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Петин Д. И., Сушко А. В. Процесс обращения в православие военнопленных славян в Омске (1915–1917 гг.) // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия II: История. История Русской Православной Церкви. 2021. Вып. 103. С. 78-98. DOI: 10.15382/sturII2021103.78-98
The article presents a little-studied aspect of religious life in Russia during the First World War, associated with mass conversions to the Orthodox faith of prisoners of war of the Slavs – former soldiers and officers of the Austro-Hungarian army. The study was based on sources representative of the stated problem – the records of the birth books of Orthodox churches in Omsk for 1915–1917, the official church magazine «Omsk Eparchialnye Vedomosti» and reports of the Omsk gendarme administration. The connection of the issue under study with historiography is given, on the basis of which the controversial issue related to the number of prisoners of war of the Slavs attached to Orthodoxy in Omsk is indicated. The anthropological approach, problem-chronological, statistical and historical-comparative methods formed the methodological basis of the study. This theoretical combination made it possible to analyze the process under study in maximum detail, to identify qualitative indicators, linking everything that happened with the specific historical situation and the personalities of the church hierarchs who served in Western Siberia. The factors that determined the decision to convert to Orthodoxy of captured Slavs who were in Omsk during the First World War – Czechs, Rusins, Poles are indicated. The authors come to the conclusion about the «Omsk phenomenon» of the Slavs prisoners of war joining Orthodoxy, thanks to the ascetic activity of the missionaries of the Omsk and Pavlodar dioceses, who were headed by Bishop Sylvester (Olshevsky). As can be seen from the study, the dynamic development of this process was ensured by the official ideology that dominated the Russian Empire, based on Orthodox values. The issue studied in the article is analytically stated in terms of aspects related to the quantitative, ethnic, confessional, and social characteristics of the converts. The authors emphasize that the fall of the monarchy as a result of the Russian Revolution led to a change in the paradigm of the country's development and immediately put an end to the mass conversions of Slavs prisoners of war to Orthodoxy in Omsk. The publication may be of interest to researchers of the peoples of Eastern Europe, military and social history, as well as national and religious politics.
Russian Orthodox Church, proselytism, Czechs, Rusins, Poles, World War I, Russian Revolution, prisoners of war, bishop Sylvester, Omsk diocese, Omsk
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Petin Dmitriy
Academic Degree: Candidate of Sciences* in History;
Academic Rank: Associate Professor;
Place of work: Omsk State Technical University; 11 Prosp. Mira, Omsk 644050, Russian Federation;
Post: associate professor, Department of history, philosophy and social communications;
ORCID: 0000-0003-1614-8133;
Email: dimario86@rambler.ru. *According to the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) 2011, the degree of Candidate of Sciences (Cand.Sc.) belongs to ISCED level 8 — "doctoral or equivalent", together with PhD, DPhil, D.Lit, D.Sc, LL.D, Doctorate or similar.
Sushko Aleksey
Academic Degree: Doctor of Sciences* in History;
Academic Rank: Professor;
Place of work: Omsk State Technical University; 11 Prosp. Mira, Omsk 644050, Russian Federation;
Post: professor, Department of history, philosophy and social communications;
ORCID: 0000-0002-6703-8535;
Email: alexsushko_1974@mail.ru. *According to ISCED 2011, a post-doctoral degree called Doctor of Sciences (D.Sc.) is given to reflect second advanced research qualifications or higher doctorates.
The article was prepared with the support of the Russian Science Foundation project, 21-18-00266 "Religious factor in Russia during the Civil War: phenomenon, significance and regional specificity", implemented at St. Petersburg State University.
Сушко А. В. Первый омский новомученик Николай Цикура: анализ убийства служителя церкви в условиях начала Гражданской войны в России // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия II: История. История Русской Православной Церкви. 2022. Вып. 105. С. 111-123. DOI: 10.15382/sturII2022105.111-123
The article analyzes the events in Omsk on February 15-22, 1918, when an attempt by the regional Soviet authorities to implement the "Decree on the separation of church from state and school from church" led to riots in, Soviet historiography called the "priest's rebellion". In the course of these events, the novice and housekeeper of the bishop's house, Nikolai Tsikura, was killed and later canonized by the Russian Orthodox Church. The aim of the work is to analyze the circumstances of the death of Nikolai Tsikura in the context of the events of the Civil War that broke out in Russia. Along with published reports in periodicals and published and unpublished memoirs, one of the key evidence of the topic under consideration is the act record of the death of Nikolai Tsikura, stored in the Historical Archive of the Omsk Region. The article introduces into scientific circulation a brief description of the personality of Nikolai Tsikura, given to him in connection with the events of the “priest’s rebellion” in the memoirs of Omskovite M.A. Stolpovsky, who personally knew him. After analyzing two points of view on the cause of the murder of Nikolai Tsikura (he defended the bishop during the arrest or was killed for no apparent reason), the author notes the absence of a source that allows to unambiguously answer that question. When analyzing the circumstances of the death of Nikolai Tsikura, special attention is paid to the fact that the bells rang by killed priest triggered the mass unrest in Omsk, brought the people out into the streets who defended Bishop Sylvester and other arrested priests from possible reprisals and postponed for a month the implementation in Omsk of the “Decree on the separation of church from state and school from church.” It is emphasized that the canonization of Nikolai Tsikura in In 2000, continued the church tradition of venerating him as a holy new martyr started in 1918 at the Local Council of the Russian Orthodox Church.
Russian Orthodox Church, Russian revolution, Civil war in Russia, Omsk, priest's revolt, Nikolai Tsikura, Bishop Sylvester (Olshevsky), new martyrs and confessors.
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  6. Petin D. (2021) Istoriia omskogo roda Batiushkinykh [History of the Omsk family of the Batyushkins]. Omsk (in Russian).
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Sushko Aleksey
Academic Degree: Doctor of Sciences* in History;
Academic Rank: Professor;
Place of work: Omsk State Technical University; 11 Prosp. Mira, Omsk 644050, Russian Federation;
Post: professor, Department of history, philosophy and social communications;
ORCID: 0000-0002-6703-8535;
Email: alexsushko_1974@mail.ru. *According to ISCED 2011, a post-doctoral degree called Doctor of Sciences (D.Sc.) is given to reflect second advanced research qualifications or higher doctorates.
The article was prepared with the support of the Russian Science Foundation project, 21-18-00266 "The religious factor in Russia during the Civil War: the phenomenon, significance and regional specificity", implemented at the St. Petersburg State University.