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Безрогов В. Г., Тендрякова М. В. Ясный взгляд на детский мир: первые годы «Детского Мира» Ушинского // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия IV: Педагогика. Психология. 2014. Вып. 2 (33). С. 83-101. DOI: 10.15382/sturIV201433.83-101
The initial concept of the manual of K. D. Ushinsky «The Childrens’ World and Anthology. The book for the cool reading, adapted for gradual intellectual exercises and evident acquaintance to nature subjects» is considered. The principles of the fi rst two editions are analysed, evolution of these principles is tracked up to the 11th, last lifetime reprinting of a textbook. From the textbook’s second till the sixth edition (1861–1865) there was a development to the most optimum style, good size, understandable structure, remembering sequence of texts which mainly simply keep further though the book after the 6th edition undergoes not basic changes in the subsequent reprintings. Besides reduction and strengthening the positive sense of stories, addition in them of folklore, historical legends, Ushinsky develops special trust to the story-teller of stories. Initially accepted approach to sincerity educational narrative when the pupil feels as participants with the author in his story is improved. The name «Kinderwelt» in the Russian practice is applied for the fi rst time to reading-book. It is borrowed from German-language editions of the beginning and the fi rst half of the 19th century. From the same source one of the topic — seasonal tales — is taken, but applied not in philosophical and romantic interpretation of proximity of the child to the nature, and in a pragmatical and realistic key of teaching to the school student a «real knowledge» of the world, school and the person. Harmonization of a material of the manual, reached by 1865, caused its long further popularity.
Konstantin Ushinsky, reading book, childhood, elementary school, reading, natural history, geography, encyclopaedia in education, textbook, childhood, elementary school, educational reading, natural history, geography, enciclopaedia in education, history

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23. Mann R. J. Lessons in General Knowledge, London, 1856.
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25. Schmidt K. Gymnasial-Pädagogik: Die Naturgesetze der Erziehung und des Unterrichts in humanistischen und realistischen gelerten Schulen, Köten, 1857.
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Bezrogov Vitalii
Tendriakova Mariia
Безрогов В. Г., Тендрякова М. В. «Gab ihnen der liebe Gott...», или Бог и природа в немецких и русских учебниках XVIII - начала XIX в. // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия IV: Педагогика. Психология. 2018. Вып. 48. С. 19-48. DOI: 10.15382/sturIV201848.19-48
In the last third of the 18th and early 19th centuries, religious education within courses in natural history appears to be important evidence that reveals the historical and cultural dialogue between the two pedagogical traditions. This article is based on a study of original and translated textbooks by J. Blumenbach, G. Große, G. Raff , V. Zuev (Russ. В. Зуев), N. Ozeretskovsky (Н. Озерецковский) and V. Severgin (В. Севергин), K. Ushinsky (К. Ушинский). The analysis demonstrates conscious and nonconscious differences in comprehending and explaining the role and place of God with regard to nature and humankind. In translated books (e.g. Naturgeschichte für Kinder by Raff ), we can see three levels of the presence of the Lord in nature (in terms of each living creature, their groups and communities, the cosmos as an interrelated system). In similar Russian books only the fi rst of them is regularly presented, if presented at all. The border between nature and God in Russian books on natural history is drawn more distinctly, the boundary between books about God and about nature is less transparent than in Germany. Such a distinction is eff ected by the features of the dialogue between education and religion, characteristic of these countries.
textbook, natural history, religious education, 1700-1799, 1800-1861, Russia, Germany
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Bezrogov Vitaly
Academic Degree: Doctor of Sciences* in Education;
Academic Degree: Candidate of Sciences* in History;
Place of work: Institute for Strategy and Theory of Education of the Russian Academy of Education; 5/16 Makarenko Str., Moscow 105062, Russian Federation;
Post: Senior Research Fellow;
ORCID: 0000-0001-6389-4783;
Email: bezrogov@mail.ru. *According to the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) 2011, the degree of Candidate of Sciences (Cand.Sc.) belongs to ISCED level 8 — "doctoral or equivalent", together with PhD, DPhil, D.Lit, D.Sc, LL.D, Doctorate or similar.
Tendryakova Maria
Academic Degree: Candidate of Sciences* in History;
Place of work: Institute of Ethnology and Anthropology of the Russian Academy of Sciences; 32a Leninskii Prospekt, Moscow 119991, Russian Federation;
Post: Senior Research Fellow;
ORCID: 0000-0001-6206-8439;
Email: mashatendryak@gmail.com. *According to the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) 2011, the degree of Candidate of Sciences (Cand.Sc.) belongs to ISCED level 8 — "doctoral or equivalent", together with PhD, DPhil, D.Lit, D.Sc, LL.D, Doctorate or similar.
The work on the article was supported by the grants 17-06-00066a and 17-06-00288 by the Russian Foundation of the Basic Research (Dept.of the Humanities and Social Sciences).
Безрогов В. Г., Тендрякова М. В. Корф и Город: figura urbis capitis в учебных книгах для земской школы // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия IV: Педагогика. Психология. 2019. Вып. 54. С. 84-105. DOI: 10.15382/sturIV201954.84-105
This article discusses the textbook Наш друг: книга для чтения учащихся в школе и дома и руководство к начальному обучению родному языку (Russ. ‘Our friend: a book for students’ reading at school and at home and a manual for the elementary study of the native language’. It was published 19 times from 1871 to 1908 and was one of the popular textbooks for rural schools (земские школы) of the latter half of the 19th century. Its author is Nikolai Alexandrovich Korff , the “organiser of village schools”. Among his textbooks, Our Friend came to be the most popular. It included 120 topics for reading and discussing that were related to various sides of rural life, people, nature, and alongside this it refl ected those basic concepts that the author was devising for his audience but did not discuss overtly. Among the concepts of peasants’ life, the understanding of which was implied by the didactic aim of Our Friend, the authors of this article distinguish the notion “city” and study how it is refl ected and expressed by Korff in this texbook. The article analyses its fi rst eight editions in which this conception was left unaltered. Its revision is studied in a separate article. The analysis of the first variant of the textbook makes clear that Korff applies the traditional view of the pre-industrial city as a centre of the monarch’s sacral power; hence, the city comes to be capital. The existence of other cities is meaningful only in the light of their relations with the capital or capitals, as in Russia, where Korff emphasises the unity of Petersburg and Moscow. The notion of the capital city embedded in this textbook implies granting to the capital specifi c properties of regulating all space and time in the state. The link “capital — village” appears most important from the semiotic point of view. Manufacturing emerges not in the city and for reasons unrelated to urban development. The city adjacent to the village is seen as a source of power and development of network of education.
Nikolai Korff (1834–1883), elementary school textbook, rural education, educational notion, city image, second half of 19 century, urban idea
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Bezrogov Vitaly
Academic Degree: Doctor of Sciences* in Education;
Academic Degree: Candidate of Sciences* in History;
Place of work: Institute for Strategy and Theory of Education of the Russian Academy of Education; 5/16 Makarenko Str., Moscow 105062, Russian Federation;
Post: Senior Research Fellow;
ORCID: 0000-0001-6389-4783;
Email: bezrogov@mail.ru. *According to the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) 2011, the degree of Candidate of Sciences (Cand.Sc.) belongs to ISCED level 8 — "doctoral or equivalent", together with PhD, DPhil, D.Lit, D.Sc, LL.D, Doctorate or similar.
Tendryakova Maria
Academic Degree: Candidate of Sciences* in History;
Place of work: Institute of Ethnology and Anthropology of the Russian Academy of Sciences; 32a Leninskii Prospekt, Moscow 119991, Russian Federation;
Post: Senior Research Fellow;
ORCID: 0000-0001-6206-8439;
Email: mashatendryak@gmail.com. *According to the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) 2011, the degree of Candidate of Sciences (Cand.Sc.) belongs to ISCED level 8 — "doctoral or equivalent", together with PhD, DPhil, D.Lit, D.Sc, LL.D, Doctorate or similar.
The study was supprted by the Russian Basic Reseach Foundation, grants 17-06-00066\ОГН и 17-06-00288\ОГН.
Безрогов В. Г., Тендрякова М. В. Город и Корф: figura urbis novae в учебных книгах для земской школы // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия IV: Педагогика. Психология. 2019. Вып. 55. С. 110-127. DOI: 10.15382/sturIV201955.110-127
This article continues the publication on the image of the city in N. A. Korff ’s textbook Nash drug: kniga dlya chteniya v shkole i doma (‘Our friend: a book for reading at school and at home’). This manual was fi rst published in 1871, and in 1881 it was signifi cantly amended. The preceding article studies the concept of “the city” in the fi rst eight editions, this article deals with its change that was made in the 9th edition and was registered up to the last, the 19th edition, in 1908. The single textbook was divided into two parts. One retained the former title. The other came to be “Guidelines” to it. In the “Guidelines to «Our Friend»”, Korff added nine special chapters on various Russian cities, from Novgorod, where Russian history started, to Tifl is, where it developed towards the territorial expance. The country where the cities proper were only St Petersburg and Moscow is changed in the new edition into a country where the brilliance of the capitals is secularised. The textbook also expounds on other urban centres. The capital city ceases to be the principal, the singular, the one that determines the being. Its status is already determined not only by the monarch, but by history, trade, education, and gradually by manufacturing. The rejection of cities of the rural Russia, as it existed in the fi rst edition of the textbook, still remains, but the positive role of urbanisation has already been acknowledged. The article shows how N. A. Korff ’s Russian reading textbook was aimed at overcoming the typical (of textbooks of its epoch) idealisation of abstract rural life in order to become for students of rural school the real “friend of ours” in enhancing the village, in establishing its dialogue with the city. The article analyses textual additions and the visual range that has fi rst appeared in this textbook. Before the 9th edition, there were no pictures in Our Friend. The pictures are now placed both in the the fi rst, the main, part of the manual, and in the supplementary. The urban scenes included in the visual range demonstrate the transitional stage in understanding the city from the traditional pre-industrial to the one being modernised. The new understanding of the concept of “the city”, notwithstanding all its controversial character, had conditioned the dawning of the instrumental attitude to the urban phenomenon. Korff ’s new manual nourished the generation from which the “social engineers” of the 1910s and 1920s came, who transformed the actual life of Russian cities.
Nikolai Korff (1834–1883), elementary school textbook, rural education, educational concept, city image, second half of 19th century
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  2. Bezrogov V., Tendryakova M. (2017) “Chto nemtsu dialog, to russkomu uchitel': ot «Estestvennoi istorii» G. K. Raffa k «Detskomu miru» K. D. Ushinskogo” [“What is Dialogue to the German is Teacher to the Russian”: from “Natural History” by G. K. Raff to “Children’s World” by K. D. Ushinsky]. Psikhologo-pedagogicheskii poisk, 3 (43), pp. 58–70 (in Russian).
  3. Bezrogov V., Tendryakova M. (2017) “Chto nemtsu radost' nauki, to russkomu zabota bytiia: ot «Estestvennoi istorii» G. K. Raff a k «Detskomu miru» K. D. Ushinskogo” [What is Joy of Science to the German is Concern for the Being to the Russian: from “Natural History” by G. K. Raff to “Children’s World” by K. D. Ushinsky]. Psikhologo-pedagogicheskii poisk, 4 (44), pp. 22–32 (in Russian).
  4. Bezrogov V., Zaretskiy Iu., Kosheleva O. (eds) (2019) Detstvo v evropeiskikh avtobiografi iakh: ot Antichnosti do Novogo vremeni. Antologiia [Childhood in European Autobiographies: from Antiquity to Modern times. Anthology]. St Petersburg (in Russian).
  5. Desiaterik V. (2006) Pavlenkov. Moscow (in Russian).
  6. Elson R. (1964) Guardians of Tradition. American Schoolbooks of the Ninteenth Century. Lincoln.
  7. Nordeborg M. (2007) The “Good Child” and Nation-Building in Japan — The First Japanese Primary School Reader. Göteborg.
  8. Pantle U. (2009) “Bei uns in der Stadt. Kindliche Lebenswirklichkeiten und fi ktive Stadträume in deutschsprachigen Fibeln”, in A. Sowa, S. Schindler (hrsgg.). Candide. Journal for Architectural Knowledge, 1, pp. 69–96.
  9. Romashina E., Teterin I. (2018) “«Ucheniki k kartine tak vse i tianutsia»: rukovodstvo k nagliadnomu obucheniiu gramote N. A. Korfa” [“«All pupils are being drawn to the picture»: Nikolai Korff 's Guide to Visually-Aided Teaching of Literacy”]. Vestnik PSTGU, ser. 4, 51, pp. 73–81 (in Russian).
  10. Tendryakova M., Bezrogov V. (2019) “Korf i gorod: fi gura urbis capitis v uchebnyh knigah dlya zemskoj shkoly” [Korff and the City: fi gura urbis capitis in Elementary Textbooks for Rural School of the 2nd Half of the 19th Century]. Vestnik PSTGU, ser. 4, 54, pp. 84–105 (in Russian).
Bezrogov Vitaly
Academic Degree: Doctor of Sciences* in Education;
Academic Degree: Candidate of Sciences* in History;
Place of work: Institute for Strategy and Theory of Education of the Russian Academy of Education; 5/16 Makarenko Str., Moscow 105062, Russian Federation;
Post: Senior Research Fellow;
ORCID: 0000-0001-6389-4783;
Email: bezrogov@mail.ru. *According to the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) 2011, the degree of Candidate of Sciences (Cand.Sc.) belongs to ISCED level 8 — "doctoral or equivalent", together with PhD, DPhil, D.Lit, D.Sc, LL.D, Doctorate or similar.
Tendryakova Maria
Academic Degree: Candidate of Sciences* in History;
Place of work: Institute of Ethnology and Anthropology of the Russian Academy of Sciences; 32a Leninskii Prospekt, Moscow 119991, Russian Federation;
Post: Senior Research Fellow;
ORCID: 0000-0001-6206-8439;
Email: mashatendryak@gmail.com. *According to the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) 2011, the degree of Candidate of Sciences (Cand.Sc.) belongs to ISCED level 8 — "doctoral or equivalent", together with PhD, DPhil, D.Lit, D.Sc, LL.D, Doctorate or similar.
The study was supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research, grants 17-06-00066\ОГН и 17-06-00288\ОГН.