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Сальникова А. А., Галиуллина Д. М. Буквари для крещеных татар второй половины XIX — первых десятилетий ХХ в. // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия IV: Педагогика. Психология. 2019. Вып. 53. С. 90-101. DOI: 10.15382/sturIV201953.90-101
This article deals with the history of the Baptised-Tatar ABC-book (Russ. букварь) which was designed for a specifi c ethno-confessional group, namely Volgaand Ural-region Tatars, i.e. baptised Orthodox Tatars (Kryashens). This ethnoconfessional group had been forming mainly during the second half of the 16th — fi rst half of the 18th centuries, after the conquest of the Khanate of Kazan in 1552 and its inclusion in the Russian state. The article gives a detailed description of the fi rst ABC-book for the baptised Tatars: Букварь, краткая священная история, сокращенный катехизис и молитвы (Russ. “ABC-book, concise Holy History, abridged catechism, and prayers”), prepared and published in 1862 by the prominent Russian orientalist, educationalist and missionary N.M. Il’minskiy. Attention is paid to its novel character as an ABC-book in the Tatar language designed in Cyrillic script. The article studies the history of preparation of the ABC-book, the problem of authorship, the problem of adapting the Russian alphabet to Tatar phonetic features. The ABC-book was republished many times up to 1917 and was the only ABC-book for baptised Tatars during all this period. The article also identifi es the role and place of this ABC-book in the integrated system of Christian enlightenment of non-Russian ethnic groups of Russia developed by N.I. Il’minskiy, as well as in the formation of Orthodox religious consciousness among baptised Tatars. Special attention is paid to the fi rst Sovied Baptised- Tatar ABC-books published in the second half of the 1920s in Arabic and then in Latin scripts as a specifi c cultural and historical phenomenon refl ecting the national and educational strategy of Soviet authorities prior to transition to the unifi ed system of school education in the USSR, both as a medium of integrating a child not only into the new Soviet reality, but also into the new Tatar educational and ethno-cultural space which took into account the cultural specifi city of each ethno-cultural group, reaching as far as separate education. Overall, the ABC-book is discussed in the context of the authoritative “imperial” educationl perspective and the adjustment of the Imperial and Soviet educational policy to specifi c conditions of multi-ethnic and multi-confessional environment.
ABC-books, baptised Tatars (Kryashens), Volga-Ural Tatars, state educational policy, multi-ethnic space, multi-confessional space, educational system of N. I. Il’minsky, Soviet “graphic revolutions”, Russian Empire and USSR, second half of 19th century — 1920s
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  2. Alekseev I., Shîrîf G. (1926) IaŠa avyl. Avyl tatar mekteplere echen beten suzler ysuly belen tezelgen elifba. Kazan (in Tatar).
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  4. Aliksij ef I., Grigurij ef A. (1928) Jana tormoş. Ker‰şen şkollar’ ŒsŒn ‰lifbadan suᶇ uqu kitab’. Qazan (in Tatar).
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Salnikova Alla
Academic Degree: Doctor of Sciences* in History;
Academic Rank: Professor;
Place of work: Kazan (Volga) Federal University; 18 Kremlevskaia Str., Kazan. 420008, Russian Federation;
Post: Professor;
ORCID: 0000-0002-5498-1401;
Email: Alla.Salnikova@kpfu.ru. *According to ISCED 2011, a post-doctoral degree called Doctor of Sciences (D.Sc.) is given to reflect second advanced research qualifications or higher doctorates.
Galiullina Dilyara
Academic Degree: Candidate of Sciences* in History;
Academic Rank: Associate Professor;
ORCID: 0000-0003-4932-2951;
Email: galiullinadm@mail.ru. *According to the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) 2011, the degree of Candidate of Sciences (Cand.Sc.) belongs to ISCED level 8 — "doctoral or equivalent", together with PhD, DPhil, D.Lit, D.Sc, LL.D, Doctorate or similar.
Сальникова А. А., Галиуллина Д. М. От «безрелигиозного» к антирелигиозному воспитанию татарских школьников в 1920-е — начале 1930-х гг.: тактики и практики // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия IV: Педагогика. Психология. 2020. Вып. 57. С. 123-135. DOI: 10.15382/sturIV202057.123-135
This article studies main tactics and practices of the Soviet government aimed at eradicating religious consciousness and religious attitudes among Tatar schoolchildren in the 1920s — early 1930s. Special attention is paid to the specifi city of implementation of the decree of the Council of People’s Commissars’ (Rus. Совет народных комиссаров) “On freedom of conscience, church and religious societies” (January 20, 1918) in Kazan Guberniya (since 1920, Tatar Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic) aimed at superseding of the Tatar religious school by the Soviet national school of the new type. Drawing on regulatory documents, the article traces main stages in the solution to this problem, including fl uctuations in the course conditioned by the development of the general political situation in the country which were totally in line with the relationship between the state and the church in Soviet Russia of the studied period. The article also emphasises the meaning of the “graphic reform” of 1927 which established Yanalif, i.e. the Latin alphabet as the offi cial Tatar writing system, in eliminating Muslim national education in Soviet Tataria. The article studies the specifi city of the early Soviet essayism and textbooks for the Soviet Tatar school and, particularly, of ABC-books in non-religious education of Tatars. It identifi es the transition from nonreligious to antireligious education of Tatar schoolschildren that took place at the turn of the 1920s — 1930s. It outlines main directions of antireligious work among Tatar children and teenagers. It analyses antireligious methodological literature in the Tatar and Russian languages designed for those in charge of antireligious work in the Tatar school of the 1st and 2nd grades. It identifi es the role and determines the place of certain Tatar- and Russian-language magazines for adults and children, i.e. Фен hем дин, Oktеbr balasь, Юные безбожники (Rus. ‘Adolescent atheists’) which contained both instructive guidelines for adults and stories for children as well as information on results of antireligious work in various locations in educating the younger generation. It makes a conclusion about contradictions between antireligious practices, forcibly introduced in the Soviet Tatar school in the late 1920s — early 1930s, and religious family practices as a characteristic feature of “religious socialisation” of a Tatar child.
Soviet national educational policy, Soviet confessional policy, Tatar national school, “non-religious” education, antireligious education, young atheists, Yanalif, antireligious literature, Kazan Guberniya, TASSR, 1920s — early 1930s
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Salnikova Alla
Academic Degree: Doctor of Sciences* in History;
Academic Rank: Professor;
Place of work: Kazan (Volga) Federal University; 18 Kremlevskaia Str., Kazan. 420008, Russian Federation;
Post: Professor;
ORCID: 0000-0002-5498-1401;
Email: Alla.Salnikova@kpfu.ru. *According to ISCED 2011, a post-doctoral degree called Doctor of Sciences (D.Sc.) is given to reflect second advanced research qualifications or higher doctorates.
Galiullina Dilyara
Academic Degree: Candidate of Sciences* in History;
Academic Rank: Associate Professor;
Place of work: Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University; 18 Kremliovskaya Str., Kazan 420008, Russian Federation;
Post: Associate Professor, Department of Russian History;
ORCID: 0000-0003-4932-2951;
Email: galiullinadm@mail.ru. *According to the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) 2011, the degree of Candidate of Sciences (Cand.Sc.) belongs to ISCED level 8 — "doctoral or equivalent", together with PhD, DPhil, D.Lit, D.Sc, LL.D, Doctorate or similar.