The author discusses a S. N. Bulgakov’s unique approach to the problem of time, consisting of an eﬀort to resolve the problem basing on corollaries from Kant’s antinomy of nature and freedom, as well as on ideas of Schelling. Bulgakov views the time antinomically. It was his reﬂection on the meaning of Kant’s antinomism which led him to posing the problem of time. For the ﬁrst time we ﬁnd him treating this problem in his article Apocalypticism and Socialism, which dealt with antinomy of eschatology and chiliasm. Here also he starts to consider relation of time and eternity through antinomy of nature and freedom. In his Philosophy of Economy the same problem is solved by means of the concept of Sophia as the ontological basis of personality, which unites freedom and nature, the eternal and the temporal. But in his Unfading Light the antinomy of nature and freedom is discussed through diﬀerentiation between negative and positive theology. Bulgakov uses as a synthesizing concept Schelling’s idea of «eternal time» as unity of eternity and time. Thus, despite Bulgakov’s repeated statements about their clear distinction, time and eternity are drawn together. Such an attempt to solve the problem of time raises doubts about the very possibility of freedom.
Sergei Bulgakov, Immanuel Kant, Friedrich Schelling, time, freedom, antinomism, eschatology, chiliasm, eternity, Sophia, apothatic and cataphatic theology.
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