Damte David

Psychology of Religion in Moscow University: Troitsky, Grot, Astaf’ev

Damte David (2016) "Psychology of Religion in Moscow University: Troitsky, Grot, Astaf’ev ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia I : Bogoslovie. Filosofiia. Religiovedenie, 2016, vol. 68, pp. 97-111 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturI201668.97-111


There were two main types of philosophy and psychology of religion in Russia in the late 19th and the early 20th centuries: the fi rst developed in theological academies, while the second — in universities. In this article we explore the latter tradition, addressing the ideas represented in works of Troitsky (1835–1899), Grot (1852–1899) and Astaf†ev (1846–1893). These prominent Russian philosophers worked in Moscow University and were members of Moscow Psychological Society, their works played an important role in the development of philosophy, as well as psychology, which was still at the early stage of its development at the time. We discuss the connection between their general philosophical ideas and their approach to analysis of religion with emphasis on psychological aspects of their conceptions, particularly related to notions of religious feelings and psychological functions of religion as well as their original views on evolution of religious beliefs. Three thinkers whose ideas are examined in the article are unanimous in their understanding of inner experience as the most important (although not the only one) source of religious faith and beliefs. At the same time, the important diff erence between those authors is related to their understanding of sources and forms of manifestation of inner experience. While Troitsky describes association and abstraction as the most important conditions of development of religious consciousness, Grot focuses on feelings as a source of religious worldview, and Astaf'ev develops an original conception of will as a constituent element of religious consciousness.


Russian philosophy, philosophy or religion, psychology of religion in Russia, Troitsky, Grot, Astaf'ev, religious feeling, religious faith


1. Avdeev O. A. Problema lichnosti v russkom konservatizme: N. N. Strakhov, K. N. Leont'ev, P. E. Astaf'ev: Dis. … kand. filos. nauk. Moscow, 2011.
2. Anan'ev B. G. Izbrannye trudy po psikhologii: V 2 t. Saint-Petersburg, 2007. T. 1.
3. Astaf'ev P. E. Vera i znanie v edinstve mirovozzreniia. Moscow, 1893.
4. Berdnikova A. Iu. Neoleibnitsianstvo v Rossii: dva proekta monadologii, in Istoriia filosofii. 2016. № 1. P. 86–95.
5. Gavriushin N. K. Zabytyi russkii myslitel'. K 150-letiiu so dnia rozhdeniia P. E. Astaf'eva, in Voprosy filosofii. 1996. № 12. P. 75–83.
6. Grot N. Ia. Dzhordano Bruno i panteizm: Filosofskii ocherk. Odessa, 1885.
7. Grot N. Ia. O dushe v sviazi s sovremennymi poniatiiami o sile. Odessa, 1886.
8. Grot N. Ia. Poniatiia dushi i psikhicheskoi energii v psikhologii, in Voprosy filosofii i psikhologii. 1897. Year VIII. B. 2 (37). P. 239–300; Year VIII. B. 4 (39). P. 800–811.
9. Grot N. Ia. Psikhologiia chuvstvovanii v ee istorii i glavnykh osnovakh. Saint-Petersburg., 1879–1880.
10. Grot N. Ia. Filosofiia i ee obshchie zadachi. Saint-Petersburg, 1904.
11. Grot N. Ia. Chto takoe metafizika?, in Voprosy filosofii i psikhologii. 1890. Year 1. B. 2. P. 107–128.
12. Zhdan A. N. Istoriia psikhologii. Moscow, 2012.
13. Ivanovskii V. N. K kharakteristike M. M. Troitskogo, in Voprosy filosofii i psikhologii. 1900. Year XI. B. II (52). P. 183–213.
14. Kozyrev A. P. M. M. Troitskii, in Rozanovskaia entsiklopediia / A. N. Nikoliukin, sost., red. Moscow, 2008. P. 1013.
15. Maslin M. A., Chernikov D. Iu. Moskovskoe psikhologicheskoe obshchestvo (personalii, problematika, traditsii), in Istoriko-filosofskii al'manakh. Moscow, 2007. T. 2. P. 247–267.
16. Pavlov A. T. M. M. Troitskii v umstvennoi istorii i filosofskom obrazovanii, in Filosofskaia Rossiia. 2007. № 3. P. 152–171.
17. Pavlov A. T. N. Ia. Grot — professor filosofii Moskovskogo universiteta, in Filosofskie nauki. 2003. № 4. P. 103–116.
18. Pavlov A. T. N. Ia. Grot v Moskovskom universitete, in Vestnik Moskovskogo universiteta. Seriia 7: Filosofiia. 2009. № 5. P. 99–112.
19. Pavlov A. T. Nikolai Iakovlevich Grot, ego mesto v istorii russkoi filosofii, in Voprosy filosofii. 2003. № 10. P. 114–123.
20. Pavlov A. T. Professor filosofii Moskovskogo universiteta Matvei Mikhailovich Troitskii, in Vestnik Moskovskogo universiteta. Seriia 7: Filosofiia. 2003. № 1. P. 55–69.
21. Prasolov M. A. «Vnutrennii opyt — eto ia sam»: problema vnutrennego opyta v filosofii P. E. Astaf'eva, in Vestnik Tambovskogo universiteta. Seriia: Gumanitarnye nauki. 2007. № 6. P. 100–105.
22. Prasolov M. A. Sub"ekt i sushchee v russkom metafizicheskom personalizme. Saint-Petersburg, 2007.
23. Solov'ev V. S. Tri kharakteristiki: M. M. Troitskii — N. Ia. Grot — P. D. Iurkevich // Sobranie sochinenii. Saint-Petersburg, B. g. T. 9. P. 380–397.
24. Troitskii M. M. Nauka o dukhe. Obshchie svoistva i zakony chelovecheskogo dukha. Moscow, 1882. T. 1. P. 119–120.
25. Troitskii M. M. Nemetskaia psikhologiia v tekushchem stoletii: Istoriko-kriticheskoe issledovanie s predvaritel'nym ocherkom uspekhov psikhologii v Anglii so vremen Bekona i Lokka: V 2 t. Moscow, 1867.
26. Chernikov D. Iu. Moskovskoe psikhologicheskoe obshchestvo v istorii russkoi filosofii: Dis. … kand. filos. nauk. Moscow, 2008.

Information about the author

Damte David

Academic Degree: Candidate of Sciences* in Philosophy;
Place of work: Publishing House «Academic Project»;
Email: email: damte_d@mail.ru.

*According to the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) 2011, the degree of Candidate of Sciences (Cand.Sc.) belongs to ISCED level 8 — "doctoral or equivalent", together with PhD, DPhil, D.Lit, D.Sc, LL.D, Doctorate or similar.


Работа выполнена при финансовой поддержке гранта РГНФ, проект No 16-03-00799 «Психология религии в России: XIX — начало XXI век