The paper departs from diﬀering of two modalities of the attitude of the theistic reason to the problem of evil, i.e. building of universally valid explanatonary models (theodicy) and apologies in the particular contexts (defense). The ﬁrst one contradicts to the foundations of theistic world-view inasmuch as the biblical texts persuade one that causes of evil are particular and not universal and are far sometimes to be in the scope of a ﬁnite reason. In addition, logical problems with mutual correlation of the main theodicies are demonstrated. The modality of defense seems much more epistemically justiﬁed and actual, but here by no means all persuasive resources of controversy are used. The author suggests his own answers to some atheistic challenges, in the ﬁ rst place unmasking double standards in the corresponding argumentation unavoidable for any wishful thinking and contraposes to the idea of multitude of gratuitous evils that of inﬁnite profusion of undeserved boons.
evil, boons, suﬀerings, freewill, metaphysics, theodicy, defense, argumentation, wishful thinking, gratitude.
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*According to ISCED 2011, a post-doctoral degree called Doctor of Sciences (D.Sc.) is given to reflect second advanced research qualifications or higher doctorates.
Работа выполнена при финансовой поддержке РГНФ, грант No 15-03-00211 «Метафизи- ка в интеркультурном пространстве: история и современность»