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Тимофеева Е. Д. Балладные традиции в ранней поэзии Н. С. Гумилева // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия III: Филология. 2019. Вып. 58. С. 11-23. DOI: 10.15382/sturIII201958.11-23
This article makes an attempt to trace signs of Romanticism in early poetry by Nikolai Gumilev and identify those ballad features that were specifi c to his poems already according to his contemporaries’ opinion. The main source of Romantic motifs for Gumilev came to be ballads by Vasily Zhukovsky. He was very familiar with them not only because of the syllabi of educational institutions, but also from anthologies of Russian and European literature that were in his reading circle in early years. The article identifi es the texts and themes of the poet of the 19th century that were most important to Gumilev and analyses their employment both in the fi rst collections of the leader of the Acmeists (The Way of Conquistadors and Romantic Flowers) and in his more mature books. The article examines the levels of borrowing of the plots, themes and single formulae as well as the transformation of these techniques in the course of time. Besides, the article traces the evolution of Gumilev’s attitude to the motifs in question and analyses their role in the context of his literary work and the contemporary literary process, namely the interaction of these plots with prominent topics of Symbolist poetry of this period, as well as his polemic with Zhukovsky (the poet important to the modernists) and with the established literary tradition.
N. Gumilev, V. Zhukovsky, Romanticism, ballad, reminiscences, Russian literature, symbolism
  1. Anisimova E. (2014) “«Mistitsizm» i «Chernyi sinodik» russkoi literatury: V. A. Zhukovskii v kritike I. F. Annenskogo” [“Mysticism” and “Black List” of Russian Literature: V. Zhukovsky in I. Annensky’s Criticism]. Vestnik Tomskogo gosudarstvennogo universtiteta. Filologiia, № 5 (31), pp. 66–85 (in Russian).
  2. Basker M. (2000) “Rannii Gumilev: put’ k akmeizmu” [Early Gumilev. Road to Acmeism]. St. Petersburg (in Russian).
  3. Gasparov M. (1995) “Antinomichnost’ poetiki russkogo modernizma” [Controversial Character of Poetics of Russian Modernism], in M. Gasparov. Izbrannye stat’i [Selected Articles]. Moscow, pp. 286–304 (in Russian).
  4. Khrestomatiinye teksty: russkaia pedagogicheskaia praktika XIX v. i poeticheskii kanon [Anthological Texts: Russian Educational Practice of the 19th Century and the Poetic Canon]. Tartu, 2013 (in Russian).
  5. Luknitskii P. (2010) Trudy i dni N. S. Gumileva [Works and Days of N. Gumilev]. St. Petersburg (in Russian).
  6. Maksimov D. (1969) Briusov. Poeziia i pozitsiia [Briusov. Poetry and Standpoint]. Leningrad (in Russian).
  7. Nemzer A. (1987) “«Sii chudesnye viden’ia...»: Vremia i ballady V. A. Zhukovskogo” [“These Wondrous Visions...”: Time and Ballads by V. Zhukovsky], in A. Zorin et al. (eds.) “Svoi podvig svershiv...” [“Having Accomplished his Feat...”]. Moscow, pp. 155–264 (in Russian).
  8. Nemzer A. (2013) Pri svete Zhukovskogo: Ocherki istorii russkoi literatury [In the Lustre of Zhukovsky: Essays in the History of Russian Literature]. Moscow (in Russian).
  9. Timenchik R. (2017). “Annenskii i Gumilev”, in R. Timenchik. Podzemnye klassiki [The Underground Classics]: Innokentii Annenskii. Nikolai Gumilev. Moscow, pp. 258–279 (in Russian).
  10. Toporov V. (2003) “Tiaga k bezdne (k retseptsii poezii Zhukovskogo v nachale XX veka. Blok — Zhukovskii: problema reministsentsii)” [Attraction for the Abyss (On the Reception of Zhukovsky’s Poetry in the Early 20th Century. Blok vs. Zhukovsky: Problem of Reminiscence], in V. Toporov. Peterburgskii tekst russkoi literatury [Petersburg Text in Russian Literature]. St. Petersburg, pp. 583–610 (in Russian).
  11. Trutneva E. (2011) “Ot volshebnogo k ironicheskomu. Opyt nabliudenii nad avtoredaktirovaniem «Neoromanticheskoi skazki» N. S. Gumileva” [From the Mysterious to the Ironical. Attempt of Observations on Self-Editing of N. Gumilev’s “Neoromantic Fairy Tale”]. Novyi filologicheskii vestnik, № 2, pp. 19–34 (in Russian).
Timofeeva Elizaveta
Student status: Graduate student;
Place of study: National Research University Higher School of Economics; 20 Myasnitskaya st., Moscow 101000, Russian Federation;
ORCID: 0000-0003-2391-2793;
Email: elizaveta084@gmail.com.
Жиденко Н. В., Тимофеева Р. А. Бытование европейских эстампов «духовного» содержания в России // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия V: Вопросы истории и теории христианского искусства. 2019. Вып. 35. С. 61-73. DOI: 10.15382/sturV201935.61-73
This article studies the presence of West-European engraved sheets with Biblical themes in the territory of Russia of the 17th — 19th centuries. The infl uence of West-European engravings already manifested itself as early as the 16th century and increased considerably in the 17th century. Books and engravings from Europe clearly influenced the masters from both the capital and provinces. The engraving, which is a cheaper and more aff ordable type of visual art, begins to be used to decorate living rooms, as images for prayer, to remind of the events of the Scripture. Despite the generally negative attitude of the church, the European engravings continued to spread in Russia and by the 18th century occupied a stable place in the household of various social groups. Collections of engravings began to be gathered; the sheets were used as “examples”, i.e. study material; were used as relayers of unaccessible painted originals. In the 19th century, the demand became even greater. Alongside original European engravings of “spiritual” content, cheap engravings and lithographies came to be widespread, these were only remotely similar to the primary sources. Illustrated edition based on the cycles of European engravings with Biblical themes were printed. The article pays special attention to the factors that supported or prevented the spread and use of West-European engravings in the teritory of Russia during the historical period in question.
Western European engraving, printed graphics, biblical plots, engraving, collecting, “spiritual” engraving
  1. Adariukov V. (1926/1984) V mire knig i graviur: Vospominaniia [In the World of Books and Engravings]. Moscow (in Russian).
  2. Alekhina L., Gamlitskii A. (eds.) “Bibleiskii teatr Martina Engel'brekhta. Siuzhety Sviashchennoi Istorii v zapadnoevropeiskoi knizhnoi graviure” [The Biblical Theater of Martin Engelbrecht. Scenes from Sacred History in Western European Book Engraving]. Moscow, 2017 (in Russian).
  3. Anisimov V. (ed.) (1923) Graficheskie iskusstva i reproduktsiia [Graphic Arts and Reproduction]. Moscow; Petrograd (in Russian).
  4. Belobrova O. (2005) “Ob istochnikakh miniatiur k sochineniiam Nikolaia Spafariia” [The Sources of Miniatures to Texts by Nikolai Spathari], in Ocherki russkoi khudozhestvennoi kul'tury XVI–XX vekov [Essays on Russian Visual Arts of the 16th — 20th Centuries]. Moscow, pp. 190–199 (in Russian).
  5. Belobrova O. (1993) “Virshi Mardariia Khonykova k graviuram Biblii Piskatora” [Mardariy Khonykov’s Rhymes for Piscator’s Engravings of Bible]. Trudy Otdela drevnerusskoi literatury, 46. St. Petersburg, pp. 334–436 (in Russian).
  6. Belovinskii L. (2003) Entsiklopedicheskii slovar' rossiiskoi zhizni i istorii [Encyclopaedic Dictionary of Russian Life and History]. Moscow (in Russian).
  7. Buseva-Davydova I. (1993) “Novye ikonografi cheskie istochniki russkoi zhivopisi XVII v.” [New Iconographic Sources of Russian Painting of the 17th Century], in Russkoe iskusstvo pozdnego srednevekov'ia. Obraz i smysl [Russian Art of the Later Middle Ages. Image and Meaning]. Moscow, pp. 190–206 (in Russian).
  8. Chaianov A. (1926) Staraia zapadnaia graviura [Antique Western Engraving]. Moscow (in Russian).
  9. Chernaia L. (2013) Povsednevnaia zhizn' moskovskikh gosudarei v XVII veke [Everyday Life of Moscow Monarchs in the 17th Century]. Moscow (in Russian).
  10. Chilingirov A. (1975) “Vliianie Diurera i sovremennoi emu nemetskoi grafi ki na ikonografi iu postvizantiiskogo iskusstva” [Infl uence of Duerer and his Contemporary German Engravings on Iconography of Post-Byzantine Art], in Drevnerusskoe iskusstvo. Zarubezhnye sviazi [Art of Ancient Russia. Foreign Links], vol. 9. Moscow, pp. 325–342 (in Russian).
  11. Gamlitskii A. (1997) “Litsevye «Strasti» Leontiia Bunina. K voprosu o zapadnoevropeiskikh ikonografi cheskikh istochnikakh russkogo iskusstva kontsa XVII‒XVIII veka” [“Passions” by Leonid Bunin. On West-European Iconographic Sources of Russian Art of the Late 17th — 18th Centuries], in Filevskie chteniia. Tezisy piatoi nauchnoi konferentsii [Filevskie Lectures. Abstracts of the Fifth Scientifi c Conference], pp. 21–23 (in Russian).
  12. Iazykova I. (2012) So-tvorenie obraza. Bogoslovie ikony [Co-Creation of the Image. The Theology of Icon]. Moscow (in Russian).
  13. Il'ina T. (2012) Natsional'noe svoeobrazie russkogo iskusstva XVIII veka i ego mesto sredi evropeiskikh shkol [Nation-Specifi c Features of Russian Art of the 18th Century and its Place among European Schools]. St. Petersburg (in Russian).
  14. Kristeller P. (1939) Istoriia evropeiskoi graviury XV‒XVIII veka [History of European Engraving of the 15th — 18th Centuries]. [Moscow] (Russian translation).
  15. Malkov Iu. (2010) “K istorii ikonopochitaniia na Rusi v pervoi polovine XVII veka (maloizvestnyi ikonofi l'skii traktat iz «Knigi o vere», 1648 g.)” [Towards the History of Icon-Veneration in Rus’ in the First Half of the 17th Century (a little-known iconophile treatise from the “Book of Faith”, 1648)]. Vestnik PSTGU. Seriia V: Voprosy istorii i teorii khristianskogo iskusstva, vol. 1 (1), pp. 83–96 (in Russian).
  16. Nor N. (2008) “Poniatie «Lubochnoe»: problemy terminologii” [The Notion of “Lubochnoe”: Problems of Terminology]. Vestnik RGGU. Seriia «Istoriia. Filologiia. Kul'turologiia. Vostokovedenie», 4, pp. 222–248 (in Russian).
  17. Pavlova M. (2017) “Chastnoe kollektsionirovanie v Rossii XVIII — nachala XX veka (istorikokul'turnyi aspekt)” [Private Collections in Russia of the 18th — Early 20th Centuries (historical and cultural aspects)]. Vestnik KGU, 4, pp. 31–35 (in Russian).
  18. Prisiazhniuk Iu. (2002) “Tsenzurnoe zakonodatel'stvo v dorevoliutsionnoi Rossii (k voprosu ob istokakh avtorskogo prava): Grazhdanskoe obshchestvo, gosudarstvo i pravo v perekhodnyi period” [Censorship Legislation in Pre-Revolutionary Russia (to the question about the origins of copyright): Civil Society, State, and Lagislation in the Transition Period]. Vestnik Nizhegorodskogo universiteta im. N. I. Lobachevskogo: Grazhdanskoe obshchestvo, gosudarstvo i pravo v perekhodnyi period. Seriia: Pravo, 1 (5), 142–153 (in Russian).
  19. Rozanov V. (1995) Sobranie sochinenii. Okolo tserkovnykh sten [Collected Works. Near Church Walls]. Moscow (in Russian).
  20. Sarab'ianov D. (2003) Rossiia i Zapad [Russia and the West]. Moscow (in Russian).
  21. Wessely E. (2003) O raspoznanii i sobranii graviur: Posobie dlia liubitelei [On Identifi cation and Collection of Engravings. A Manual for Amateurs]. Moscow (Russian translation).
  22. Winckelmann J. (2000) Istoriia iskusstva drevnosti. Malye sochineniia [History of Ancient Art. Minor Writings]. St. Petersburg (Russian translation).
Zhidenko Nadezhda
Student status: Graduate student;
Place of study: St. Petersburg State University of Industrial Technologies and Design; 18 Bol’shaya Morskaya Str., St. Petersburg, 191186, Russian Federation;
ORCID: 0000-0002-7190-8951;
Email: Nadya.zhidenko@bk.ru.
Timofeeva Rimma
Academic Degree: Candidate of Sciences* in Art Criticism;
Academic Rank: Associate Professor;
Place of work: St. Petersburg State University of Industrial Technologies and Design; 18 Bol’shaya Morskaya Str., St. Petersburg, 191186, Russian Federation;
Post: Assistant Professor;
ORCID: 0000-0002-9051-0391;
Email: Rimma.a.timofeeva@gmail.com. *According to the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) 2011, the degree of Candidate of Sciences (Cand.Sc.) belongs to ISCED level 8 — "doctoral or equivalent", together with PhD, DPhil, D.Lit, D.Sc, LL.D, Doctorate or similar.
Тимофеева Т. П. Письма Н. П. Сычева А. Д. Варганову (1955–1959 годы) // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия V: Вопросы истории и теории христианского искусства. 2020. Вып. 39. С. 173-186. DOI: 10.15382/sturV202039.173-186
The article makes public eight letters of Nikolai Petrovich Sychov (1883–1964), the prominent historian of ancient Russian art, specialist in the theory and practice of restoration, to the outstanding architect and restorer of monuments in Suzdal, director of Suzdal Museum, Alexei Varganov (1905–1977). Previously, Sychov after many years of unlawful repression (Gulag and life in a small town on the Volga), worked in Vladimir and Suzdal for ten years. In the mid-1950s he was allowed to live in Moscow, from where he sent the letters to his friend. The introduction refers to the study of I. Kyzlasova (see her article in this issue of the journal), which describes the professional and human scale of Sychov’s personality and provides a brief bibliography on Varganov, who is less known in the scientifi c world. According to the memoirs of Varganov’s daughter, he called Sychov a “teacher”. In 1927–1930s, Varganov studied at the Institute of Art History in Leningrad, where Sychov taught; they could make an acquaintance there. This article outlines the content of the letters, i.e. a discussion of the attempt of one pseudoscientist to appropriate the results of the works of Vladimir Restoration Workshop, a request to show Suzdal to students of Moscow University, current events in Sychev’s life. A separate message is addressed to Varganov’s son Alik (Alexei), with some drawings: “Grandpa Kolya” is crying because of the boy’s poor school marks and dancing because of his excellent marks. Special attention should be paid to a letter in which Sychov writes about a remarkable fi nd, an inscription on the inner wall of the tent-shaped roof of St. Basil’s Cathedral in the Red Square (Sychov was one of the leading fi gures in its restoration). As a result, the exact date of completion of this unique monument of the 16th century was established. There is one more very interesting letter with a story about the life of the Russian Museum in Leningrad in 1921–1926, when Sychov was a director there. The letters are made public for the fi rst time; they show not only friendly relations with the addressee, but also (which is very important) disprove the orally expressed allegation about Varganov’s involvement in the third arrest of Sychev which took place in Vladimir in 1948.
Nikolai Sychev, Alexei Varganov, friendship, Vladimir and Suzdal Museum, restoration of architecture, Russian Museum, St. Basil’s Cathedral
  1. Gantseva P. (2015) “Aleksei Varganov i ego delo zhizni” [Aleksei Varganov and his life’s work]. Vladimirskie vedomosti. 25.09 (№ 173), p. 4 (in Russian).
  2. Dudorova L. (2005) “Rol' A. D. Varganova v sozdanii nauchnoi metodiki restavratsii pamiatnikov arkhitektury i ego vklad v sokhranenie arkhitekturnogo naslediia g. Suzdalia (k 100-letiiu so dnia rozhdeniia)” [The role of A. D. Varganov in creating a scientifi c method for the restoration of architectural monuments and his contribution to the preservation of the architectural heritage of Suzdal (for the 100th anniversary), in S. Gordeev (ed.) Materialy oblastnoi kraevedcheskoi konferentsii (22 aprelia 2005 g.) [Materials of the regional local history conference (April 22, 2005)]. Vladimir. P. 10–13 (in Russian).
  3. Konopleva R. (2002) “Varganov Aleksei Dmitrievich”, in S. Gordeev (ed.) Vladimirskaia entsiklopediia. Biobibliografi cheskii slovar' [Encyclopaedia оf Vladimir. Biobibliographic dictionary]. Vladimir. P. 88–89 (in Russian).
  4. Timofeeva T. (2016) “«Pozhiznennye druz'ia». Perepiska N. N. Voronina i A. D. Varganova kak chast' nauchnogo naslediia uchenykh” [“Lifelong friends”. Correspondence between N. N. Voronin and A. D. Varganov as part of the scientifi c heritage of the scholars], in A. Tenetkina (ed.) Vladimiro-Suzdal'skii muzei-zapovednik. Materialy issledovanii [Museum- Preserve of Vladimir and Suzdal. Research materials], 21. Vladimir. P. 118–126 (in Russian).
  5. Vladimiro-Suzdal'skaia shkola restavratsii. Istoriia, metody i praktika restavratsii ob'ektov istorikokul'turnogo naslediia (2011) [Vladimir-Suzdal school of restoration. History, methods and practice of restoration of objects of historical and cultural heritage]. Vladimir. P. 17–314 (in Russian).
Timofeeva Tatyana
ORCID: 0000-0002-9249-695X;
Email: tata2010vl@mail.ru.