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Шкаровский М. В. Создание и деятельность Ленинградских Богословско-пастырских курсов в 1944 -1945 гг // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия II: История. История Русской Православной Церкви. 2015. Вып. 2 (63). С. 121-139. DOI: 10.15382/sturII201563.121-139
After violent anti-religious persecution of the Russian Church began to emerge in the period of the great Patriotic war. With the renewal of Church life was closely connected with the revival in the “Northern capital” liquidated by the Soviet authorities in 1928 spiritual education. The merit of recreation on the banks of the Neva theological school belongs, first of all, the Metropolitan of Leningrad and Novgorod Grigoriy (Chukov) — former rector of the Petrograd Theological Institute. The Lord has implemented a succession of new theological school with the old, destroyed in the 1920s, retaining many of the best of the old traditions revived in Theological schools. It was he who made the discovery in 1945, in the “Northern capital” Theological-pastoral courses. on September 28, the Leningrad Executive Committee took the decision to transfer courses part of the building of the former Petrograd Theological Seminary, and on November 22, 1945, a solemn opening of a new Spiritual school. General management courses belonged to the Metropolitan Grigoriy, who wrote a special provision about them, developed curriculum, picked up the teaching staff . Head of courses, taught 6 people, and studied 24 pupil, was Archpriest Nikolay Lomakin. July 1, 1946, the Holy Synod decided on the organization of the Leningrad Theological Academy and the transformation of the Theological-pastoral courses “Northern capital” in Seminary, which soon began to work successfully. In the theological schools of the city on the Neva Metropolitan Grigoriy sought to attract the best surviving after the repression of the Church staff that he largely succeeded. And significant role in the revival of the Academy and Seminary played pop experience Theological-pastoral courses.
Russian Orthodox Church, the Leningrad Theological-pastoral courses, theological schools, Metropolitan Grigoriy (Chukov).
Веденеев Д. В., Шкаровский М. В. Репрессивные акции органов государственной безопасности против общин ≪Истинно Православной Церкви≫ в Украинской ССР (1944–1953 гг.) // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия II: История. История Русской Православной Церкви. 2016. Вып. 2 (69). С. 49-65. DOI: 10.15382/sturII201669.49-65
In the article on the basis of unknown scientific community documents of the Soviet state security bodies provides an analysis of the objectives and key areas of operational work and repressive actions of the security services communities against True Orthodox Church (TOC) in the Ukrainian SSR in 1944–1953. The characteristic of agent and operational developments NKGB–MGB–KGB of the USSR against the so-called «catacomb Church», as a form of religious and social protest against aggressive atheistic policy of the Communist authorities, infringement of the rights of believers. The basic forms and methods of intelligence and operational activities of the security organs, aimed at creating informer positions in the environment of the communities of the TOC, making the split in the ranks of the adepts of secret religious sects, the collection of «compromising material» as the basis for the application of harsh repressive measures against the movement of the TOC. The authors pay special attention to the organization and personnel of units of the NKGB–MGB–KGB, engaged, according to the terminology, «the struggle with the Church-sectarian counterrevolution» and «Church-monarchist underground», a leading representative of which was considered in the TOC, particularly active in Chernihiv, Sumy, and Kharkiv oblasts of the Ukrainian SSR and the Donbass, and also in the neighboring regions of the Russian black soil region and the North Caucasus. Given the author’s periodization of the development of the catacomb movement, highlights the historical conditions of its creation and release in the USSR. Through the prism of intelligence documents examines the liturgical aspect of the TOC, its governing structure, forms of secrecy and concealment from the prosecution authorities, the position of the catacomb members in relation to social life and social structure in the USSR.
repression, religious opposition, «True Orthodox Church», the state security organs, social protest.

1. Alekseev V., Stavru F. 1981 “Russkaja Pravoslavnaja Cerkov' na okkupirovannoj nemcami territorii” (Russian Orthodox Church on the Territory Occupied by Germans), in Russkoe Vozrozhdenie, 1981, vol. 16.
2. Andreev I. O polozhenii Pravoslavnoj Cerkvi v Sovetskom Sojuze. Katakombnaja Cerkov' v SSSR (About Position of the Orthodox Church in Soviet Union. Catacomb Church in USSR), Dzhordanvill, 1951.
3. Babenko L. 2006 “Posilennja rolі specsluzhb u borot'bі z relіgієju perіodu kolektivіzacії” (Aggravation of Secret Services’ Role in Struggle against Religion in the Period of Collectivization), in Ukraїns'kij seljanin: Zb. nauk prac', Cherkasi, 2006, vol. 10.
4. Bazhan O. 2007 “Represії sered duhovenstva ta vіrujuchih v URSR v chasi «velikogo teroru»: statistichnij aspect” (Repressions against Clergy and Believers in Ukranian SSR in Period of the “Great Terror”), in Z arhіvіv VUChK–GPU–NKVD–KGB, 2007, vol. 2/29.
5. Vedeneev D., Lisenko O. 2012 “Relіgіjnі konfesії Ukraїni jak ob’ekt operativnoї rozrobki nіmec'kih і radjans'kih specsluzhb (1943–1945 rr.)” (Religious Confessions of Ukraine as Object of Operative Working of German and Soviet Secret Services), in Ukraїns'kij іstorichnij zhurnal, 2012, vol. 4.
6. Gordіenko V. 1998 “Nіmec'ko-fashists'kij okupacіjnij rezhim і pravoslavnі konfesії v Ukraїnі” (German-Fascist Occupational Regime and Orthodox Confessions in Ukraine), in Ukraїns'kij іstorichnij zhurnal, 1998, vol. 3.
7. Mihajluca M. Pravoslavna cerkva na Pіvdnі Ukraїni v roki Drugoї svіtovoї vіjni (1939–1945) (Orthodox Church in the Southern Ukraine in the Years of the Second World War (1939–1945)), Odessa, 2008.
8. Odincov M. Vlast' i religija v gody vojny. Gosudarstvo i religioznye organizacii v SSSR v gody Velikoj Otechestvennoj vojny 1941–1945 gg. (Power and Religion in the Years of War. State and Religious Organizations in USSR in the Years of the Great Patrioric War 1941–1945), Moscow, 2005.
9. Pospelovskij D. Russkaja pravoslavnaja cerkov' v XX veke (Russian Orthodox Church in XX Century), Moscow, 1995.
10. 1995 “Religioznye organizacii v SSSR: nakanune i v pervye gody Velikoj Otechestvennoj vojny (1938–1943 gg.)” (Religious Organizations in USSR before and in the First Years of the Great Patrioric War (1938–1943)), in Otechestvennye arhivy, 1995, vol. 2.
11. Trigub O. 2007 “Pereslіduvannja antisergіevs'koї opozicії v RPC: z іstorії «іstinno-pravoslavnoї cerkvi» (1932–1941 rr.)” (Persecutions of the Anti-Sergij Opposition in ROC: from the History of the
“True Orthodox Church” (1932–1941), in Z arhіvіv VUChK–GPU–NKVD–KGB, 2007, vol. 2.
12. Cibul'kіn V., Lisjuk І. SS-Anenerbe: rozsekrechenі fajli (SS-Ahnenerbe: Declassified Files), Kiev, 2010.
13. Cibul'kіn V., Rozhen L., Vedeneev D. Narisi z іstorії rozvіdki sub’єktіv derzhavotvorennja na terenah Ukraїni (Sketches from Intellegence History of State Subjects in the Territory of Ukraine), Kiev, 2011.
14. Chaev P. 1982 “Katakombnye monastyri” (Catacomb Monasteries), in Grani, 1982, vol. 123.
15. Shkarovskij M. Iosifljanstvo: techenie v Russkoj Pravoslavnoj Cerkvi (“Iosifljanstvo”: Stream in Russian Orthodox Church), Saint-Petersburg, 1999.
16. Shkarovskij M. Krest i svastika. Nacistskaja Germanija i Pravoslavnaja Cerkov' (Cross and Swastika. Nazis Germany and Orthodox Church), Moscow, 2007.
17. Shkarovskij M. Politika Tret'ego rejha po otnosheniju k Russkoj Pravoslavnoj Cerkvi v svete arhivnyh materialov 1935–1945 godov (Politics of the Third Reich towards Russian Orthodox Church in Light of Archive Materials of 1935–1945), Moscow, 2003.
18. Shumilo S. V katakombah. Pravoslavnoe podpol'e v SSSR: Konspekt po istorii Istinno-pravoslavnoj cerkvi v SSSR (In Catacombs. Orthodox Underground in USSR: Summary for History of the True Orthodox Church in USSR), Luck, 2011.
19. Jakunin V. Russkaja Pravoslavnaja Cerkov' na okkupirovannyh territorijah SSSR v gody Velikoj Otechestvennoj vojny 1941–1945 (Russian Orthodox Church in the Occupied Territories in the Years of the Great Patriotic War 1941–1945), Samara, 2001.
20. Russian Orthodox Bishops in the Soviet Union. 1941–1953, New York, 1954.
Vedeneev Dmitrii
Shkarovskii Mikhail
Веденеев Д. В., Шкаровский М. В. Репрессивные акции органов государственной безопасности против общин ≪Истинно-Православной Церкви≫ в Украинской ССР (1944–1953 гг.) (окончание) // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия II: История. История Русской Православной Церкви. 2016. Вып. 3 (70). С. 77-92. DOI: 10.15382/sturII201670.77-92
In the article on the basis of unknown scientific community documents of the Soviet state security bodies provides an analysis of the objectives and key areas of operational work and repressive actions of the security services communities against «True Orthodox Church» (TOC) in the Ukrainian SSR in 1944–1953. The characteristic of agent and operational developments NKGB-MGB-KGB of the USSR against the so-called «catacomb Church», as a form of religious and social protest against aggressive atheistic policy of the Communist authorities, infringement of the rights of believers. The basic forms and methods of intelligence and operational activities of the security organs, aimed at creating informer positions in the environment of the communities of the TOC, making the split in the ranks of the adepts of secret religious sects, the collection of «compromising material» as the basis for the application of harsh repressive measures against the movement of the TOC. The authors pay special attention to the organization and personnel of units of the NKGB-MGB-KGB, engaged, according to the terminology, «the struggle with the Church-sectarian counterrevolution» and «Church-monarchist underground», a leading representative of which was considered in the TOC, particularly active in Chernihiv, Sumy, and Kharkiv oblasts of the Ukrainian SSR and the Donbass, and also in the neighboring regions of the Russian black soil region and the North Caucasus. Given the author’s periodization of the development of the catacomb movement, highlights the historical conditions of its creation and release in the USSR. Through the prism of intelligence documents examines the liturgical aspect of the TOC, its governing structure, forms of secrecy and concealment from the prosecution authorities, the position of the catacomb members in relation to social life and social structure in the USSR.
repression, religious opposition, «True Orthodox Church», the state security organs, social protest.

1. Alekseev V., Stavru F. 1981 “Russkaja Pravoslavnaja Cerkov' na okkupirovannoj nemcami territorii” (Russian Orthodox Church on the Territory Occupied by Germans), in Russkoe Vozrozhdenie, 1981, vol. 16.
2. Andreev I. O polozhenii Pravoslavnoj Cerkvi v Sovetskom Sojuze. Katakombnaja Cerkov' v SSSR (About Position of the Orthodox Church in Soviet Union. Catacomb Church in USSR), Dzhordanvill, 1951.
3. Babenko L. 2006 “Posilennja rolі specsluzhb u borot'bі z relіgієju perіodu kolektivіzacії” (Aggravation of Secret Services’ Role in Struggle against Religion in the Period of Collectivization), in Ukraїns'kij seljanin: Zb. nauk prac', Cherkasi, 2006, vol. 10.
4. Bazhan O. 2007 “Represії sered duhovenstva ta vіrujuchih v URSR v chasi «velikogo teroru»: statistichnij aspect” (Repressions against Clergy and Believers in Ukranian SSR in Period of the “Great Terror”), in Z arhіvіv VUChK–GPU–NKVD–KGB, 2007, vol. 2/29.
5. Vedeneev D., Lisenko O. 2012 “Relіgіjnі konfesії Ukraїni jak ob’ekt operativnoї rozrobki nіmec'kih і radjans'kih specsluzhb (1943–1945 rr.)” (Religious Confessions of Ukraine as Object of Operative Working of German and Soviet Secret Services), in Ukraїns'kij іstorichnij zhurnal, 2012, vol. 4.
6. Vedeneev D. 2014 “Antireligioznoe podrazdelenie organov gosbezopasnosti sovetskoj Ukrainy (1945–1950-e gg.)” (Anti-Religion Division of Secret Services of Soviet Ukraine (1945–1950s)), in Istoricheskie chtenija na Lubjanke. 2014 god, Moscow, 2014, pp. 185–197.
7. Vedeneev D. 2014 “Rukovoditel' antireligioznogo podrazdelenija gosbezopasnosti v Ukraine: k biografii polkovnika Viktora Suhonina” (Head of Anti-Religion Division of Secret Service in Ukraine: tp Biography of Colonel Viktor Suhonin), in Cerkva-nauka-suspіl'stvo: Materіali Dvanadcjatoї Mіzhnarodnoї naukovoї konferencії (28–30 travnja 2014 r.), Kiev, 2014, pp. 172–175.
8. Vedeneev D. 2015 “Chekisty Ukrainy na «religioznom fronte»” (Secret Service Members of Ukraine on “Religious Front”), in Rodina, 2014, vol. 12, pp. 110–113; 2015, vol. 1, pp. 117–119.
9. Gordіenko V. 1998 “Nіmec'ko-fashists'kij okupacіjnij rezhim і pravoslavnі konfesії v Ukraїnі”, in Ukraїns'kij іstorichnij zhurnal, 1998, vol. 3, pp. 107–119.
10. Dem'janov A. Istinno pravoslavnoe hristianstvo (True Orthodox Christianity), Voronezh, 1977.
11. Zarubezhnye klerikal'no-podryvnye i religioznye organizacii (Foreign Clerical-Undermining and Religious Organizations), Moscow, 1986.
12. Mihajluca M. Pravoslavna cerkva na Pіvdnі Ukraїni v roki Drugoї svіtovoї vіjni (1939–1945) (Orthodox Church in the Southern Ukraine in the Years of the Second World War (1939–1945)), Odessa, 2008.
13. Odincov M. Vlast' i religija v gody vojny. Gosudarstvo i religioznye organizacii v SSSR v gody Velikoj Otechestvennoj vojny 1941–1945 gg. (Power and Religion in the Years of War. State and Religious Organizations in USSR in the Years of the Great Patrioric War 1941–1945), Moscow, 2005.
14. Pospelovskij D. Russkaja pravoslavnaja cerkov' v XX veke (Russian Orthodox Church in XX Century), Moscow, 1995.
15. 1995 “Religioznye organizacii v SSSR: nakanune i v pervye gody Velikoj Otechestvennoj vojny (1938–1943 gg.)” (Religious Organizations in USSR before and in the First Years of the Great Patrioric War (1938–1943)), in Otechestvennye arhivy, 1995, vol. 2.
16. Trigub O. 2007 “Pereslіduvannja antisergіevs'koї opozicії v RPC: z іstorії «іstinno-pravoslavnoї cerkvi» (1932–1941 rr.)” (Persecutions of the Anti-Sergij Opposition in ROC: from the History of the
“True Orthodox Church” (1932–1941), in Z arhіvіv VUChK–GPU–NKVD–KGB, 2007, vol. 2.
17. Cibul'kіn V., Lisjuk І. SS-Anenerbe: rozsekrechenі fajli (SS-Ahnenerbe: Declassified Files), Kiev, 2010.
18. Cibul'kіn V., Rozhen L., Vedeneev D. Narisi z іstorії rozvіdki sub’єktіv derzhavotvorennja na terenah Ukraїni (Sketches from Intellegence History of State Subjects in the Territory of Ukraine), Kiev, 2011.
19. Chaev P. 1982 “Katakombnye monastyri” (Catacomb Monasteries), in Grani, 1982, vol. 123.
20. Shkarovskij M. Iosifljanstvo: techenie v Russkoj Pravoslavnoj Cerkvi (“Iosifljanstvo”: Stream in Russian Orthodox Church), Saint-Petersburg, 1999.
21. Shkarovskij M. Krest i svastika. Nacistskaja Germanija i Pravoslavnaja Cerkov' (Cross and Swastika. Nazis Germany and Orthodox Church), Moscow, 2007.
22. Shkarovskij M. Politika Tret'ego rejha po otnosheniju k Russkoj Pravoslavnoj Cerkvi v svete arhivnyh materialov 1935–1945 godov (Politics of the Third Reich towards Russian Orthodox Church in Light of Archive Materials of 1935–1945), Moscow, 2003.
23. Shumilo S. V katakombah. Pravoslavnoe podpol'e v SSSR: Konspekt po istorii Istinno-pravoslavnoj cerkvi v SSSR (In Catacombs. Orthodox Underground in USSR: Summary for History of the True Orthodox Church in USSR), Luck, 2011.
24. Jakunin V. Russkaja Pravoslavnaja Cerkov' na okkupirovannyh territorijah SSSR v gody Velikoj Otechestvennoj vojny 1941–1945 (Russian Orthodox Church in the Occupied Territories in the Years of the Great Patriotic War 1941–1945), Samara, 2001.
25. Russian Orthodox Bishops in the Soviet Union. 1941–1953, New York, 1954.
Vedeneev Dmitrii
Shkarovskii Mikhail
Шкаровский М. В., Веденеев Д. В. Оперативная разработка и репрессии советских органов государственной безопасности против религиозного течения "подгорновцев"("стефановцев") в 1930-1950-е гг. // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия II: История. История Русской Православной Церкви. 2017. Вып. 75. С. 94-119. DOI: 10.15382/sturII201775.94-119
The paper deals with the origin, spread and characteristic features of religious and socio-cultural life of the oppositional (“catacomb”) religious movement of podgornovtsi during the period of the 1930–1960s. This study is based on recently declassifi ed documents of Soviet state security organs. The paper considers the personality of the founder of the movement Stefan Podgornyi and the transformation of the movement from the anti-canonical Orthodoxy to a quasireligious variety of the anti-Communist opposition. This transformation was caused by the persecution of the Orthodox Church in the 1920s, the forced collectivisation, destruction of the traditional way of village life, as well as the official position of Moscow Patriarchate as to the recognition of the Soviet state. The paper discusses forms and methods of the police investigation and repressions against podgornovtsi. Based on documents from archives of Ukrainian state security organs (it should be noted that the movement was particularly popular in the Ukraine), the paper shows features of the religious “doctrine” of the movement, its rites, worldview, social and political beliefs and everyday life of the adherents of the movement, as well as their relationships with German military organs and postwar repressions against the movement. It is concluded that the spread of this movement in the USSR was a logical result of persecution of the canonical Orthodoxy and the restriction of religious freedom. Communities of podgornovtsi embodied such characteristic features of “religious underground” as deliberate withdrawal from any social and political events of the state, maximal distancing from social life and the corresponding upbringing of children, apocalyptic sentiment, denial to perform social duties, including military service and voting in elections.
Orthodox Church, antireligious policy, religious opposition, “catacomb” Church, state atheism, state security organs, repressions

Vedenieiev D., Bustryuchin G., Dvobiy bez compromisiv. Protuborstvo spezpidrozdiliv OUN ta radyanskich sil spezoperaziy. 1945–1980-ti roku, Kiyv, 2007.
Galuyzevuy dergavnyu archive SBU. Putuyvnik, Charkiv, 2009.
Sergiushyuk V., OUN-UPA v roku viynu novi dokumentu i materijalu, Kiyv, 1996.
Shumilo S., “Issledovanij katacombnuych i pechatnuych kniyg: k postanoyvke problemuy”, in: Cherniygovskiuy Afinu, 2014, 2, 209-226.
Shkarovskii Mikhail
Vedeneev Dmitrii