Malyshev Artem

Problem of the consciousness of Christ in russian theology: christology of St. Innokenty (Borisov) and bishop Ioann (Sokolov)

Malyshev Artem (2018) "Problem of the consciousness of Christ in russian theology: christology of St. Innokenty (Borisov) and bishop Ioann (Sokolov) ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia I : Bogoslovie. Filosofiia. Religiovedenie, 2018, vol. 78, pp. 57-72 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturI201878.57-72


This article studies the problem of Christ’s human consciousness in the Christology of two representatives of Russian theological school, namely St. Innokenty (Borisov), archbishop of Cherson and Taurica (1800‒1857) and Ioann (Sokolov), bishop of Smolensk and Dorogobuzh (1818‒1869). Up to now, this sphere of the scholarly studies have not been a subject of special theological research, despite the fact that many scholars mention the similarity of their dogmatic approaches and specifi c features of their Christological concepts. The doctrine of Christ of the two prominent Russian hierarchs stands out noticeably against the habitual “school”, or traditional, approach primarily due to the fact that with regard to Christ they introduce previously non-employed notions and open new fi elds of study for the Christological science. This article studies one of this fi elds, namely Christ’s consciousness. It considers various shades in the use by St. Innokenty and Bishop Ioann of the term “conscioness” (Russ. сознание) as well as associated theological issues. The article also scrutinises the concept of Christ’s self-consciousness both in Bishop’s Ioann Christology and in the context of his doctrine of the consciousness of mankind, reveals the link and continuation in the approaches of St. Innokenty and Bishop Ioann with specifi c paralells in the doctrines as examples. The fi nal section of the article puts forward some hypotheses as to the reception of St. Innokenty’s and Bishop Ioann’s doctrine in the later tradition.


Christology, psychology, bishop Ioann (Sokolov), St. Innocent (Borisov), consciousness, self-consciousness, self-perception, Russian theology


  1. Chernoglazov D. A., Shufrin A. M., Benevich G. I. (eds.) (2014) Prp. Maksim Ispovednik. Bogoslovsko-polemicheskie sochineniia [St. Maximus the Confessor. Opuscula theologica et polemica]. St Petersburg: Sviataia Gora Afon (in Russian).
  2. Dahlke B. (2016) “Die Christologie in Schleiermachers Glaubenslehre”. Catholica, 2016, vol. 70, pp. 278–299.
  3. Florovskii G. (2009) Puti russkogo bogosloviia [Paths of Russian Theology]. Moscow (in Russian).
  4. Gavriushin N. K. (2007) “Cherty bogoslovskogo tvorchestva sviatitelia Innokentiia (Borisova)” [“Features of Theological Creative Work of St. Innokenty (Borisov)”]. In Khristianskoe prosveshchenie i russkaia kul’tura: Materialy 10 nauchno-bogoslovskoi konferentsii [Christian Enlightenment and Russian Culture: Proceedings of the 10th Theological Conference]. Yohkar-Ola, pp. 11–20 (in Russian).
  5. Khondzinskii P. V. (2017) “Antropologiia sviatitelia Feofana Zatvornika i zarozhdenie pervykh personalisticheskikh kontseptsii v russkom bogoslovii” [“Anthropology of St. Theophan the Recluse and the Origin of the First Personalistic Concepts in Russian Theology”]. Vestnik PSTGU. Seriia. I: Bogoslovie. Filosofiia. Religiovedenie, 2017, vol. 70, pp. 11–27 (in Russian)
  6. Khondzinskii P. V. (2017) “Vospriiatie idei I. Kanta v bogoslovskom nasledii svt. Innokentiia (Borisova)” [“The Perception of Ideas of I. Kant in Theological Heritage of St. Innokenty (Borisov)”]. Vestnik PSTGU. Seriia. II: Istoriia, 2017, vol. 74, pp. 94–102 (in Russian).
  7. Lisovoi N. N. (2002) “Obzor osnovnykh napravlenii russkoi bogoslovskoi akademicheskoi nauki v 19 — nachale 20 stoletiia” [“Outline of the Main Directions of the Russian Theologocal Academic Science in the 19th — Early 20th Centuries”]. In Bogoslovskie trudy [Theological Studies], vol. 37. Moscow, pp. 5–127 (in Russian).
  8. Malyshev A. V. (2015) “Uchenie sviatitelia Innokentiia Khersonskogo o Gefsimanskom molenii Spasitelia v kontekste sviatootecheskoi traditsii” [St. Innokenty of Cherson Doctrine of the Savior’s Gethsemane Prayer in the Context of Patristic Tradition”]. Elektronnyi nauchnobogoslovskii zhurnal studentov i aspirantov Bogoslovskogo fakul’teta, 2015, vol. 7, pp. 33–44 (in Russian).
  9. Malyshev A. V. (2016) “Bogoslovie svt. Innokentiia Khersonskogo na primere ego ucheniia o Khriste” [“St. Innokenty’s of Cherson Theology with his Doctrine of Christ as an Example”]. Moskovskie Eparkhial’nye Vedomosti, 2016, vol. 6, pp. 110–113 (in Russian).
  10. Malyshev A. V. (2016) “Vospriiatie Gefsimanskogo moleniia Khrista F. F. Reingardom i svt. Innokentiem Khersonskim” [“Perception of Christ’s Gethsemane Prayer by F.F. Reingard and St. Innokenty of Cherson]. Elektronnyi nauchno-bogoslovskii zhurnal studentov i aspirantov Bogoslovskogo fakul’teta, 2016, vol. 8, pp. 65–73 (in Russian).
  11. Malyshev A. V. (2016) “Gefsimanskoe molenie Khrista v tolkovaniiakh prp. Maksima Ispovednika i svt. Innokentiia Khersonskogo” [“Christ’s Gethsemane Prayer in Interpretations by St. Maximus the Confessor and St. Innokenty of Cherson”], in Materialy VIII mezhdunarodnoi studencheskoi nauchno-bogoslovskoi konferentsii 18–19 maia 2016 [Proceedings of the 8th International Student Theological Conference, 18‒19 May 2016]. St Petersburg, pp. 84–91 (in Russian).
  12. Zelenina Ia. E., Lopukhina E. V. (2009) “Innokentii (Borisov)”, in Pravoslavnaia entsiklopediia [Orthodox Encyclopedia], vol. 22, pp. 686–707 (in Russian).

Information about the author

Malyshev Artem

Student status: Graduate student;
Place of study: St. Tikhon’s Orthodox University for the Humanities; 6/1 Likhov pereulok, Moscow 127051, Russian Federation;
ORCID: 0000-0002-3674-3303;
Email: artema.malishev@gmail.com.