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Салтыкова В. А. Символы евангелистов на миниатюрах евангелия 1571 года из Благовещенского собора Московского Кремля: генезис и особенности иконографии // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия V: Вопросы истории и теории христианского искусства. 2021. Вып. 44. С. 49-66. DOI: 10.15382/sturV202144.49-66
The article is devoted to the study of the iconography of the evangelists' symbols illuminated in the Gospel of 1571 from the collection of the Moscow Kremlin Museums. The author draws attention to the images of the angels crowning the symbolic animals on the miniatures. This iconographic detail is very unusual and even unique for the tradition of depicting of the evangelists' symbols. – there are no direct analogies in Christian art, as well as in any text sources dedicated to evangelists. Particular attention is paid to the question of the origin of such an iconographic motif as an angel with a crown in his hands. The author reveals a circle of ancient prototypes descended from the image of the winged goddess Nike, often found in the monuments of Antiquity. The process of adapting the antique iconographic motif to the Christian arts and endowing it with new semantic connotations is revealed in the article through the analysis of a number of early Christian monuments, in particular, the mosaics of Ravenna and Rome. The further development of this iconography in medieval arts is also examined.In this work, for the first time, it is hypothesized that the possible model for such an unusual iconographic solution in the Gospel of 1571 origins from a circle of Serbian monuments. The author argues her point that Russia and Serbia had close contacts during 15th and 16th centuries and underlines the special role of the Serbian heritage in Russian culture of the era of Ivan the Terrible. The uniqueness of the iconography of the evangelists' symbols in the Evangelists in the Gospel of 1571 is also associated with the special nature of the art of this period, which is characterized by the boldness of artistic creations and the freedom of iconographic experiments, reflected in a number of monuments of that time.
Christian iconography, 16th century, Gospel, symbols of the Evangelists, book illumination, Russian manuscripts, Kremlin workshops, Russian-Serbian relations, Ivan the Terrible
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Saltykova Veronika
Academic Degree: Candidate of Sciences* in Art Criticism;
Place of work: National Research University “Higher School of Economics”; 11 Pokrovskiy bul′var, G-618, Moscow 101000, Russian Federation;
Post: Guest Researcher;
ORCID: 0000-0001-9449-7182;
Email: vsaltykova@hse.ru. *According to the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) 2011, the degree of Candidate of Sciences (Cand.Sc.) belongs to ISCED level 8 — "doctoral or equivalent", together with PhD, DPhil, D.Lit, D.Sc, LL.D, Doctorate or similar.