St. Tikhon’s University Review . Series I: Theology. Philosophy. Religious Studies

St. Tikhon’s University Review I :102


Grünert Anna

Corporeal vision and contemplation in the epistemological context: a comparison of the “Homilies on the Psalms” by Origen and saint Basil of Caesarea

Grünert Anna (2022) "Corporeal vision and contemplation in the epistemological context: a comparison of the “Homilies on the Psalms” by Origen and saint Basil of Caesarea ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia I : Bogoslovie. Filosofiia. Religiovedenie, 2022, Iss. 102, pp. 11-28 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturI2022102.11-28
The article considers on the material of the “Homilies on the Psalms” of Origen and saint Basil of Caesarea the use of vocabulary of visual sense in an epistemological context, including the concept of “contemplation”, which goes back to the ancient philosophical tradition. Thus, the aim of the paper is to explain the philosophical meaning of this concept as the highest stage on the path of knowledge as well as its place in the epistemological systems of both authors. On the basis of the description of cognitive processes by early Christian writers we discovered a number of patterns in the composition of the semantic field of vision as the sense that participates in the act of knowledge. At the same time, our study demonstrates that the use of both the concept of “contemplation” and the vocabulary of visual sense partially fits into the philosophical division of the neoplatonic curriculum: while the study by bodily vision of the sensuous world created by God is associated with physics, the contemplation as a study of the supersensuous world by supersensory vision is associated with epoptics. However, in the explanations we have examined, these three steps are never mentioned in a row, in contrast to other texts where Origen and saint Basil follow the scheme of ethics-physics-epoptics. As texts that serves as the basis for comparing the Christian reception of the vocabulary of visual sense in patristic literature of the 3rd and 4th centuries AD we choosed not only the exegetic sermons of individual psalms by Origen and saint Basil of Caesarea, but also a selection of other texts of the same authors representing relevant parallels in their use of vocabulary of visual sense. From the point of view of its scientific relevance, this study is also important because it shows the dependence of the “Homilies on the Psalms” by saint Basil of Caesarea upon the “Homilies on the Psalms” by Origen discovered in 2012 in the Codex Monacensis Graecus 314.
epistemology, late antique philosophy, neoplatonism, patristic philosophy, saint Basil of Caesarea, contemplation, explanations on the Psalms
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Grünert Anna

Student status: Graduate student;
Student status: Graduate student;
Academic Rank: Professor;
Place of study: HSE University; Moscow, Russia;
ORCID: 0000-0001-5301-0518;
Email: gruna7@gmail.com.
Khondzinskii Pavel, archpriest

Émile Mersch and theology of the russian diaspora

Khondzinskii Pavel (2022) "Émile Mersch and theology of the russian diaspora ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia I : Bogoslovie. Filosofiia. Religiovedenie, 2022, Iss. 102, pp. 29-49 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturI2022102.29-49
In 1933 the Catholic scholar Emile Mersch published his work “The Mystical Body of Christ” (Le Corps mystique du Christ), in which the concept of the “mystical body” was traced from early Christian times to the beginning of the 20th century. Having paid tribute to Eastern fathers, Mersch believed that this concept reaches its final synthesis in the works of the “French school” authors in the 17th century, where the concept of personal mystical unity with Christ, dating back to the Rhine mystics, is combined with the idea of St. Cyril of Alexandria and St. Hilary of Pictavia of the “natural” unity of the Church in the Eucharist. Mersch considered this synthesis to be a complete expression of St. Augustine’s teachings of the Church as the “total Christ” (the whole Christ) - totus Christus. Some authors of the diaspora paid their attention to the Mersch’s monography. M. Lot-Borodina wrote a review to this work. Fr. Sergey Bulgakov used this work as a source of the references to blessed Augustine. But it was Fr. Georges Florovsky who treated this work most thoughtfully. In the description of his response to the Mersch’s work, we need to remember that initially Fr. Georges based on the position, which was formed in Russian theology by representatives of “new theology” at the beginning of the 20th century, first of all – the position of metropolitan Antony (Khrapovitsky). This position was characterized by the constitution of the unity of the Church on the moral rather than Eucharistic level. The moral level was regarded, because of the personalistic concept of the mutual transparency of persons, as a natural unity. The article traces the gradual evolution of Fr. Georges’s views from the above concept, through an attempt to combine the teaching of totus Christus with the teaching of metropolitan Anthony, to the unambiguously expressed Christological emphasis in ecclesiology. As a result, Florovsky's late ecclesiology reveals a certain closeness to the ecclesiology of the French school, and hence to Mersch’s general conceptual conclusions.
E.Mersch, father Georges Florovsky, metropolitan Antony Khrapovitsky, blessed Augustine, French school of the 17th century, cardinal Berulle, ecclesiology, Christology, totus Christus
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  16. Mersch É. (1933) Le Corps mystique du Christ. Louvain, t. 1–2.
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Khondzinskii Pavel, archpriest

Academic Degree: Doctor of Theology;
Academic Rank: Associate Professor;
Place of work: St. Tikhon’s Orthodox University for the Humanities; 6/1 Likhov pereulok, Moscow 127051, Russian Federation;
Post: Dean of Faculty of Theology;
ORCID: 0000-0001-9805-045X;
Email: paulum@mail.ru.
Funding: The reported study was funded by RFBR, project number 21-011-44125\21 "Latin Ecclesiastical Tradition of the 4th - 7th centuries in the Modern Scientific and Theological Context".


Grishina Elena

Leo Tolstoy in the Dialectic of B. P. Vysheslavtsev

Grishina Elena (2022) "Leo Tolstoy in the Dialectic of B. P. Vysheslavtsev ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia I : Bogoslovie. Filosofiia. Religiovedenie, 2022, Iss. 102, pp. 53-69 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturI2022102.53-69
The author tries to reconstruct the philosophical dialogue between B. P. Vysheslavtsev and L. N. Tolstoy. Since the beliefs of these thinkers on philosophical, legal, religious and socio-economic issues are at first glance opposite, the article examines both their differences and their similarities. The author examines the texts in which Tolstoy is mentioned, analyzes the context and identifies a number of ideas that could help in studying the worldview of both philosophers and the problems they raise. At first glance, Vysheslavtsev's Tolstoy themes are collected in the field of philosophy of law, but a deeper discussion allows us to see that these themes have religious motives. The significance of the figure of P. I. Novgorodtsev in the formation of Vysheslavtsev as a dialectic. The philosopher draws a monumental image of Tolstoy, at the same time noting the naivety of his decisions and trying to comprehend the objective reasons for his rebellion. In this regard, the reasons for the uprising of Vysheslavtsev himself, who actively opposed all kinds of totalitarianism and violent social actions, become more understandable and justified. In his opinion, power can only be justified by a transition to a completely different existential state, that is, into a state of relative anarchy. Such a state of socio-political structures is "law" and "democracy" (a phenomenon opposite to "dictatorship"). Vysheslavtsev reflects on the antinomy of the absolute and the relative and comes to the conclusion, that the absolute can only be realized in relative forms in the relative. However, the absolute is not only an idea that drives a person on the path of self-improvement and social development, but also the Highest element of human nature, on the basis of which, according to the Christian promise, the divine dispensation of life is formed. The realization of the idea of personal morality requires a properly organized state. Such a state, in his opinion, is quite possible. However, analyzing the complexity of Moderna, summing up the results of the last period of the development of industrial culture (the 50s of the XX century), the philosopher declares a very disappointing result, which, however, does not deprive him of optimism about the ways to find new constructive solutions.
Vysheslavtsev, Tolstoy, Novgorodtsev, antinomy, law, power, Christian anarchism
  1. Evlampiev I. (2018) “‘Anarkhizm’ L. N. Tolstogo i ego vozmozhnye fi losofskie osnovaniia” [“Anarchism” of L. N. Tolstoy and its possible philosophical foundations], in Russkaia literatura i filosofiia: puti vzaimodeistviia [Russian literature and philosophy: ways of interaction], Moscow, pp. 180–195 (in Russian).
  2. Solntseva N. (2017) “Vysheslavtsev Boris Petrovich”, in A. Kling, A. Kholikov (eds) Russkie lite raturovedy XX veka: biobibliografi cheskii slovar′ [Russian literary critics of the 20th century: biobibliographical dictionary], vol. 1: A–L, Moscow; St. Petersburg, pp. 212–213 (in Russian).
  3. Tabakov A. (2017) “‘Spravedlivost′’ i pravo: nekotorye aspekty sootnosheniia v russkoi fi losofi i prava vtoroi poloviny XIX — pervoi poloviny XX veka” [“Justice” and law: some aspects of the correlation in the Russian philosophy of law of the second half of the 19th — fi rst half of the 20th centuries]. Vestnik Moskovskogo universiteta. Seriia 11: Pravo, no. 3, pp. 88–97 (in Russian).
  4. Vysheslavtsev B. (1929) Khristianstvo i sotsial′nyi vopros [Christianity and the social issue]. Paris; Warsaw (in Russian).
  5. Vysheslavtsev B. (1923) Russkaia stikhiia u Dostoevskogo [The Russian element in Dostoevsky]. Berlin (in Russian).
  6. Vysheslavtsev B. (1924) “Religiia i bezreligioznost′” [Religion and irreligiousness], in Problemy russkogo religioznogo soznaniia. Sbornik statei [Issues in Russian religious consciousness. Collection of articles], Berlin, pp. 7–52 (in Russian).
  7. Vysheslavtsev B. (1926) “Dva puti sotsial′nogo dvizheniia” [Two ways of social movement]. Put′, no. 4, pp. 127–138 (in Russian).
  8. Vysheslavtsev B. (1928) “Lev Tolstoy”, in A. Cherny, V. Zenkovsky (eds) Russkaia zemlia: al′manakh dlia iunoshestva [Land of Russia: an almanac for young people], Paris, pp. 91–95 (in Russian).
  9. Vysheslavtsev B. (1934) “Problema vlasti i ee religioznyi smysl” [The problem of power and its religious meaning]. Put′, no. 42, pp. 3–21 (in Russian).
  10. Vysheslavtsev B. (1938) “Obraz Bozhii v grekhopadenii” [The image of God in the fall of man]. Put′, no. 55, pp. 24–40 (in Russian).
  11. Vysheslavtsev B. (1940) “Bogoostavlennost′” [Godforsakenness]. Put′, no. 61, pp. 15–21 (in Russian).
  12. Vysheslavtsev B. (1994) Etika preobrazhennogo Erosa [Ethics of the transformed Eros]. Moscow (in Russian).
  13. Vysheslavtsev B. (1994) Vechnoe v russkoi filosofii [The eternal in Russian philosophy]. Moscow (in Russian).
  14. Vysheslavtsev B. (1995) “Krizis industrial′noi kul′tury” [Crisis of industrial culture], in V. Sapov (ed.) Sochineniia [Works], Moscow, pp. 181–434 (in Russian).
  15. Vysheslavtsev B. (1995) “Russkii natsional′nyi kharakter” [Russian national character]. Voprosy filosofii, no. 6, pp. 111–122 (in Russian).

Grishina Elena

Student status: Graduate student;
Place of study: St. Tikhon’s Orthodox University for the Humanities; Moscow, Russia;
ORCID: 0000-0002-9214-1024;
Email: abameleck@yandex.ru.


Burmistrov Konstantin

Mystical vision and its evaluation in the Russian freemasonry of the late 18th — early 19th century

Burmistrov Konstantin (2022) "Mystical vision and its evaluation in the Russian freemasonry of the late 18th — early 19th century ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia I : Bogoslovie. Filosofiia. Religiovedenie, 2022, Iss. 102, pp. 73-86 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturI2022102.73-86
In the richest manuscript heritage of Russian freemasons, who lived two centuries ago, there are numerous descriptions of various mystical experiences. These are visions and mystical dreams in which beings from the other world appeared, as well as deliberately evoked mystical states by which an adept attempts to penetrate into the other world. For censorship reasons, this aspect of the activities of Russian brothers practically did not go beyond the narrow circle of initiates. The article will attempt to present the main types of mystical experience reflected in the manuscripts of Russian freemasons – mostly diaries and correspondence. The most valuable information of this kind is contained in so-called “Masonic dreams”. These stories constitute a special genre of Masonic literature and preserved in a significant number of manuscripts. They were based on the idea of a special inner, spiritual vision, which has an adept and which allows him to achieve clairvoyance. Masonic dreams contain a significant amount of details related both to the Masonic ritual and symbolic decoration of the premises of Masonic lodges, and to those practices of moral self-improvement that are important for the Masonic path. Russian freemasons paid considerable attention to the problem of evaluating such experience – is it a gift from the divine essences or a temptation sent by demonic forces? The question of the significance of such an experience was also important: is it an accidental consequence of Masonic work, a hindrance on the way, or, on the contrary, a kind of confirmation of progress in following the Masonic path? The Orthodox Church, to which the Russian freemasons belonged, is extremely negative about such forms of mysticism. Therefore, they were forced to seek explanations for such phenomena in Catholic and Protestant mysticism, as well as in the European esoteric tradition. The article attempts to answer these questions, based on the analysis of a wide range of Masonic manuscripts of the 18th - early 19th centuries, preserved in the families of Russian Masons and today located in the Moscow archives.
dreams, dream records, psychology, Russian freemasonry, Masonic ritual, visions, predictions, paranormal states of consciousness
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Burmistrov Konstantin

Academic Degree: Candidate of Sciences* in Philosophy;
Place of work: Institute of Philosophy, Russian Academy of Sciences; 12/1 Goncharnaia Str., Moscow 109240, Russian Federation;
Post: senior researcher;
ORCID: 0000-0003-0687-2531;
Email: kburmistrov@hotmail.com.

*According to the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) 2011, the degree of Candidate of Sciences (Cand.Sc.) belongs to ISCED level 8 — "doctoral or equivalent", together with PhD, DPhil, D.Lit, D.Sc, LL.D, Doctorate or similar.

Zabaev Ivan

Humility and mutuality: an analysis of ethos of contemporary Russian orthodoxy

Zabaev Ivan (2022) "Humility and mutuality: an analysis of ethos of contemporary Russian orthodoxy ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia I : Bogoslovie. Filosofiia. Religiovedenie, 2022, Iss. 102, pp. 87-116 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturI2022102.87-116
The article considers humility as one of the key categories in the practical ethos of Russian Orthodoxy. Sociological and theological problems related to this category are discussed and formulated. The main emphasis is on the analysis of the relationship in the pair "the one who humbles - the one who gives humility". The formulation of the problem of humility in this form is not obligatory, but it is precisely this problem that has received a certain spread in Orthodox discourse today. The reduction of the fullness of the problem to such a configuration of relations leaves many important subjects out of consideration, but at the same time allows us to concentrate on one problematic point noted in modern Orthodox discourse.To discuss the logic of the ethics of humility was chosen the following text - "Asceticism according to Orthodox Christian teaching" by S. Zarin. On its basis, the dominant interpretation is described – "humility as acceptance of humiliation." Relying on texts discussing humility both inside and outside the Church, the author shows that one of the central virtues of Russian Orthodoxy is embodied in such a practice, which has a number of "ambiguous" consequences.At the same time, the author points out the deep rootedness of the category of humility in Orthodox ethics and suggests turning to the texts of the New Testament in search of a nuance in the understanding of humility and suggestions for the embodiment of this virtue in practice, capable of minimizing these ambiguous consequences. This nuance – mutuality – the author finds in the Epistles of the st. Paul. By analyzing the meaning of humility and the use of this concept in the text of the epistles of the apostle, the importance of recmutuality of actors entering into interaction is shown.In conclusion, the presence of such an interpretation in the Russian Orthodox tradition, namely in the texts of Theophanes the Recluse, is discussed. Thus, the assumption is substantiated that such an interpretation is not alien to the Orthodox worldview. The author suggests that the emphasis on mutuality in understanding and practicing humility could help to remove a number of negative effects that are fixed today (and were fixed earlier) both inside and outside the Church.
Apostle Paul, Orthodox ethics, humility, mutuality, reciprocity, social relations, S. Zarin, Theophan the Recluse
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Zabaev Ivan

Academic Degree: Candidate of Sciences* in Sociology;
Place of work: St. Tikhon’s Orthodox University for the Humanities; 6/1 Likhov pereulok, Moscow 127051, Russian Federation;
Post: Associate professor of the Theological Faculty;
ORCID: 0000-0001-9876-9093;
Email: zabaev-iv@yandex.ru.

*According to the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) 2011, the degree of Candidate of Sciences (Cand.Sc.) belongs to ISCED level 8 — "doctoral or equivalent", together with PhD, DPhil, D.Lit, D.Sc, LL.D, Doctorate or similar.


Kolmakova Maria

“Militant baptism” as evaluated by a group of researchers for the Propaganda and agitation department of the Central Committee of the Soviet Union Communist Party

Kolmakova Maria (2022) "“Militant baptism” as evaluated by a group of researchers for the Propaganda and agitation department of the Central Committee of the Soviet Union Communist Party ", Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia I : Bogoslovie. Filosofiia. Religiovedenie, 2022, Iss. 102, pp. 119-144 (in Russian).

DOI of the paper: 10.15382/sturI2022102.119-144
Draft document, currently stored in a single copy in the personal fund of A.I. Klibanov in the Archive of the Russian Academy of Sciences, is published in the article. The document consists of 31 sheets of typewritten text, prepared in June 1966 by a group of scientists (A.I. Klibanov, P.K. Kurochkin, L.N. Mitrokhin, E.G. Filimonov and G.S. Lyalina) for the Propaganda and Agitation Department of the Central Committee of the Soviet Union Communist Party. The authors analyze a lot of material, on the basis of which the first part of the document gives an assessment of the internal schism taking place in the Soviet Baptist Church. A special narrative is given to the activities of Council of Churches of Evangelical Christians-Baptists (CC ECB) and its May protest action, held in the center of Moscow, in which several hundred believers took part. Emphasizing the anti-Soviet sentiments among the followers of the SC ECB, the authors of the document refer to this religious organization first as a «militant church», and later clarify this name in the form «militant Baptism». In the final part, the document contains nine constructive proposals to suppress the conflict between the CC ECB and the state, as well as to normalize interaction between the authorities and various religious organizations. The surviving copy of the document has several losses that could not be replenished. Attempts to find a complete document in various archives and personal funds did not bring any result. Parts of the published document have become the basis for a number of books, pamphlets and articles written by members of the research group who prepared the document. The May protest action and the document published in this article played an important role in the publication of the entire popular science publishing series «Library “Modern Religions”».
Baptism, Council of Churches of Evangelical Christian Baptists, 1966 May 16–17, Klibanov Alexander Ilyich, Kurochkin Pavel Konstantinovich, Mitrokhin Lev Nikolaevich, Filimonov Eduard Gennadievich, Lyalina Galina Sergeevna
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Kolmakova Maria

Academic Degree: Candidate of Sciences* in Philosophy;
Place of work: Herzen State Pedagogical University; St. Petersburg, Russia;
Post: 197046 г. Санкт-Петербург, ул. Малая Посадская, д. 26;
ORCID: 0000-0002-2859-7473;
Email: kolmakovamv@yandex.ru.

*According to the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) 2011, the degree of Candidate of Sciences (Cand.Sc.) belongs to ISCED level 8 — "doctoral or equivalent", together with PhD, DPhil, D.Lit, D.Sc, LL.D, Doctorate or similar.

The reported study was funded by RFBR, project number № 19–311–60008 "The science of religion in the USSR in the 70-80s. of ХХ century : historical bibliographic research"


Nyebolszin Antal Gergely

Rev. of Keener C. S. Acts. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2020. XVIII + 699 p.

Nyebolszin Antal Gergely (2022) Rev. of Keener C. S. Acts. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2020. XVIII + 699 p., Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia I : Bogoslovie. Filosofiia. Religiovedenie, 2022, Iss. 102, pp. 147-151 (in Russian).


Nyebolszin Antal Gergely

Academic Degree: Doctor of Theology;
Place of work: St. Tikhon’s Orthodox University for the Humanities; 6/1 Likhov pereulok, Moscow 127051, Russian Federation;
ORCID: 0000-0002-0037-8674;
Email: gyula@mail.ru.
Reshchikova Elizaveta

Between theology and psychology: pastoral psychology in transitional spaces — Rev. of M. Klessmann. Theologie und Psychologie im Dialog: Einführung in die Pastoralpsychologie. Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 2021. 319 s.

Reshchikova Elizaveta (2022) "Between theology and psychology: pastoral psychology in transitional spaces". Rev. of M. Klessmann. Theologie und Psychologie im Dialog: Einführung in die Pastoralpsychologie. Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 2021. 319 s., Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia I : Bogoslovie. Filosofiia. Religiovedenie, 2022, Iss. 102, pp. 152-158 (in Russian).


Reshchikova Elizaveta

Place of work: Ecclesiastical Institutions Research Laboratory, St. Tikhon’s Orthodox University for the Humanities, 6/1 Likhov pereulok, Moscow 127051, Russian Federation;
Post: Research assistant;
ORCID: 0000-0002-4729-2552;
Email: volkovalisa@yandex.ru.