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Симора В. А. Нравственное состояние и проблемы воспитания учащихся духовных семинарий на рубеже XIX — начала XX вв. (на примере Тверской духовной семинарии) // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия IV: Педагогика. Психология. 2016. Вып. 1 (40). С. 75-86. DOI: 10.15382/sturIV201640.75-86
The article examines the problems associated with the spiritual and moral formation of the pre-revolutionary seminary students, and received in connection with these actions of the educational problems. As an example, information from the life of teachers and students of the central seminary of the Russian Empire, the Tver theological seminary, during the period of the Charter of the seminary in 1884 Actuality article is to evaluate the past, matching its lessons to the present and on the basis of the prediction of building an effective educational process. The author notes that a permanent pastoral paternal monitor the development of the inner life of the pupils in all the seminaries established the post of confessor. Despite this spiritual school has not shown suffi cient fi rmness in dealing with the rebellious spirit of negation. The public and the church community at the turn of XIX–XX centuries. repeatedly raised questions about the transformation of the average religious education, even, a new Charter of seminaries, but due to the well-known historical events in 1918 was not adopted.
Tver theological seminary, the Charter's Orthodox theological seminary (1884), religiosity, spirituality, education, inspection, seminarians, pastoral.

1. Beljavskij F. O reforme duhovnoj shkoly. Kratkij ocherk proshlogo srednej shkoly (About Reform of Spiritual School. Short Survey of Past of Middle School), Saint-Petersburg, 1907.
2. Glubokovskij N. O reforme Duhovnoj shkoly (About Reform of Spiritual School), Saint-Petersburg, 1908.
3. 1915 “Duhovnaja i cerkovnaja shkola” (Spiritual and Church School), in Cerkovnyj Vestnik, 1915, vol. 16, p. 478.
4. 1905 “Duhovnaja shkola i ee budushhee” (Spiritual School and Its Future), in Vestnik vospitanija: Nauchno-populjarnyj zhurnal dlja roditelej i vospitatelej, 1905, vol. 9, pp. 157–158.
5. 1907 “Duhovnoe obrazovanie v preddverii cerkovnogo sobora” (Spiritual Education in Threshold of Church Council), in Vestnik vospitanija: Nauchno-populjarnyj zhurnal dlja roditelej i vospitatelej, 1907, vol. 7, p. 129.
6. Zyrjanov P. N. Pravoslavnaja Cerkov' v bor'be s revoljuciej 1905–1907 gg. (Orthodox Church in Struggle against Revolution 1905–1907), Moscow, 1984.
7. 1905 “K voprosu o postanovke dela vospitanija v seminarijah” (To Question of State of Education in Seminaries), in Bogoslovskij Vestnik, Sergiev Posad, 1905, vol. 4, pp. 775–789.
8. Kolyvanov G. Duhovnye seminarii v Rossii v 1880–1920 gg.: dis. ... kand. bogoslovija (Spiritual Seminaries in Russia in 1880–1920: Dissertation), Troice-Sergieva Lavra, 1999.
9. Malinovskij I. 1905 “Seminaristy v universitete” (Seminary Students in University), in Vestnik vospitanija: Nauchno-populjarnyj zhurnal dlja roditelej i vospitatelej, 1905, vol. 6, p. 130.
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11. Ushakov A. V. Revoljucionnoe dvizhenie demokraticheskoj intelligencii v Rossii: 1895–1904 (Revolution Movement of Democratic Intelligence in Russia: 1895–1904), Moscow, 1976.
Simora Vitalii, priest
Симора В. А. Роль преподавательской корпорации в подготовке просвещенного духовенства в Тверской духовной семинарии в начале XX столетия // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия IV: Педагогика. Психология. 2018. Вып. 49. С. 69-77. DOI: 10.15382/sturIV201849.69-77
This article deals with the role of teachers’ corporation of Tver Theological Seminary in the sphere of education of prospective priests of Russian Orthodox Church at the beginning of the 20th century. At the end of the 19th century, an attempt of carrying out reforms of the theological school was made. It was caused by the beginning crisis of the secondary theological school. The signs of crisis in the theological seminary were decrease in study results, bad discipline and disorders. In connection with this, the whole teachers’ corporation, supervising authorities, the management of the seminary and the diocese had to rally in order to resist those external infl uences and internal tumult which had spread onto institutions of secondary spiritual education. The teachers’ corporation was recommended to pay attention to the involvement of high school students to practical participation in church services, to familiarising students with patristic works during school time and as an extracurricular activity. Despite the difficult pre-war period and wartime, complicated fi nancial position (compared to secular educational institutions), many teachers remained faithful to their pedagogical duty up to the closure of Tver Theological Seminary.
teaching, teachers’ corporation, clergy, Tver Theological Seminary, ruling archbishop, seminary, pastoral care, religious and moral education, reform of seminaries
Simora Vitalij, priest
Academic Degree: Candidate of Sciences* in Education;
Academic Rank: Associate Professor;
Place of work: Diocesan administration of the Tver and Kashin diocese, 170000, Tver, Sovetskaya str 10; Institute of pedagogical education and social technologies, Tver state University; 170000 Tver, 33 Zhelyabova str.; St. Tikhon's Orthodox University; Moscow, 127051, Likhov lane., 6;;
Post: The Chairman of the Department of religious education and catechism; associate Professor of theology; graguate student;
ORCID: 0000-0002-7317-9772;
Email: vitalijsimora@yandex.ru. *According to the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) 2011, the degree of Candidate of Sciences (Cand.Sc.) belongs to ISCED level 8 — "doctoral or equivalent", together with PhD, DPhil, D.Lit, D.Sc, LL.D, Doctorate or similar.
Симора В. А. Пастырское служение в образовательных организациях России во второй половине XIX — начале XX в. // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия IV: Педагогика. Психология. 2021. Вып. 61. С. 82-92. DOI: 10.15382/sturIV202161.82-92
This article reveals the content of pastoral service and its purpose in the spiritual development of children in the educational process of educational organisations in Russia in the pre-revolutionary period. The author shows what personal and professional requirements were imposed on priests engaged in public education, as well as the changes that the public education system underwent during this period. The author traces the attitude of the people to the activities of the clergy in the spiritual care and education of children and adults in the 19th century. The author analyses the role of the church and clergy in the 1860s in universal primary education, spiritual and moral education and in the establishment of religious and moral concepts in parochial schools. The example of Tver province demonstrates the measures taken by the secular and ecclesiastical authorities to improve the quality of teaching activities and prepare clergy for teaching religious education. An important role in solving these problems was played by the Brotherhood of law teachers, which opened in Tver province at the beginning of the 20th century at the initiative of Archbishop Antoniy of Tver and Kashin, Chairman of the fi rst all-Russian Congress of teachers of religious education. The Brotherhood dealt with the issues of teaching religious education in accordance with the developed methodological guidelines and contributed to the introduction of the younger generation to the worship and sacraments of the church in educational institutions through systematic interaction with the authorities and pedagogical community of the Ministry and Zemstvo schools.
pastoral ministry, religious education, teacher of religious school subjects, teacher, upbringing, parochial school, brotherhood
  1. Ocherki istorii shkoly v pedagogicheskoi mysli narodov SSSR. Vtoraia polovina XIX v. (1976) [Essays on the history of the school in the pedagogical thought of the peoples of the USSR. The second half of the XIX century.] Moscow (in Russian).
  2. Ososkov A. V. (1982) Nachal'noe obrazovanie v dorevoliutsionnoi Rossii (1861–1917 gg.) [Primary education in pre-revolutionary Russia (1861–1917): a textbook]. Moscow (in Russian).
Simora Vitalij, priest
Academic Degree: Candidate of Sciences* in Education;
Academic Rank: Associate Professor;
Place of work: Diocesan administration of the Tver and Kashin diocese, 170000, Tver, Sovetskaya str 10; Institute of pedagogical education and social technologies, Tver state University; 170000 Tver, 33 Zhelyabova str.; St. Tikhon's Orthodox University; Moscow, 127051, Likhov lane., 6;;
Post: The Chairman of the Department of religious education and catechism; associate Professor of theology; graguate student;
ORCID: 0000-0002-7317-9772;
Email: vitalijsimora@yandex.ru. *According to the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) 2011, the degree of Candidate of Sciences (Cand.Sc.) belongs to ISCED level 8 — "doctoral or equivalent", together with PhD, DPhil, D.Lit, D.Sc, LL.D, Doctorate or similar.