovie. Filosofiia. Religiovedenie, 2019, Iss. 82, pp. 53-62 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturI201982.53-62
This article is intended to shed light on the transformations of Kantian ethical thought in theological ethics of W. Herrmann, one of the most prominent liberal theologists, and in theorising of religion in fi ction by L. Tolstoy. The main thesis of the article is that Christianity (the religion on the whole) in the framework of religiousphilosophical and theological cognition in Post-Enlightenment era is not able to make its essence explicit without addressing ethical topics. Herrmann did manage to propose an elaborate theological interpretation of Kant’s ethical substantiation of religion. This theologian linked the existence of moral law to the historical form of Revelation in the personality-related existence of its bearer. Employing F. Schleiermacher’s conception of religion, Herrmann analysed the functioning of the moral law in the ethical way of thinking of the empirical subject in such notions as faith, forgiving, love, salvation. Having proposed an exclusively moral interpretation of kerygma, Herrmann made it understandable to his contemporaries and at the same time preserved the unique character of the Christian message. Herrmann’s moral law becomes religion only through the bearer of Revelation, i.e. the person with high moral standards. While Schleiermacher unites transcendentalism with phychologism (as W. Dilthey wrote about this) in the conception of empirical religious feeling, Herrmann unites transcendentalism (Kant’s idea of the absolute moral law) with the historical Revelation in Jesus Christ. Belief in this person comes to be the beginning of the new, i.e. religious, life. In L. Tolstoy’s fi ction, Kantian understanding of religion intertwines, on the one hand, with a discourse similar to existential and philosophic and, on the other hand, with an interpretation of Christian ethics as the ethics of love for one’s neighbour through the idea of absolute non-resistance to the evil by force. Thus, the issue of the ethical substantiation of religion transcends not only the boundaries of Christian consciousness but also the limits of philosophy, the essence of which is determined by German idealism. Tolstoy’s ethical explanation of religion implies coherence with various types of religiosity as well as with various forms of philosophy. In other words, it confi rms the thesis about inexhaustible heuristic possibilities of explicating religious consciousness by means of moral categories.
morality, natural religion, liberal theology, freedom, self-consciousness, existence, borderline situation, Christianity
  1. Florovskii G. (1937) Puti russkogo bogosloviia [Paths of Russian Theology]. Paris (in Russian).
  2. Guseinov A., Apresian R. (2002) Etika [Ethics]. Moscow (in Russian).
  3. Kant I. (1965) Kritika prakticheskogo razuma [Critique of Pure Reason], in Sochineniia v 6 tomakh [Works in 6 Volumes]. Vol. 4. Pt. 1. Moscow (Russian translation).
  4. Kant I. (1996) Religiia v predelakh tol’ko razuma [Religion within the Limits of Reason Only], in Traktaty [Treatises]. St Petersburg (Russian translation).
  5. Kerenskii V. (2016) “Shkola richlianskogo bogosloviia v liuteranstve” [School of Ritschlian Theology in Lutheranism], in A. Garnak. Tserkov’ i gosudarstvo vplot’ do ustanovleniia gosudarstvennoi tserkvi. Monashestvo, ego idealy i ego istoriia [Church and State up to the Establishment of the State Church. Monasticism, its Ideals and its History]. St Petersburg (in Russian).
  6. Merezhkovskii D. (1995) L. Tolstoi i Dostoevskii [L. Tolstoy and Dostoevskii]. Moscow (in Russian).
  7. Pannenberg W. (1997) Problemgeschichte der neuren evangelischen Theologie in Deutschland. Göttingen.
  8. Sravnitel’noe bogoslovie: nemetskii protestantizm XX veka (2011) [Comparative Theology: German Protestantism of the 20th Century]. Moscow (in Russian).
  9. Tolstoi L. (1981) Smert’ Ivana Il’icha [The Death of Ivan Ilyich], in Sobranie sochinenii: v 20 tomakh [Collected Works: in 20 vols.]. Vol. 12. Moscow (in Russian).
  10. Tolstoi L. (1983) Ispoved’ [Confession], in Sobranie sochinenii: v 20 tomakh [Collected Works: in 20 vols.]. Vol. 16. Moscow (in Russian).
  11. Tolstoi L. (1983) Otets Sergii [Father Sergius], in Sobranie sochinenii: v 20 tomakh [Collected Works: in 20 vols.]. Vol. 12. Moscow (in Russian).
  12. Tolstoi L. (1993) Put’ zhizni [Path of Life]. Moscow (in Russian).
  13. Zen’kovskii V. (1991) Istoriia russkoi filosofii [History of Russian Philosophy]. Vol. 1. Pt. 2. Leningrad (in Russian).

Pylaev Maxim


Academic Degree: Doctor of Sciences* in Philosophy;
Academic Rank: Associate Professor;
Place of work: Russian State University for the Humanities, 6 Miusskaya Sq., Moscow 125993, GSP-3, Russian Federation;
Post: Professor;
ORCID: 0000-0003-0110-8366;
Email: maximpylajew@mail.ru.

*According to ISCED 2011, a post-doctoral degree called Doctor of Sciences (D.Sc.) is given to reflect second advanced research qualifications or higher doctorates.

Sleptsova Valeriya

Cosmological argument by R. Gale and A. Pruss: advantages and problems

Sleptsova Valeriya (2019) "Cosmological argument by R. Gale and A. Pruss: advantages and problems ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia I : Bogoslovie. Filosofiia. Religiovedenie, 2019, Iss. 82, pp. 63-73 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturI201982.63-73
This article gives a detailed analysis of the cosmological argument proposed in 1999 by Richard Gale and Alexander Pruss, which they called the “new cosmological argument”. The initial section of article examines the system of concepts employed by Gale and Pruss: “possible worlds”, Big Conjunctive Fact, Big Conjunctive Contingent Fact, etc. Then the argument itself is examined. Gale and Pruss build it on the weak principle of suffi cient foundation and come to the conclusion about the existence of God, who is essentially a free necessary being and possesses power and reason only suffi cient to create our world but not all the sublime features attributed to God. The argument consists of 18 steps, where three parts can be distinguished. The fi rst is the proof that there exists the contingent proposition q which explains the Big Conjunctive Contingent Fact p of the actual world (steps 1‒7). The second part is that q notifi es about the intended action (intentional act) of the necessary being, which explains the existence of our world (steps 8‒15). Finally, in the third part (steps 16‒18) Gale and Pruss refer to such features as the orderliness of cosmos, fi ne tuning, unity of the Universe and suppose that the necessary being that created our world is very powerful, intelligent and kind. The article shows that most critical remarks about this argument are directed against its fi rst part. However, these remarks can easily be answered by Gale and Pruss’ argument. At the same time, the second part of the argument seems to be most vulnerable because, fi rstly, it contains a hidden prerequisite of a libertarian interpretation of the freedom of will and, secondly, does not exclude the possibility of retrogression to infi nity.
cosmological argument, principle of suffi cient reason, free will, R. Gale, A. Pruss, supernatural necessary being
  1. Almeida M., Judisch N. (2002) “A New Cosmological Argument Undone”. International Journal for Philosophy of Religion, vol. 51 (1), pp. 55–64.
  2. Cleve J. van (1999) Problems from Kant. Oxford.
  3. Davey K., Clifton R. (2001) “Insuffi cient Reason in the «New Cosmological Argument»”. Religious Studies, vol. 37 (4), pp. 485–490.
  4. Davis S. (2016) Bog, razum i teisticheskie dokazatel’stva [God, Reason and Theistic Proofs]. Moscow (Russian translation).
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  6. Gale R., Pruss A. (1999) “A New Cosmological Argument”. Religious Studies, vol. 35, pp. 461–476.
  7. Gale R., Pruss A. (2002) “A Response to Oppy, and to Davey and Clifton”. Religious Studies, vol. 38 (1), pp. 89–99.
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  9. Koons R. (1997) “A New Look at the Cosmological Argument”. American Philosophical Quarterly, vol. 34 (2), pp. 193–212.
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  11. Plantinga A. (2008‒2009) “ Reformatskoe vozrazhenie protiv estestvennoi teologii” [Reformed Objection to Natural Theology]. Filosofiia religii: al’manakh. 2008–2009, pp. 210–227 (Russian translation).
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  13. Rasmussen J. (2010) “A New Argument for a Necessary Being”. Australasian Journal of Philosophy, vol. 89 (2), pp. 351–356.
  14. Reichenbach B. (2004/2017) “Cosmological Argument”, in The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy Archive, available at https://plato.stanford.edu/archives/win2017/entries/cosmological-argument/ (12.04.2019).
  15. Rutten E. (2012) A Critical Assessment of Contemporary Cosmological Argument: Towards a Renewed Case for Theism. Amsterdam.
  16. Shokhin V. (2017) “Obosnovaniia sushchestvovaniia Boga: novyi opyt klassifi katsionnogo analiza” [Substantiations of the Existence of God: new attempt of classifi catory analysis]. Vestnik PSTGU. Ser. I: Bogoslovie. Filosofiia. Religiovedenie, vol. 73, pp. 13–29 (in Russian).

Sleptsova Valeriya


Academic Degree: Candidate of Sciences* in Philosophy;
Place of work: Institute of Philosophy of the Russian Academy of Sciences; 12/1 Goncharnaia Str., 109240, Moscow, Russian Federation;
ORCID: 0000-0002-4490-4066;
Email: leka.nasonova@gmail.com.

*According to the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) 2011, the degree of Candidate of Sciences (Cand.Sc.) belongs to ISCED level 8 — "doctoral or equivalent", together with PhD, DPhil, D.Lit, D.Sc, LL.D, Doctorate or similar.

RELIGIOUS STUDIES

Davidoglu Sergey

Modification in the understanding of the sacred space in the Epistle to the Hebrews

Davidoglu Sergey (2019) "Modification in the understanding of the sacred space in the Epistle to the Hebrews ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia I : Bogoslovie. Filosofiia. Religiovedenie, 2019, Iss. 82, pp. 77-93 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturI201982.77-93
This article examines the structure of the heavenly sanctuary presented in the Epistle to the Hebrews and its diff erence from the structure of the Old Testament temple. It also shows how this picture of the sanctuary demonstrates the change in the idea of the author of the Epistle about the sacred space compared with ideas that were typical of the culture of Judaism of the 1st century. It also gives a characterisation of the sacred space as a cultural phenomenon, of Old Testament ideas about the sacred space as well as how these ideas refl ected in the temple structure. The sacred space in Judaist culture is understood in its connection with the presence of God and has gradations as to the degree of distance from God. The article also looks at the terminology of the sanctuary in the Epistle to the Hebrews and its distinctive features seen in the text. Among the main features are the following: typological connection of sancta sanctorum of the earthly temple with the entire heavenly sanctuary; transfer of the altar of incense to the sancta sactorum, which was theologically interpreted in the framework of this typology; monolithic character of the heavenly sanctuary; its spiritual nature; the refl ection of the whole ministry of Jesus Christ in the idea of the heavenly sanctuary, with the opportunity of access for all the faithful. This shows the transformation of the idea of the author of the Epistle about the sacred space compared with those generally accepted in Judaism of the 1st century, this transformation being infl uenced by Jesus. Because of the concept of the heavenly sanctuary, the idea of the sacred space is being transferred to a diff erent level, moving the emphasis from observing the rite to man’s faith, which infl uenced all the subsequent development of Christian theology and culture.
sacred space, Epistle to the Hebrews, sanctuary, structure of the sanctuary, heavenly temple, celestial temple, heavenly sanctuary, altar of incense, High Priesthood of Christ, Judaic culture of 1st century AD, Christianity of 1st century AD, Christology
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  7. Dombrauskene G. (2013) “Religioznaia simvolika v ierotopii protestantizma” [Religios Symbols in Hierotopia of Protestantism]. Vestnik Moskovskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta kul’tury i iskusstv, vol. 3 (53), pp. 223–227 (in Russian).
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  13. Hays J. (2016) The Temple and the Tabernacle: A Study of God’s Dwelling Places from Genesis to Revelation. Grand Rapids.
  14. Kvlividze N. (2004) “Velikii Arkhierei Iisus Khristos” [Great Archpriest Jesus Christ], in Pravoslavnaia entsiklopediia [Orthodox Encyclopaedia]. Vol. 7, pp. 451–452 (in Russian).
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  23. Robertson A. (1934) A Grammar of the Greek New Testament in the Light of Historical Research. Nashville.
  24. Salom A. (1967) “Ta Hagia in the Epistle to the Hebrews”. Andrews University Seminary Studies, vol. 5, pp. 59–70.
  25. Shukurov Sh. (2004) “Khram umer? Vvedenie v problemy khramovogo soznaniia” [Has the Temple Died? Introduction to the Issues in Temple Mentality], in Sh. Shokurov (ed.) Khram zemnoi i nebesnyi [The Temple Earthly and Celestial]. Moscow, pp. 5–21 (in Russian).
  26. Spatafora A. (1997) “From the Temple of God to God as the Temple: A Biblical Theological Study of the Temple in the Book of Revelation”, in Testi Gregoriana. Serie Teologia, vol. 27. Roma.
  27. Stevenson G. (2001) Power and Place: Temple and Identity in the Book of Revelation. Berlin; New York.
  28. Toporov V. (1997) “Prostranstvo” [Space], in Mify narodov mira: Entsiklopediia [Myths of the World: Encyclopaedia]. Moscow, vol. 2, pp. 340–342 (in Russian).
  29. Uspenskii B. (2004) Krestnoe znamenie i sakral’noe prostranstvo: Pochemu pravoslavnye krestiatsia sprava nalevo, a katoliki — sleva napravo? [Sign of the Cross and Sacred Space: Why the Orthodox Cross themselves Right to Left and Catholics Left to Right]. Moscow (in Russian).
  30. Vaneian S. (2004) “Khram i Graal’ v zapadnom Srednevekov’e” [Temple and Graal in Western Middle Ages], in Sh. Shokurov (ed.) Khram zemnoi i nebesnyi [The Temple Earthly and Celestial]. Moscow, pp. 201–310 (in Russian).
  31. Zabiiako A. (2007) “Sakral’noe” [The Sacred], in Kul’turologiia: Entsiklopediia [Culturology: Encyclopaedia]. Vol. 2, s. 440 (in Russian).

Davidoglu Sergey


Student status: Graduate student;
Academic Degree: Candidate of Sciences* in Philosophy;
Academic Rank: Member of the Russian Academy of Sciences;
Place of work: Russian state university for the Humanities; 6 k.6 Miusskaya pl., Moscow 125047, Russian Federation; Postgraduate student;
ORCID: 0000-0003-1484-0425;
Email: mail@davidoglu.ru.

*According to the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) 2011, the degree of Candidate of Sciences (Cand.Sc.) belongs to ISCED level 8 — "doctoral or equivalent", together with PhD, DPhil, D.Lit, D.Sc, LL.D, Doctorate or similar.

Prilutskii Alexander

Semiotics of modalities of the present-day conspirological myth in discourses of marginal orthodoxy

Prilutskii Alexander (2019) "Semiotics of modalities of the present-day conspirological myth in discourses of marginal orthodoxy ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia I : Bogoslovie. Filosofiia. Religiovedenie, 2019, Iss. 82, pp. 94-107 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturI201982.94-107
This article studies the modal structures of the present-day conspirological mythology which is popular across the followers of marginal Orthodox subcultures of the rightist-monarchist type. The object of the study is elements of the relevant discourse that possess a modal sense. The sources of the study are original texts of varying genres, pseudo-hagiographic, pseudo-prophetic, those rendering utterances of various spiritual leaders, etc. Methods of structural and semiotic analysis of religious texts make up the methodology of the study. In the initial section, the article analyses the semiotic specifi city of the modern conspirological myth and substantiates the claim that the elemental components of the modern conspirological eschatology have a mythological character. The article provides grounds for understanding the conspirological myth as an integrated system of mythological narratives which interpret socio-historical processes and phenomena as a result of determined action of powerful forces that carefully conceal their existence and any relationship with these phenomena and processes. Conspirological narratives shape the space of quasi-rationality, in which complicated cause-eff ect links are being founded by predetermined conspirological basic ideas that cannot be verifi ed. After this, the article examines the semiotic function of the prophetic modality, which is related to processes of semitic drift and allows one to interpret metaphors as symbols, and vice versa. The semiotic drift, typical of religious semiosis overall, plays a special role in the discourses of the conspirological myth, making it possible to implement hermeneutic tools of the apology of the followers: initially unclear semiotic status of the concepts allows one to interpret them as “poetic metaphors” when necessary. Analysis of aletheian modality being developed by the utterances that belong to conspirological narratives of the marginal religiosity allows one to draw the conclusion that in the result of unfolding semitic structures of mythological contraceptions a tranfi guration of problematicised utterances into assertoristic ones is taking place: “if something fi lthy may happen, it has already happened and is being successfully concealed”. Deontic modality of the elements of the conspirological myth is primarily realised in utterances, the pragmatics of which may be worded as “uniting for struggle”. The fi nal section of this study makes a conclusion about “conspirological polarity”.
semiotics of religion, modality, conspiracy, eschatology, marginal religiosity, semiotic drift, quasi-rationality
  1. Golovushkin D. (2013) “Obnovlenchestvo i staroobriadchestvo: antiteza ili ob»ediniaiushchaia paradigma?” [Renovationism and Old Believers’ Faith: Antithesis or Uniting Paradigm?]. Izvestiia Irkutskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. Seriia: Politologiia. Religiovedenie, vol. 2 (11), pp. 288‒294 (in Russian).
  2. Kvakin A. (2006) Mezhdu belymi i krasnymi. Russkaia intelligentsiia 1920–1930 godov v poiske Tret’ego puti [Between the White and the Red. Russian Intelligentsia of the 1920s‒1930s in Search of the Third Way]. Moscow (in Russian).
  3. Lebedev V., Prilutskii A., Svetlov R. (2018) “K voprosu o kul’te «sv. Grigoriia Novogo» (G. E. Rasputina) v marginal’nom pravoslavii” [On the Cult of “st. Gregory the New” (G. Rasputin) in the Marginal Orthodoxy]. Vestnik slavianskikh kul’tur, vol. 47, pp. 27‒39 (in Russian).
  4. Levi-Strauss C. (2008) Structural Anthropology. New York.
  5. Panchenko A. (2015) “Komp’iuter po imeni Zver’: eskhatologiia i konspirologiia v sovremennykh religioznykh kul’turakh” [Computer Named Beast: Eschatology and Conspirology in Modern Religious Cultures]. Antropologicheskii forum, vol. 27, pp. 122‒141 (in Russian).
  6. Pigalev A. (2011) “Postmodernistskaia apokaliptika kak uprezhdaiushchee obnovlenie tsivilizatsionnogo proekta” [Postmodernist Apocalyptic as a Proactive Update of the Civilisation Project]. Voprosy filosofii, vol. 5, pp. 30‒40 (in Russian).
  7. Pigalev A. (2013) “Ezotericheskaia metaistoriia mezhdu sekretnost’iu i razoblacheniem illiuzornosti real’nosti” [Esoteric Metahistory between Secrecy and Exposing of Illusiveness of Reality]. Voprosy filosofii, vol. 9, pp. 63‒74 (in Russian).
  8. Rozin V. (2016) “Konspirologicheskii diskurs — tsennostnyi imperativ sovremennoi kul’tury” [Discourse of Conspiracy as a Value Imperative of Modern Culture]. Vestnik Moskovskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta kul’tury i iskusstv, vol. 1 (69), pp. 65‒72 (in Russian).
  9. Slesareva D. (2013) “Genezis konspirologicheskogo romana” [Genesis of Conspirological Novel]. Istoricheskaia i sotsial’no-obrazovatel’naia mysl’, vol. 6, pp. 192‒196 (in Russian).
  10. Shapinskaia E. (2009) “Obraz drugogo v tekstakh kul’tury: politika reprezentatsii (nachalo)” [The Image of the Other in Texts of Culture: the Policy of Representation (Beginning)]. Znanie. Ponimanie. Umenie, vol. 3, pp. 51‒56 (in Russian).
  11. Vorontsov A, Golovushkin D., Prilutskii A. (2017) “Sotsiosemioticheskaia spetsifi ka sovremennogo mifa ob Ivane Groznom” [Social and Semiotic Specifi city of the Modern Cult of Ivan the Terrible]. Sotsiologicheskie issledovaniia, vol. 8, pp. 12‒19 (in Russian).

Prilutskii Alexander


Academic Degree: Doctor of Sciences* in Philosophy;
Student status: Graduate student;
Academic Rank: Professor;
Place of study: Russian State Pedagogical University; 48 Naberezhnaya reki Moiki, 191186, St. Petersburg, Russian Federation;
ORCID: 0000-0002-7013-9935;
Email: alpril@mail.ru.

*According to ISCED 2011, a post-doctoral degree called Doctor of Sciences (D.Sc.) is given to reflect second advanced research qualifications or higher doctorates.

PUBLICATIONS

Aliaiev Gennadii; Rezvykh Tatiana

Simon Frank: On religious meaning and moral foundation of democracy

Rezvykh Tatiana, Aliaiev Gennadii (2019) "Simon Frank: On religious meaning and moral foundation of democracy ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia I : Bogoslovie. Filosofiia. Religiovedenie, 2019, Iss. 82, pp. 111-127 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturI201982.111-127
This publication introduces the archival text by S.L. Frank, which treats democracy from the standpoint of its ontological meaning. The introduction of the publicationanalyses the ideas of the text in context of the evolution of Frank’s ideas on democracy: from the fi rst Russian revolution to the 1930s. The text published here refl ects the stage when the philosopher, infl uenced by the events of 1917, comes to the idea of two sides in democracy, the creating and the destructing, and insists on necessity of its religious and moral substantiation. Textological analysis allows us to date this text to May 1917 and link it with several articles by Frank in the weekly periodical Russian Freedom (Russ. Русская свобода), as well as with his public lecture Moral Grounds of Democracy (Нравственные основы демократии) of May 6, 1917. The archival text, however, is diff erent from the published articles in that it has a more articulated theoretical content, the desire to indentify ontological grounds of the current events and withdraw from current politics. The text is also much more articulate as to the religious ideal of the Russian philosopher. Frank elaborates in his social philosophy the idea of religiously substantiated service as the foundation of social construction already in the 1920s, but for the fi rst time it appears in the article Democracy at Crossroads (Демократия на распутье) and in the text Moral Foundations of Democracy (Нравственные основы демократии) published here. Providing grounds for the religious sense of democracy is combined in Frank’s works with asserting the absolute character of the principle of the freedom of conscience and warning about the danger of theocracy. Frank’s conception of democracy is compared with ideas of Vl. Solovyev, S. Bulgakov, P. Struve, as well as with the image of democracy for the “new Europe” by T. Masarik, a meeting with whom is described in Frank’s memoirs. One should also note the use of imagery and poetic metaphors, typical of Frank. On the whole, this text complements the study of Frank’s socio-philosophical ideas and of the variety of Russian theories of democracy. It also makes topical the religious and ethical understanding of democracy, the lack of which is seen so vividly in the contemporary world.
democracy, freedom, law, liberty, service, revolution, moral, religious and social ideal, socialism, idea of state, Semyon Frank
  1. Kolerov M. (2017) Ot marksizma k idealizmu i tserkvi [From Marxism to Idealism and Church]. Moscow (in Russian)
  2. Masarik T. (1922) Das neue Europa. Berlin.
  3. Masarik T. (1926) Mirovaia revolutsiia. Vospominaniia [Revolution all over the World]. Prague (in Russian)
  4. Masarik T. (2000) Rossiia i Evropa [Russia and Europe]. St Petersburg (in Russian)
  5. Ermishin O., Korostelev O., Khachaturian L. (eds.) (2009) Religiozno-filosofskoe obschestvo v Sankt-Peterburge (Petrograde) [Religious and Philosophical Society in St Petersburg (Petrograd)], vol. 3. Мoscow (in Russian).
  6. Firsov E. (2012) T. G. Masarik v Rossii i bor’ba za nezavisimost’ chekhov i slovakov [T. Masarik in Russia and Struggle for Independence of Czechs and Slovaks]. Moscow (in Russian).

Aliaiev Gennadii


Academic Degree: Doctor of Sciences* in Philosophy;
Academic Rank: Professor;
Place of work: Poltava Yuri Kondratyuk National Technical University; 24 Pervomaisky Prosp., 36011, Poltava, Ukraine;
ORCID: 0000-0001-6713-2014;
Email: gealyaev@gmail.com.

*According to ISCED 2011, a post-doctoral degree called Doctor of Sciences (D.Sc.) is given to reflect second advanced research qualifications or higher doctorates.


Rezvykh Tatiana


Academic Degree: Candidate of Sciences* in Philosophy;
Place of work: St. Tikhon’s Orthodox University for the Humanities; 9/2 Ilovaiskaya Str., 109651, Moscow, Russian Federation;
ORCID: 0000-0003-4429-5405;
Email: hamster-70@mail.ru.

*According to the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) 2011, the degree of Candidate of Sciences (Cand.Sc.) belongs to ISCED level 8 — "doctoral or equivalent", together with PhD, DPhil, D.Lit, D.Sc, LL.D, Doctorate or similar.

DISCUSSION

Samarina Tatiana

On historiography of phenomenology of religion: critical essay

Samarina Tatiana (2019) "On historiography of phenomenology of religion: critical essay ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia I : Bogoslovie. Filosofiia. Religiovedenie, 2019, Iss. 82, pp. 131-141 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturI201982.131-141
This article continues the discussion initiated by M. A. Pylaev in № 80 (2018) of St. Tikhon’s University Review. Series I: Theology. Philosophy. Religious Studies. Taking into account historical data, this article proposes to distinguish: 1) phenomenology of religion in its proper sense which was shaped within the Dutch tradition and whose aim was to study and systematise religious phenomena, this systematisation being carried out with no relationship to the question about the essence of religion (with no religious study in the fi eld of philosophy), 2) the second tradition (noumenological) that is primarily typical of the German phenomenology of religion, where the study of religion was carried out on the principle of considering the phenomenon in its relationship with its essence. This article analyses the tropos of the “theological subversion” of phenomenology created in Russian religious studies as well as the statement that phenomenology of religion came to be marginal (theological) religious studies sui generis, which does not accord with the opinion of the most part of foreign historians of religious studies, who claim that phenomenology of religion has for a long time been not marginal but, in fact, the only form of religious studies per se.
phenomenology of religion, religious studies, theology, comparative religious studies, history of religious studies, Friedrich Max Mueller
  1. Allen D. (2010) “Phenomenology of Religion”, in J. R. Hinnel (ed.) The Routledge Companion to the Study of Religion. 2nd Edition. London; New York, pp. 203–224.
  2. Alles G. (2010) “The Study of Religions: the Last 50 Years”, in J. R. Hinnel (ed.) The Routledge Companion to the Study of Religion. 2nd Edition. London; New York, pp. 39–55.
  3. Bleeker K. (2014) “Fenomenologicheskii metod” [Phenomenological Method]. Religiovedcheskie issledovaniia, vol. 1–2 (9–10), pp. 41–59 (in Russian).
  4. King R. (1999) Orientalism and Religion. Postcolonial Theory, India and ‘The Mystic East’. London; New York.
  5. Krasnikov A. (2004) Metodologicheskie problemy religiovedeniya [Methodological Problems of Religious Studies]. Blagoveshchensk (in Russian).
  6. Kristensen W. (1960) The Meaning of Religion. Hague.
  7. Leeuw G. van der. (1933) Religion in Essence and Manifestation: A Study in Phenomenology. New York.
  8. Molendij k A. (2016) Friedrich Max Müller and the Sacred Books of the East. New York.
  9. Molendij k A. (2005) The Emergence of the Science of Religion in the Netherlands. Leiden.
  10. Paden W. (2010) “Comparative Religion”, in J. R. Hinnel (ed.) The Routledge Companion to the Study of Religion. 2nd Edition. London; New York, pp. 225–242.
  11. Patton K., Ray B. (2000) “Introduction”, in K. Patton, B. Ray (eds.) A Magic Still Dwells: Comparative Religion in the Post-Modern Age. Berkeley.
  12. Pylaev M. (2018) “Prolegomeny ko vsyakomu budushchemu religiovedeniiu, mogushchemu vozniknut’ v kachestve hristianskogo religiovedeniia” [Prolegomena to any Future Religious Studies that may Appear as Christian Religious Studies]. Vestnik PSTGU. Seriia I: Bogoslovie. Filosofiia. Religiovedenie, vol. 80, pp. 119–126 (in Russian).
  13. Roscoe P. (2006) “The Comparative Method”, in R. A. Segal (ed.) The Blackwell Companion to the Study of Religion. New York, pp. 25–46.
  14. Ryba T. (2006) “Phenomenology of Religion”, in R. A. Segal (ed.) The Blackwell Companion to the Study of Religion. New York, pp. 91–122.
  15. Samarina T. (2017) “Fenomenologiia religii i fi losofskaia fenomenologiia” [Phenomenology of Religion and Philosophical Phenomenology]. Voprosy filosofii, vol. 4, pp. 61–71 (in Russian).
  16. Samarina T. (2018) “Dizainerskii proekt fenomenologicheskogo ponimaniia religii: komparativistika F. M. Miullera” [Designer Project of Phenomenological Understanding of Religion: F. M. Mueller’s Comparativism], in: Vestnik PSTGU. Seriia I: Bogoslovie. Filosofiia. Religiovedenie, vol. 78, pp. 121–131 (in Russian).
  17. Shokhin V. (2018) “Opredeleniia misticheskogo: pervyi opyt ekspozitsii” [Definitions of the Mystical: the First Experience in their Exposition]. Filosofiia religii, vol. 1, pp. 7–29 (in Russian).
  18. Strenski I. (2015) Understanding Theories of Religion: An Introduction. 2nd ed. New York.

Samarina Tatiana


Academic Degree: Candidate of Sciences* in Philosophy;
Place of work: Institute of Philosophy Russian Academy of Sciences; 12/1 Goncharnaia, 109240 Moscow, Russian Federation;
ORCID: 0000-0002-9888-0872;
Email: t_s_samarina@bk.ru.

*According to the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) 2011, the degree of Candidate of Sciences (Cand.Sc.) belongs to ISCED level 8 — "doctoral or equivalent", together with PhD, DPhil, D.Lit, D.Sc, LL.D, Doctorate or similar.

BOOK REVIEWS

Veviurko Il'ia

Rev. of Oppel K. D. “Nur aus der Heiligen Schrift lernen wir unsere Geschichte kennen”. Bibel und Biografi e bei Dietrich Bonhoeff er. Ostfi ldern: Matthias Grünewald Verlag, 2017. 229 s.

Veviurko Il'ia (2019) Rev. of Oppel K. D. “Nur aus der Heiligen Schrift lernen wir unsere Geschichte kennen”. Bibel und Biografi e bei Dietrich Bonhoeff er. Ostfi ldern: Matthias Grünewald Verlag, 2017. 229 s., Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia I : Bogoslovie. Filosofiia. Religiovedenie, 2019, Iss. 82, pp. 145-151 (in Russian).

PDF
OppelK.D. “Nuraus der Heiligen Schrift lernen wir unsere Geschichte kennen”.Bibel und Biografie bei Dietrich Bonhoeffer. Ostfildern: MatthiasGrünewald Verlag, 2017. 229 s.Dietrich BonhoefferWerke. Bd. 11: Ökumene, Universität,Pfarramt 1931-1932. Gütersloh: Kaiser, 1994. S. 415.Oppel K.D. “Viellieber würde ich gleich zu Gandhi gehen...”. Dietrich Bonhoefferund Mahatma Gandhi: Zwei Stimmen für den Frieden. Ostfildern: PatmosVerlag, 2017.Dietrich BonhoefferWerke. Bd. 12: Berlin1932-1933. Gütersloh: Kaiser, 1997. S. 280.

Veviurko Il'ia


Academic Degree: Candidate of Sciences* in Philosophy;
Place of work: St. Tikhon's Orthodox University; 6/1 Likhov pereulok, Moscow 127051, Russian Federation;
ORCID: 0000-0002-1225-7474;
Email: vevurka@mail.ru.

*According to the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) 2011, the degree of Candidate of Sciences (Cand.Sc.) belongs to ISCED level 8 — "doctoral or equivalent", together with PhD, DPhil, D.Lit, D.Sc, LL.D, Doctorate or similar.

Nosachev Pavel

Dictatorship of Mercy — Rev. of Colonna M. The Dictator Pope: The Inside Story of the Francis Papacy. Washington: Regnery Publishing, 2018. 232 p.

Nosachev Pavel (2019) "Dictatorship of Mercy". Rev. of Colonna M. The Dictator Pope: The Inside Story of the Francis Papacy. Washington: Regnery Publishing, 2018. 232 p., Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia I : Bogoslovie. Filosofiia. Religiovedenie, 2019, Iss. 82, pp. 151-157 (in Russian).

PDF

Nosachev Pavel


Academic Degree: Doctor of Sciences* in Philosophy;
Place of work: Higher School of Economics; 20 Myasnitskaya Ulitsa, Moscow, 101000 Russian Federation;
Post: associated professor;
ORCID: 0000-0002-0884-4705;
Email: pavel_nosachev@bk.ru.

*According to ISCED 2011, a post-doctoral degree called Doctor of Sciences (D.Sc.) is given to reflect second advanced research qualifications or higher doctorates.