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Степанов А. Ф. "Большой террор" 1937-1938 гг. и православное духовенство: репрессии в Советском Татарстане // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия II: История. История Русской Православной Церкви. 2010. Вып. 3 (36). С. 67-80.
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The Orthodox Church, the Tatar ASSR, the repression, the closing of temples, the Great purge, the NKVD Troika of Tatarstan, sentenced, executed clergy
Степанов И. И. Социальное служение Русской Православной Церкви в конце XIX — начале XX в. в трудах церковных и светских исследователей // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия II: История. История Русской Православной Церкви. 2012. Вып. 5 (48). С. 62-71.
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The article covers the study’s periods of the social service of the Russian Orthodox Church from the end ofXIX century to the beginning ofXX century, the discussion about the history’s research of the social service of the Orthodox Church in the historiography of the XX century, the general levels of the social service in the same period. The author stresses that the social service of The Orthodox Church in that period got realized in unselfish and unpaid social activity.
phases of social service of the Russian Orthodox Church, establishment of charity communities, parish charity, charity
Hegumen Luka (Stepanov I.)
Катцер Н., Бакиров В. С., Борисов Н. С., Сухова Н. Ю., Савчук В. С., Иванов А. Е., Петров Ф. А. Круглый Стол, посвященный выходу в свет книги // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия II: История. История Русской Православной Церкви. 2013. Вып. 4 (53). С. 141-157. — Rev. op.: «Университет в Российской империи XVIII — первой половины XIX века» / Под общ. ред. А. Ю. Андреева и С. И. Посохова. М.: РОССПЭН, 2012
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Kattser Nikolaus
Bakirov Vil'
Borisov Nikolai
Sukhova Nataliia
Savchuk Varfolomei
Ivanov Anatolii
Petrov Fedor
Булах М. С. Христианская терминология в "Арабско-эфиопском Глоссарии"XIV в. // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия III: Филология. 2015. Вып. 5 (45). С. 20-29. DOI: 10.15382/sturIII201545.20-29
The «Arabic-Ethiopic Glossary» is a unique lexical list dated at 14th cent. A.D. and containing Arabic lexemes belonging to the most important lexical fields, which are accompanied by translations into «Ethiopic» — in reality, into various, mostly Ethio-Semitic, languages of Ethiopia. The present contribution considers the vocabulary of the Glossary pertaining to the Christian religion. This includes the terms for the two major Christian feasts of Ethiopia — Easter and the Feast of the Finding of the True Cross; matäb — a silk cord put on a person during the baptism ceremony; designations of a priest and of a monk; designation of God. The presence of these lexemes in the Glossary shows the interest of its compiler in Christian Ethiopia.
Ethio-Semitic languages, Tigre, Tigrinya, Amharic, Harari, Gurage languages, Arabic, Ethiopian-Yemenite contacts, Rasulid dynasty, Christianity in Ethiopia, Arabic lexicography.

1. Bulakh M., Kogan L. 2013 “Towards a Comprehensive Edition of the Arabic-Ethiopic Glossary of al-Malik al-Afḍal”, in Aethiopica, Wiesbaden, 2013, vol. 16, pp. 138–148; 2014, vol. 17, pp. 151–168; 2015, vol. 18 (in print).
2. Cerulli E. Studi Etiopici, Roma, 1936, vol. 1: La lingua e la storia di Harar.
3. Girma A. Demeke. Amharic-Argobba Dictionary, S. l., 2013.
4. Kane Th. L. Amharic-English Dictionary, Wiesbaden, 1990.
5. Kane Th. L. Tigrinya-English Dictionary, Springfield, 2000.
6. Lane E. W. Arabic-English Lexicon, London, 1863–1893.
7. Leslau W. Comparative Dictionary of Ge’ez (Classical Ethiopic), Wiesbaden, 1987.
8. Leslau W. Ethiopic Documents: Argobba. Grammar and Dictionary, Wiesbaden, 1997.
9. Leslau W. Étude descriptive et comparative du Gafat (éthiopien méridional), Paris, 1956.
10. Leslau W. Etymological Dictionary of Gurage (Ethiopic), Wiesbaden, 1979, vol. 3: Etymological Section.
11. Leslau W. Etymological Dictionary of Harari, Berkeley, Los Angeles, 1963.
12. Littmann E. 1943 “Altamharisches Glossar: Der Wortschatz in den «Canzoni Geez-Amariña»”, in Rivista degli studi orientali, Roma, 1943, vol. 20, pp. 473–505.
13. Littmann E., Höfner M. Wörterbuch der Tigrē-Sprache: Tigrē-Deutsch-English, Wiesbaden, 1962.
14. Ludolf H. Lexicon Amharico-Latinum, cum Indice Latino copioso, Francofurti ad Moenum, 1698.
15. Muth F.-Ch. 2009–2010 “Frühe Zeugnisse des Amharischen und der Gurage-Sprachen in einer polyglotten Wortliste von Al-Malik Al-Afḍal (gest. 778/1377)”, in Folia Orientalia, Wroclaw, Warszawa, Krakôw, 2009–2010, vol. 45/46, pp. 87–109.
16. Piamenta M. A. Dictionary of Post-Classical Yemeni Arabic, Leiden, 1990.
17. Golden P. (ed.) The King’s Dictionary: The Rasûlid Hexaglot: Fourteenth Century Vocabularies in Arabic, Persian, Turkic, Greek, Armenian and Mongol, Leiden, Boston, Köln, 2000.
18. Varisco D. M., Smith G. R. (eds.) The Manuscript of al-Malik al-Afḍal al-Abbās b. ™Alī b. Dāʔūd b. Yūsuf b. ™Umar b. ™Alī Ibn Rasūl: A Medieval Arabic Anthology from the Yemen, Warminster, 1998.
19. Wagner E. Harari-Texte in arabischer Schrift mit Übersetzung und Kommentar, Wiesbaden, 1983.
Белоусов С. С. Государственная власть, духовенство и органы приходского управления Русской Православной Церкви в Калмыкии в 1957–1984 гг. // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия II: История. История Русской Православной Церкви. 2018. Вып. 81. С. 105-117. DOI: 10.15382/sturII201881.105-117
This article examines the problem of interaction between state authorities and the governing bodies of the Russian Orthodox Church in Kalmykia in the period of 1957– 1984. The author analyses the state of religious aff airs, the development of relations both between state authorities and Orthodox Church organisations on the one hand, and between the clergy and church authorities on the other. The factors that infl uenced these relations are discussed as well. Another task is to reconstruct the socio-demographic situation of the Orthodox clergy and members of parish councils, as well as to identify and analyse the behavioural strategies of the Orthodox clergy. The article draws on materials of the State Archive of the Russian Federation and the National Archive of Republic of Kalmykia, most of materials being made public for the fi rst time. The study of the religious situation in 1957–1984 has showed that in spite of the strong atheistic propaganda, a certain part of population in Kalmykia steadfastly preserved the Orthodox rites. The main proportion of believers, of regular church-goers and members of local organs of church self-administration was made up by elderly people, mainly women, whereas middle-aged and young people were few. State authorities did not aim to eliminate the existing Orthodox houses of worship, but at the same time suppressed any attempts of believers to set up new churches and parishes. The author of the article comes to the conclusion that the main component of the religious policies was the weakening of the infl uence of the clergy on church-goers and increased supervision of religious life. In these circumstances, the Orthodox clergy in their relations with authorities employed either the strategy of adaptation or confrontation. Confl icts between members of the clergy and church authorities on the one hand and state authorities on the other usually arose on economic grounds and did not have a political character.
Kalmykia, Russian Orthodox Church, church-state relations, Soviet religious policies, Commissioner for Religious Aff airs, clergy, parish, church government, strategy of behaviour, I. S. Shandrygin, V. V. Partolin
  1. Belousov S. S., State religious policy in Kalmykia against Christian faiths in the first half of the XX century (1900–1956), Elista, 2015.
  2. Belousov S. S., Orthodox parishes of Kalmykia in the XIX — early XX century, Elista, 2003.
  3. Borisenko I. V., “As closed Orthodox Church”, in: Izvestiya Kalmykii, 1991, Dec. 4.
  4. Borisenko I. V., “Rectors of the parish of Elistinskaya “, in: Izvestiya Kalmykii, 1993, June, 11.
  5. Borisenko I. V., Orthodoxy in Kalmykia, Moscow, 1999.
  6. Kasparov E. L., Dynamics of fertility and nuptiality in the Kalmyk Autonomous Soviet socialist Republic, Elista, 1974.
Belousov Sergey
Academic Degree: Candidate of Sciences* in History;
Place of work: Kalmyk Research Centre of the Russian Academy of Sciences; 8 Ilishkina Str., Elista 358009, Russian Federation;
Post: Associate Professor, Senior Research Fellow;
ORCID: 0000-0001-7614-3516;
Email: sbelousovelista@mail.ru. *According to the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) 2011, the degree of Candidate of Sciences (Cand.Sc.) belongs to ISCED level 8 — "doctoral or equivalent", together with PhD, DPhil, D.Lit, D.Sc, LL.D, Doctorate or similar.
Степанов П. В., Степанова И. В., Селиванова Н. Л. Теоретические основы подготовки будущих педагогов к воспитательной деятельности в системе общего и дополнительного образования // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия IV: Педагогика. Психология. 2018. Вып. 49. С. 39-48. DOI: 10.15382/sturIV201849.39-48
This article deals with topical reasons for the changes in the training of prospective teachers for their educational activity within the framework of general and supplementary education of children. These changes are mainly related to the integration of modern scientifi c knowledge about education into the process of teacher training for educational activities at school. The changes are also connected with the updating of educational and methodological background of teacher education. Besides, the process of upgrading teacher education should take into account not only the current achievements of educational science but also those changes in the teaching routine that have been introduced by new normative and methodical documents. The article examines advantages and drawbacks in the currently existing programme-related, educational and methodical background of teacher education. We also point to key problems in training prospective teachers for educational work. Solving these problems is supposed to increase the competitiveness of graduates. Special attention is paid to theoretical fundamentals of preparing future teachers for their work in the system of general and supplementary education.
character education, student, teacher, teacher training, educational organisation, systematisation, theoretical background
  1. Kolesnikova I. A., Titova E. V., Pedagogicheskaia praksiologiia: ucheb. posobie dlia stud. vyssh. ped. ucheb. zavedenii, Moscow, 2005.
  2. Malenkova L. I., Teoriia i metodika vospitaniia: Ucheb. posobie, Moscow, 2002.
  3. Novikov A. M., Osnovaniia pedagogiki. Posobie dlia avtorov uchebnikov i prepodavatelei, Moscow, 2010.
  4. Selivanova N. L., Vospitanie v sovremennoi shkole: ot teorii k praktike, Moscow, 2010.
  5. Stepanov P. V., “Motivatsiia pedagogov kak vospitatelei”, in: Narodnoe obrazovanie, 2, 2009, 190–196.
Stepanov Paul
Academic Degree: Candidate of Sciences* in Education;
Place of work: Institute for Strategy of Education Development of the Russian Academy of Education; 5/16, Room 208, Makarenko Str., Moscow 101000, Russian Federation;
Post: Deputy head of the Center of strategy and theory of education of the personality;
ORCID: 0000-0003-4924-835X;
Email: semya-2005@yandex.ru. *According to the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) 2011, the degree of Candidate of Sciences (Cand.Sc.) belongs to ISCED level 8 — "doctoral or equivalent", together with PhD, DPhil, D.Lit, D.Sc, LL.D, Doctorate or similar.
Stepanova Irina
Academic Degree: Candidate of Sciences* in Education;
Academic Rank: Senior Research Fellow;
Place of work: Institute for Strategy of Education Development of the Russian Academy of Education; 5/16, Room 208, Makarenko Str., Moscow 101000, Russian Federation;
Post: Senior researcher;
ORCID: 0000-0001-9972-0267;
Email: semya-2005@yandex.ru. *According to the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) 2011, the degree of Candidate of Sciences (Cand.Sc.) belongs to ISCED level 8 — "doctoral or equivalent", together with PhD, DPhil, D.Lit, D.Sc, LL.D, Doctorate or similar.
Selivanova Natalia
Academic Degree: Doctor of Sciences* in Education;
Place of work: Institute for Strategy of Education Development of the Russian Academy of Education; 5/16, Room 208, Makarenko Str., Moscow 101000, Russian Federation;
Post: Head of strategy and theory of education of the personality;
ORCID: 0000-0001-6654-5992;
Email: nselivanova2000@mail.ru. *According to ISCED 2011, a post-doctoral degree called Doctor of Sciences (D.Sc.) is given to reflect second advanced research qualifications or higher doctorates.
The article is written in 2018 within the framework of the project № 27.7091.2017/ БЧ of Institute for strategy of education development of the Russian academy of education.
Булах М. С. «Поучение о бренности мира» как жанр староамхарской поэзии // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия III: Филология. 2018. Вып. 57. С. 24-36. DOI: 10.15382/sturIII201857.24-36
This paper deals with four Old Amharic poetic texts that can be attributed to the genre of “admonition on the transience of the world”. The paper discusses in detail both the common features, uniting all the four texts, and the features that characterise only some of them. To the common features belong the style of rhymed prose, the genre of admonition addressed to the believer, the distinction between the speaker and listener. Among the parameters that point to more or less close links between the separate texts of admonition, the article discusses the rhyme, the presence and type of refrains that introduce new portions of the text, the degree of involvement of the speaker, the employment of the theme of “renouncing wealth” as the prevalent theme, the range of topics covered by the text, the existence of supplementary prosaic fragments. Finally, a preliminary assessment of the available hypotheses on the origin of the texts of admonition and their relationship is made. Two texts demonstrate extensive shared fragments and may go back to a common archtype. The third text is relatively independent, but it is also connected with one of the two fi rst texts by a shared fragment. The fourth text represents an independent work and is united with the others only by a shared theme and some principles of text structure. The existence of independent admonitions allows us to regard the “admonition on the transience of the world” as a specifi c genre. This genre is very likely to have been infl uenced in its origin by the European mediaeval literature on the contempt of the world that came to be known in Ethiopia due to the Catholic missionary activities in the 16th–17th centuries.
Ethiopia, Christianity in Ethiopia, Amharic language, Old Amharic, Old Amharic literature, Amharic literature, literature of Ethiopia, Amharic poetry, Amharic religious literature, literature on contempt of the world, mediaeval Christian literature
  1. Fridman I. (2015) “Staroamkharskii traktat «Vidy tvoreniya» kak odno iz sochineniy tsikla «Krasota tvoreniya»” [“Kinds of Creation: an Unpublished Text in Old Amharic as a Specimen of the Exegetical Cycle Beauty of the Creation”]. Vestnik PSTGU III: Filologiya, 2015, vol. 5 (45), pp. 70‒78 (in Russian).
  2. Cowley R. (1974) “A Text in Old Amharic”. Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, 1974, vol. 37, pp. 597‒607.
  3. Cowley R. (1983) “Ludolf’s Fragmentum Piquesii: an Old Amharic Tract about Mary who Anointed Jesus’ Feet”. Journal of Semitic Studies, 1983, vol. 28/1, pp. 1‒46.
  4. Getatchew Haile (1979a) “Panegyrics in Old Amharic, EMML* 1943, f. 3v”. Israel Oriental Studies, vol. 9, pp. 228‒236.
  5. Getatchew Haile (1979b). “Some Archaic Features of Amharic”, in R. L. Hess (ed.) Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference of Ethiopian Studies, Session B, April 13‒16, 1978. Chicago. Pp. 111‒124.
  6. Getatchew Haile (1983) “Old Amharic Features in a Manuscript from Wollo (EMML 7007)”, in S. Segert, A. J. E.Bodroglieri (eds.) Ethiopian Studies Dedicated to Wolf Leslau. Wiesbaden. Pp. 157‒169.
  7. Getatchew Haile (1986) “Materials on the Theology of Qəbʿat or Unction”, in G. Goldenberg (ed.) Ethiopian Studies. Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference, Tel-Aviv, 14‒17 April 1980. Rotterdam; Boston. Pp. 205‒250.
  8. Getatchew Haile (2005) “An Archaic Amharic Poem on Condemning Wealth and Glory”, in G. Khan (ed.) Semitic Studies in Honour of Edward Ullendorff. Leiden; Boston. Pp. 255–275.
  9. Getatchew Haile (2011) “One More Text in ‘Older Amharic’”. Rassegna di Studi Etiopici. 2011, vol. 3, pp. 63‒74.
  10. Getatchew Haile (2014) “One More Archaic Amharic Poem on Christian Virtues and Vices”, in A. Bausi, A. Gori, G.Lusini (eds.) Linguistic, Oriental and Ethiopian Studies in Memory of Paolo Marrassini. Wiesbaden. Pp. 445–475.
  11. Girma Awgichew Demeke (2014) Grammatical Changes in Semitic: A Diachronic Grammar of Amharic. Princeton; Addis Ababa (Afroasiatic Studies, 4).
  12. Goldenberg G. (2013) “Məśṭira ṣəgeyāt” The Old Amharic Mysteries of the Rosary”, in G. Goldenberg. Further Studies in Semitic Linguistics. Münster. Pp. 155‒175.
  13. Griaule M. (1932) “Regles de l’Eglise”. Journal Asiatique. 1932, vol. 221, pp. 1‒42.
  14. Leslau W. (1987) Comparative Dictionary of Geʿez (Classical Ethiopic). Wiesbaden.
  15. Strelcyn S. (1964) “Ethiopian Medical Treatises as a Source for the Study of Early Amharic”, in L. J. Bown, M.Crowder (eds.) Proceedings of the First International Congress of Africanists, Accra: 11th‒18th December 1962. London. Pp. 105–112.
  16. Strelcyn S. (1981) “Les mystères des Psaumes, traité éthiopien sur l’emploi des Psaumes (amharique ancien)”. Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies. 1981, vol. 44/1, pp. 54‒84.
  17. Titov Е. G., Bulakh М. S. (2013). “Amkharskii yazyk” [“Amharic language”], in M. S. Bulakh, L. E. Kogan, O. I. Romanova (eds.). Yazyki mira. Semitskie yazyki. Efiosemitskie yazyki [Languages of the World. Semitic Languages. Ethiosemitic Languages]. Moscow. Pp. 311‒374 (in Russian).
Bulakh Maria
Academic Degree: Candidate of Sciences* in Philology;
Place of work: Russian State University for the Humanities; 6 Miusskaya Sq., Moscow, 125993, Russian Federation; National Research University “Higher School of Economics”; 21/4 Staraya Basmannaya Str., Moscow, 105066, Russian Federation;
Post: research fellow;
ORCID: 0000-0001-5490-6674;
Email: mbulakh@mail.ru. *According to the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) 2011, the degree of Candidate of Sciences (Cand.Sc.) belongs to ISCED level 8 — "doctoral or equivalent", together with PhD, DPhil, D.Lit, D.Sc, LL.D, Doctorate or similar.
The preparation of the contribution was supported by RFBR/РФФИ (grant #17-06-00391).
Степанова Е. А. Теория божественного повеления: логическое опровержение и теологическое оправдание // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия I: Богословие. Философия. Религиоведение. 2020. Вып. 87. С. 70-86. DOI: 10.15382/sturI202087.70-86
In the article, the problem of sources of moral authority in intellectual history associated with Christianity is observed. Among possible concepts of moral sources, namely, virtue ethics, ethics of natural law, and divine command theory, the focus is on the latter. The author describes main principles of divine command theory (DCT): it is based on the conviction that the essence of morality, i. e. the concept of good and evil, justice and injustice, etc., directly depends on God’s commands and prohibitions. In the last decades of the twentieth century, the principle of divine command as an independent theory has obtained a fresh impetus in English-speaking analytic philosophy. The meta-ethical nature of the divine command theory reveals inself in defining ethical judgments through theological concepts. The main provisions of the divine command theory are defi ned: fi rstly, the identity of a prescribing or prohibiting divine will as a source of morality, and will in the form of obedience as the cause of moral action; secondly, a consideration of moral prescriptions as the subject of revelation (faith), but not of rational choice; thirdly, the sovereignty of God as a source of morality. The main critical arguments addressed to the divine command theory are considered: fi rstly, arguments, which arose from so-called “Euthyphro dilemma” related to the arbitrary nature of the concept of good, as well as to the question of what is primary — the concept of good or divine command; secondly, the incompatibility of the divine command theory with moral autonomy; thirdly, critique of the divine command theory from the standpoint of pluralism, and the problem of the DCT’s persuasiveness for unbelievers, or adherents of other religions besides Christianity. The author concludes that the divine command theory seems to be unconvinced from a rational point of view; at the same time, rational critical arguments seem to be useless for theologically-minded researchers. Nonetheless, such discrepancy does not exclude the need to find adequate forms of dialogue between believers and non-believers.
morality, revelation, obedience, divine command, Euthyphro dilemma, moral autonomy, pluralism
  1. Adams R. M. (1973) “Modifi ed Divine Command Theory of Ethical Wrongness”, in G. Outka, J. P. Reeder (eds) Religion and Morality. Garden City, pp. 320‒344.
  2. Adams R. M. (1987) The Virtue of Faith and Other Essays in Philosophical Theology. New York.
  3. Adams R. M. (1999) Finite and Infi nite Goods: A Framework for Ethics. New York.
  4. Adams R. M. (2003) “A Modifi ed Divine Command Theory of Ethical Wrongness”, in C. Taliaferro, P. J. Griffiths (eds) Philosophy of Religion: An Anthology. New Jersey, pp. 472‒473.
  5. Anscombe G. E. M. (1958) “Modern Moral Philosophy”. Philosophy: The Journal of the Royal Institute of Philosophy, XXXIII (124), pp. 1‒19.
  6. Appolonov A. (2002) “Zhizn’ i tvorchestvo Uil’yama Okkama” [Life and Works of William Ockham], in Uil’yam Okkam. Izbrannoe [William Ockham. Selected Works]. Moscow, pp. vii‒xxvii (in Russian).
  7. Austin M. W. (2018) “Divine Command Theory”, in Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy, available at: https://www.iep.utm.edu/divine-c/ (7 December 2018).
  8. Brunner E. (2002) The Divine Imperative: A Study in Christian Ethics. James Clarke & Co.
  9. Habermas J. (2006) “Religion in the Public Sphere”. European Journal of Philosophy, 14 (1), pp. 1‒25.
  10. Hare J. E. (2011) “Ethics and Religion: Two Kantian Arguments”. Philosophical Investigations, 34 (2), pp. 151‒168.
  11. Hare J. E. (2017) “Divine Command Theory”, in S. Wilkens (ed.) Christian Ethics: Four Views. InterVarsity Press, pp. 125‒147.
  12. Hauerwas S. (1991) The Peaceable Kingdom: A Primer in Christian Ethics. Notre Dame, I: University of Notre Dame Press.
  13. Heltzel P. G. (2017) “A Prophetic Ethics Response”, in S. Wilkens (ed.) Christian Ethics: Four Views. InterVarsity Press, pp. 159‒164.
  14. Idziak J. M. (1979) Divine Command Morality: Historical and Contemporary Readings. New York.
  15. Idziak J. M. (1989) “In Search of Good Positive Reason for an Ethics of Divine Commands: Catalogue of Arguments”. Faith and Philosophy, 6 (4), pp. 47‒64.
  16. Idziak J. M. (2004) “Divine Commands are the Foundation of Morality”, in M. L. Peterson, R. J. VanArragon (eds) Contemporary Debates in Philosophy of Religion. Blackwell Publishing, pp. 292‒301.
  17. Kant I. (1980) “Die Religion innerhalb der Grenzen der bloßen Vernunft”, in I. Kant. Traktaty i pis’ma [Treatises and Letters]. Moscow (Russian translation).
  18. Lewis C. S. (2004) “Mere Christianity”, in Sobranie sochineniy v 8 t. [Collected Works in 8 vols], vol. 1. Moscow; St Petersburg, pp. 11‒202 (Russian translation).
  19. Lobkovich N., Appolonov A. (eds) (2012) Thomas Aquinas. Summa theologiae, vol. 4. Moscow (Russian translation).
  20. Maiorov G. (ed.) (2001) Blazhennyi Ioann Duns Scotus. Izbrannoe [Ioannes Duns Scotus. Selected Works]. Moscow (Russian translation).
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  27. Rorty R. (2003) “Religion in the Public Square: A Reconsideration”. Journal of Religious Ethics, 31 (1), pp. 141‒149.
  28. Swinburne R. (2016) The Coherence of Theism. Oxford.
  29. Vanier J., Hauervas S. (2015) Zhit’ mirno sredi nasiliia [Living Peacefully in the Violent World]. Kiev; Moscow (Russian translation).
  30. Waluchow W. J. (2003) The Dimensions of Ethics: An Introduction to Ethical Theory. Peterborough.
  31. Wilkens S. (ed.) (2017) Christian Ethics: Four Views. InterVarsity Press.
Stepanova Elena
Academic Degree: Doctor of Sciences* in Philosophy;
Academic Rank: Associate Professor;
Place of work: Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences; Sofia Kovalevskaya str. 16, Ekaterinburg, 620108 Russia;
Post: Principal Research Fellow;
ORCID: 0000-0002-2559-3573;
Email: stepanova.elena.a@gmail.com. *According to ISCED 2011, a post-doctoral degree called Doctor of Sciences (D.Sc.) is given to reflect second advanced research qualifications or higher doctorates.
Степанова Н. А. Проблема изучения духовных оснований внутренней свободы личности в отечественной психологии // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия IV: Педагогика. Психология. 2020. Вып. 59. С. 120-135. DOI: 10.15382/sturIV202059.120-135
Internal freedom is understood by most modern Russian authors as the achievement of a highly organised self-governing successful personality, but the spiritual component of internal freedom is insuffi ciently studied, which makes the understanding of the phenomenon of freedom in psychology one-sided and limited. This article presents an analysis of the legacy of L. S. Vygotsky and L. I. Bozhovich in terms of understanding of the grounds and driving forces of the phenomenon of self-liberation. L. S. Vygotsky considered all psychology the science of freedom. He understood the essence and content of the process of human self-liberation as the desire for conscious and meaningful movement in the living space to achieve the public good, based on the power of reason, will and motivation. L. S. Vygotsky's ideas about inner “freedom for”, meaningfulness of life, self-regulation and self-transcendence, in many respects identical to the ideas of modern existentialist psychologists, found their continuation in the concept of personality of L. I. Bozhovich. She considers free a harmonious, internally consistent personality, aspiring to the realisation of universal values, and as ontogenetic stages of development of internally free personality. Her works describe the stages of development of the will, the highest of which is post-spontaneity, which implies the realisation of the highest human values and meanings without the internal struggle of motives, which is the essence of true spiritual inner freedom. The ideas of L. I. Bozhovich about the developed morality, the priority of universal values in the harmonious internally free personality, living for the benefi t of others, remained without due attention. Modern authors, following their foreign colleagues, shift the emphasis in the study of freedom towards awareness, subjectivity and self-determination. The most complete inner freedom as a manifestation of spirituality is presented in the approach of V. Frankl, but his ideas are largely complementary to the ideas of L. S. Vygotsky, L. I. Bozhovich and a number of other Russian philosophers and psychologists who emphasise the importance of spiritual determination. Based on the analysis, the article proposes the author's defi nition of inner freedom and its spiritual foundations and shows that spirituality can be the main mechanism for the development of inner freedom, allowing one to realise the truly human in a person. Such emphasis in the study of the phenomenon of freedom will signifi cantly enrich the methodological basis of the psychological concept of inner freedom and make a signifi cant step towards the universalisation of this concept.
psychology of freedom, inner freedom, self-liberation, spirituality, spiritual determination of freedom, universal values, self-transcendence, self-regulation, meaningfulness, personality
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  21. Stepanova N. A. (2018) “Problema izucheniya svobody i ee dukhovnykh osnovanii v otechestvennoi i zarubezhnoi psikhologii” [“The problem of freedom in domestic and foreign psychological researches”]. Teoreticheskaya i eksperimental'naya psikhologiya, 2018, vol. 11, no 4, pp. 88–97 (in Russian).
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Stepanova Natalia
Academic Degree: Candidate of Sciences* in Psychological Sciences;
Place of work: School No. 1360 of Moscow; 21A Krasnobogatyrskaya Str., 107564, Moscow, Russian Federation;
Post: educational psychologist;
ORCID: 0000-0003-0976-996X;
Email: natalia0663@yandex.ru. *According to the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) 2011, the degree of Candidate of Sciences (Cand.Sc.) belongs to ISCED level 8 — "doctoral or equivalent", together with PhD, DPhil, D.Lit, D.Sc, LL.D, Doctorate or similar.
Белоусов С. С. Конфессиональный аспект в переселенческой политике на калмыцких землях (вторая половина XIX в.) // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия II: История. История Русской Православной Церкви. 2021. Вып. 99. С. 50-62. DOI: 10.15382/sturII202199.50-62
The article examines the confessional aspect of the state migration policy in the Kalmyk lands of Astrakhan Province in the second half of the 19th century. It analyses the features of religious policy in the resettlers’ villages in the Kalmyk lands and reveals its infl uence on the process of the development of parishes. The conclusion of the study is that the main religious component of the state resettlement policy in the Kalmyk lands was assisting the Russian Orthodox Church in forming a parish system in order to serve the spiritual needs of the resettled farmers. The resettlement project was intended primarily to make settlements along roads of strategic importance and transfer part of the Kalmyks to a sedentary lifestyle. It did not directly aff ect the Christianisation of the Kalmyks, but in the future it meant that new settlements would create more favorable conditions for the deployment of missionary activities. In this regard, the state imposed a ban on the resettlement of Old Believers and sectarian population to the Kalmyk lands and took measures to prevent the strengthening of the position of the Buddhist clergy in new settlements. The article pays special attention to the characteristics of the relations between the authorities and the resettled people as to the issue of creating a network of Orthodox parishes; the article reveals the sources of funding for the development of parishes, the diffi culties encountered here, and the results. The necessity of parishes was related both to the farmers’ religiosity and to everyday needs of their daily life. It is shown that despite the desire of the farmers to quickly build a church and open a parish, the tempo of these processed in diff erent settlements varied. They were infl uenced by the intensity of the infl ux of migrants and their fi nancial situation, success in adapting to the conditions of a new place of residence and establishing economic activities. After analysing the facts of parish development for each locality, the article demonstrates that in general it was completed by the beginning of the 20th century. The draws on a wide range of documents from one central and two regional archives of Russia, many of which are made public for the fi rst time.
Russian Orthodox Church, immigrants, religious policy, Kalmyk lands, Astrakhan Province
  1. Belousov S. (2003) Pravoslavnye prikhody Kalmykii v 19 — nachale 20 v. [Orthodox parishes of Kalmykia in the 19th — early 20th centuries]. Elista (in Russian).
  2. Belousov S. (1999) Osnovano tavricheskimi poselentsami. Selo Sadovoe (1849–1917 gg.) [Founded by the migrants from Tauria. The village of Sadovoye (1849–1917)]. Volgograd (in Russian).
  3. Belousov S. (2014) V Kalmytskoi stepi na granitse Evropy i Аzii: Istoriia vozniknoveniia i stanovleniia sela Priiutnogo [In the Kalmyk steppe on the border of Europe and Asia: the origin and development of the village of Priyutnoe]. Stavropol (in Russian).
  4. Borisenko I. (1999) Pravoslavie v Kalmykii [Orthodoxy in Kalmykia]. Moscow (in Russian).
Belousov Sergey
Academic Degree: Candidate of Sciences* in History;
Academic Degree: Candidate of Sciences* in History;
Academic Rank: Associate Professor;
Place of work: Kalmyk Research Centre of the Russian Academy of Sciences; 8 Ilishkina Str., Elista 358009, Russian Federation;
Post: associate professor, senior research fellow;
ORCID: 0000-0001-7614-3516;
Email: sbelousovelista@mail.ru. *According to the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) 2011, the degree of Candidate of Sciences (Cand.Sc.) belongs to ISCED level 8 — "doctoral or equivalent", together with PhD, DPhil, D.Lit, D.Sc, LL.D, Doctorate or similar.
The study was supported by a state grant : project: «Comprehensive study of the processes of socio-political and cultural development of the peoples of the South of Russia» (AAAA-A-19-119011490038-5)
Степанова Е. А. Теологические истоки скандинавской модели государства всеобщего благоденствия: религиозные и светские интерпретации // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия I: Богословие. Философия. Религиоведение. 2021. Вып. 95. С. 45-63. DOI: 10.15382/sturI202195.45-63
The article analyses the research interpretations, both religious and secular, of the provisions of Martin Luther’s doctrine of “two kingdoms”, as well as his views on the sinfulness of human nature, the universal priesthood, etc., which infl uenced the formation and development of the Scandinavian model of the welfare state (mainly using the example of Denmark). The article raises the following questions: How these theological ideas and principles are embodied in traditions, values, behavioural strategies, social trends, formal and informal rules and norms that has led to the emergence of the welfare state? What is common in the institutional design of the welfare state with the Evangelical Lutheran preaching, which for centuries has proclaimed the individual and collective responsibility for the care about others? How the impact of these ideas on social attitudes and beliefs of people may be analysed? The article draws on the results of recent research on this issue that arose within the framework of the “cultural turn” in the humanities and social sciences, which has gradually led to a change in the emphasis in research logic and brought almost to the fore the historical, cultural and religious characteristics of the Scandinavian countries. The article analyses in detail Martin Luther’s doctrine of “two kingdoms” and its contemporary interpretations, including their infl uence on the ideology of Scandinavian social democracy. The conclusion is made that the Scandinavian model of the welfare state is the result of a unique combination of Lutheran piety, the activities of social democratic parties, historical circumstances that has led to the formation of rather homogeneous ethnoconfessional national states, as well as the activities of many people who desired and were able to create decent living conditions for themselves. This topic requires further research, taking into account the socio-cultural context of a particular country.
Lutheranism, secularity, “two kingdoms” doctrine, welfare state, Scandinavian model, social democracy, universalism
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Stepanova Elena
Academic Degree: Doctor of Sciences* in Philosophy;
Academic Rank: Associate Professor;
Place of work: Ural Institute for Humanities; of Ural Federal University 51 Prospekt Lenina, Ekaterinburg;
Post: assistant professor;
ORCID: 0000-0002-2559-3573;
Email: stepanova.elena.a@gmail.com. *According to ISCED 2011, a post-doctoral degree called Doctor of Sciences (D.Sc.) is given to reflect second advanced research qualifications or higher doctorates.