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Янушкявичене О. Л. Джеймс Фаулер о психологии развития веры // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия IV: Педагогика. Психология. 2015. Вып. 1 (36). С. 95-101. DOI: 10.15382/sturIV201536.95-101
This paper deals with the experimental study of the faith by James Fowler. Fowler developed techniques and he collected a wealth of experimental data, which represent a significant potential for researchers to the development of the religious identity of the person. James Fowler's study are based on the works of E. Erickson, L. Kohlberg, J. Piaget. Based on 359 interviews, Fowler postulated sequence of six discrete stages of development of the faith, which are gradually being built at an earlier stage. For each of the stages Fowler developed multidimensional measurement, highlighting the seven constituent aspects. Stage of relative stability interspersed with periods of transition, during which one or more aspects of belief change in its form, until all aspects not move into a new, stable stage.
James Fowler, Stages of Faith Development, religious identity of the person, interviews, issues, transition periods

1. Janushkjavichene O. L. 2005 “«Chto est' chelovek, chto Ty pomnish' ego», ili Glavnaja zadacha kazhdogo vozrastnogo perioda zhizni cheloveka” (“What Is Human, that You Remember Him”, or Main Objective of Every Age Period of Human Life), in Materialy Ezhegodnoj Bogoslovskoj konferencii PSTBI, Moscow, 2005, pp. 134–145.
2. Astley J. 2000 “On Gaining and Losing Faith with Style: A Study of Post-Modernity and or Confusion among College Students”, in Francis L. J. and Katz Y. J. (eds.) Joining and Leaving Religion: Research Perspectives, Leominster, 2000, pp. 249–268.
3. Kohlberg L. 1969 “Stage and Sequence: The Cognitive Developmental Approach to Socialization”, in Handbook of Socialization Theory and Research, Chicago, 1969, pp. 347–480.
4. Parks S. The Critical Years: The Young Adult Search for a Faith to Live by, San Francisco, 1986.
5. Piaget J. Six Psychological Studies, New York, 1967.
Ianushkiavichene Ol'ga
Янушкявичене О. Л., Смекалина Н. В. Влияние дистанционного образования на развитие коммуникативных умений младших школьников // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия IV: Педагогика. Психология. 2021. Вып. 61. С. 44-56. DOI: 10.15382/sturIV202161.44-56
The article is devoted to the study of the infl uence of distance learning on the development of children’s communication skills. The conducted theoretical research revealed that the majority of authors associate this process with “communication”, “understanding of the other”, “non-verbal interaction”, “dialogue” and “text”. Since non-verbal communication channels practically do not work in distance learning, it was assumed that the development of communication skills in this case is complicated. It was also suggested that the eff ectiveness of communication in distance learning can be achieved through working with text, and the situation with understanding the meaning of the text in a modern school was analysed. An experimental study of the issue was carried out in the form of a survey of teachers and parents of children. The results of the survey made it possible to draw some conclusions as to the problem of the impact of distance learning on the development of communication skills of students. It was found that the skills of non-verbal communication are lost; written and oral speech issimplified; more abbreviations are used, thought is formed by simple sentences, the use of language expressions is reduced, comparisons are simplifi ed; skills of writing, spelling are lost; the desire to be a leader interferes with self-control; the ability to listen and give in to others is lost; dependence on “likes” appears; tolerance depends on the distance society in which the student lives; the skills of fi nding the necessary information from various sources, except the Internet, are reduced; the collective breaks up into interest groups, which are sometimes located in a parallel distance space; self-control decreases due to distracting “pop-up bright windows”.
distance learning, communication skills, communication, understanding of the other, non-verbal interaction, dialogue, text
  1. Antonova E. S. (2007) Metodika prepodavanij a russkogo iazyka: kommunikativno-deiatel'nostnyi podkhod: uchebnoe posobie [Methods of teaching the Russian language: communicativeactivity approach: a textbook]. Moscow (in Russian).
  2. Asmolov A. G. (2008) Kak proektirovat’ UUD v nachal'noi shkole [How to design universal learning activities in primary school]. Moscow (in Russian).
  3. Bolotova A. K. (2019) “Vremia i neverbal'nye vzaimodejstviia v kommunikativnom dialoge” [Time and non-verbal interactions in communicative dialogue], in Cross-Cultural Studies: Education and Science [Cross-Cultural Studies: Education and Science], vol. 4, issue 2, pp. 48–55 (in Russian).
  4. Brudnyi A. A. (1998) Psikhologicheskaia germenevtika [Psychological hermeneutics]. Moscow (in Russian).
  5. Gladchenko V. E. (2013) “Kommunikativnye umeniia: podkhody i klassifi katsii” [Communicative skills: approaches and classifi cations]. Kul'turnaja zhizn' Iuga Rossii, vol. 2 (49), pp. 84–85 (in Russian).
  6. Konyuhov D., Yanushkyavichiene O. L. (2012) “Obretenie smyslov” [Finding meanings]. Vestnik PSTGU. Ser. IV: Pedagogika. Psikhologiia, 2012, vol. 2 (25), pp. 80–87 (in Russian). Mudrik A. V. (2001) Obshhenie v protsesse vospitaniia [Communication in the process of education]. Moscow (in Russian).
  7. Mkrtchyan M. A. (2005) “Ideologicheskie osnovy kollektivnogo sposoba obucheniia” [Ideological foundations of the collective way of teaching], in Teoriia i tekhnologiia kollektivnykh uchebnykh zaniatii. Nachal’nyi kurs: distantsionnoe uchebnoe posobie [Theory and technology of collective training sessions. Initial course: distance learning aid]. Krasnoiarsk (in Russian).
  8. Parygin B. D. (1999) Social'naia psikhologiia. Problemy metodologii, istorii i teorii [Social psychology. Problems of methodology, history and theory]. St. Petersburg (in Russian).
  9. Somkova O. N. (2017) Obrazovatel'naia oblast’ “Rechevoe razvitie”. Kak rabotat’ po programme “Detstvo”: uchebno-metodicheskoe posobie [Educational area “Speech development”. How to work in the “Childhood” programme: a teaching aid]. St. Petersburg (in Russian).
  10. Uhls Т. Y., Michikyan M., Morris J., Garcia D., Small G. W., Zgourou E., Greenfi eld P. M. (2014) Five days at outdoor education camp without screens improves preteen skills with nonverbal emotion cues Computers in Human Behavior, vol. 39, pp. 387–392.
  11. Voskoboinikov A. Ye. (2006) “Monolog o Dialoge i Ponimanii” [“Monologue about Dialogue and Understanding”]. Znanie. Ponimanie. Umenie, vol. 1, pp. 22–27 (in Russian).
  12. Zapiataia O. V. (2013) Diagnostika sformirovannosti kommunikativnykh umenii uchebnykh deistvii u mladshikh shkol'nikov [Diagnostics of the formation of communicative skills of educational actions in younger students]. Volgograd (in Russian).
  13. Zolotarev D. A., Beliko T. V. (2011) “Sravnitel'nyi analiz osobennostei vospriiatiia teksta na bumazhnom nositele i v interaktivnoj srede” [Comparative analysis of the peculiarities of perception of text on paper and in an interactive environment]. Izvestiia Samarskogo nauchnogo tsentra Rossiiskoi akademii nauk, vol. 2 (1), book 13, pp. 215–220 (in Russian).
Yanushkevichene Оlga
Academic Degree: Doctor of Sciences* in Education;
Academic Degree: Doctor of Sciences* in Physical and Mathematical Sciences;
Academic Rank: Professor;
Place of work: St. Tikhon’s Orthodox University for Humanities; 6/1 Likhov per., Moscow 127051, Russian Federation;
Post: profesor;
ORCID: 0000-0002-5362-0073;
Email: olgjan@mail.ru. *According to ISCED 2011, a post-doctoral degree called Doctor of Sciences (D.Sc.) is given to reflect second advanced research qualifications or higher doctorates.
Smekalina Natalia
Student status: Graduate student;
Place of study: St. Tikhon’s Orthodox University for Humanities; 6/1 Likhov per., Moscow 127051, Russian Federation;
ORCID: 0000-0001-5483-4084;
Email: festival-nata@mail.ru.
Янушкявичене О. Л. К вопросу об обучении студентов преподаванию православной культуры // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия IV: Педагогика. Психология. 2022. Вып. 66. С. 47-55. DOI: 10.15382/sturIV202266.47-55
The article is devoted to the study of the issue of learning students the teaching of Orthodox culture. The issue of goal-setting in the teaching of Orthodox culture, as well as the issue of the content of the lesson of Orthodox culture, is considered. The study showed that the Federal State Educational Standard singles out spiritual and moral education and the formation of the value-semantic sphere of the individual as one of the most important goals. The risks that may arise in the situation of the formation of the value-semantic sphere of children were analyzed. The inadmissibility of violating the freedom of the child and any kind of violence in matters of the spiritual and moral development of students was emphasized. The essence of the culturological approach in teaching Orthodox culture is considered. It is emphasized that the core of the culturological approach is the goal of acquiring a value-semantic core by students. The conformity of the content of the lesson of Orthodox culture with the age specificity of students is analyzed. It is noted that in the 4th grade the thinking of children is visual-figurative. The image of God cannot be anthropomorphic; a child can perceive God only in His manifestations in relation to a person. Fifth graders enter adolescence and rethink everything. The themes of the origin of our world, the creation of man, the immortal soul, and the like are becoming topical again. Sixth graders are looking for a role model. Therefore, it is important for students of the 6th grade to get acquainted with bright moral personalities. Also in the 6th grade it is important to give students a feel for the Orthodox understanding of time, which is characterized by the existence of Eternity. 7th grade - the time of the formation of self-consciousness. At this age, it is advisable to give a course aimed at the student himself, at his internal problems. For the 8th grade, the content of an integrated nature is interesting: for example, the integration of Orthodox culture and literature. In the 9th grade, the search for one's life path begins, thoughts about the profession. Also important to consider are issues of relationships between representatives of different sexes and family issues.
value-semantic sphere of personality, training of future teachers, Orthodox culture, purpose of the lesson, content of the lesson, age characteristics, spiritual and moral education
  1. Divnogortseva S. Yu., Ageeva A. V. “Methods of teaching the course “Fundamentals of Orthodox Culture”: Textbook / S. Yu. Divnogortseva, A. V. Ageeva. - M.: Publishing House of PSTGU, 2017. - 176 p.
  2. Divnogortseva S. Yu. Methods of teaching Orthodox culture as a new area of ​​didactic science // Vestnik PSTGU IV: Pedagogy. Psychology 2015. Issue. 2 (37). pp. 89–97.
  3. Exemplary work program for the subject area "Fundamentals of Religious Cultures and Secular Ethics". https://edsoo.ru/Primernie_workochie_progra.htm
  4. Seryapina L.V., Romanova E.Yu. The importance of reading in the context of the formation of figurative thinking in adolescents. https://cyberleninka.ru/article/n/znachimost-chteniya-v-kontekste-formirovaniya-obraznogo-myshleniya-u-podrostkov
  5. Sklyarova T. V. Theory and methods of teaching Orthodox culture at school // Vestnik PSTGU. Ser. IV: Pedagogy. Psychology. 2012. Issue. 4 (27). pp. 7–12.
  6. Urbanovich L. N. Teaching Orthodox culture in the concept of a cultural approach: from ideological design to practical implementation // Bulletin of the Russian Christian Academy for the Humanities. - Volume 18. Issue 3, 2017
  7. Federal State Standard of Primary General Education. https://www.garant.ru/products/ipo/prime/doc/400807193/
  8. YanushkevichieneO. On the age characteristics of children and the methodology of teaching the foundations of Orthodox culture // Education. - M, 2004. - No. 9. - p. 9-17
  9. YanushkevichieneO. On the methodology of teaching Orthodox culture // Integration of secular and religious education in Russian and international practice in the context of the development of the cultural and educational environment: Proceedings of the international scientific and practical conference (May 15-16, 2014) / ed. L.N. Urbanovich.
  10. YanushkevichieneO. Features of the methods of teaching Orthodox culture // Orthodox education and spiritual and moral education at school: theoretical aspects and practical experience. Smolensk, 2014 - S. 34-38.
  11. Yanushkevichiene O.Methodology of teaching Orthodox Culture // Orthodox education, 1 (11), 2015, pp. 56-63
  12. YanushkevichieneO. The problem of choosing teaching methods in the lessons of the course "Fundamentals of Orthodox Culture" // Actual problems of methods of teaching Orthodox culture. Collective monograph. - M., Ed. PSTGU, 2016
  13. Yanushkevichiene O., Vasechko Yu.S., Archpriest Viktor Dorofeev and others. Fundamentals of Religious Cultures and Secular Ethics: Fundamentals of Orthodox Culture: A Textbook for Grade 4 of General Educational Organizations. - M., "Russian Word", 2018, 160 p.
Yanushkevichiene Оlga
Academic Degree: Doctor of Sciences* in Education;
Academic Degree: Doctor of Sciences* in Physical and Mathematical Sciences;
Academic Rank: Professor;
Place of work: St. Tikhon’s Orthodox University for Humanities; 6/1 Likhov per., Moscow 127051, Russian Federation;
Post: profesor;
ORCID: 0000-0002-5362-0073;
Email: olgjan@mail.ru. *According to ISCED 2011, a post-doctoral degree called Doctor of Sciences (D.Sc.) is given to reflect second advanced research qualifications or higher doctorates.