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Рыбакова Н. Э. К вопросу формирования русского стиля в духовной музыке конца XIX ² начала XX в // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия V: Вопросы истории и теории христианского искусства. 2014. Вып. 4 (16). С. 171-181. DOI: 10.15382/sturV201416.171-181
This article is examining the process of the Russian style's origin in the spiritual music. The Russian style had been formed within many decades and displayed itself in the musical compositions of the New Course at the turn of the XIX–XX centuries. The beginning of Russian style was due to the fact that singing in Russian Orthodox Churches was unsatisfactory, as it was influenced by western-European instrumental music. The search for the national style, which could correspond with the “spirit” and nature of Russian Church singing, led composers and cultural workers to the idea that the national style needed to be based on the ancient church melodies. Metr. Filaret (Drozdov), duke V. F. Odoevsky, M. J. Glinka, archpriest D. Razumovsky and many others talked about it throughout the 19th century. In the attempts to create musical language, corresponding to the ancient melodies, the composers used the idea of its similarity with Russian folk songs, quite often borrowing the principles of their harmonic organization and polyphonic processing. These principles presented themselves in the musical works of the outstanding representative of the New Course, Kastalsky, as he based them on polyphony. The similar style of harmonization of church melodies was taken in by other representatives of the New Course, who assimilated it and used in their own spiritual and musical compositions at the turn of the XIX–XX centuries.
church singing, Russian style, New Course, ancient church melodies, harmonization, spiritual music, Kastalsky.

1. Artemova E. G. Peterburgskaja vetv' v Novom napravlenii: N. I. Kompanejskij, M. A. Lisicyn, S. V. Panchenko: dis. … kand. iskusstv. (Petersburg Branch in New Direction: N. I. Kompanejskij, M. A. Lisicyn, S. V. Panchenko: Dissertation), Moscow, 2003.
2. Gardner I. A. Bogosluzhebnoe penie Russkoj Pravoslavnoj Cerkvi (Service Singing of Russian Orthodox Church), Moscow, 2004, vol. 2.
3. Preobrazhenskij A. V. Kul'tovaja muzyka v Rossii (Cult Music in Russia), Leningrad, 1924.
Рыбакова Н. Э. К вопросу о гармонизациях древних роспевов. По материалам Московского конкурса Общества любителей церковного пения 1884±1886 гг. // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия V: Вопросы истории и теории христианского искусства. 2016. Вып. 1 (21). С. 85-94. DOI: 10.15382/sturV201621.85-94
The article has carried out the research on harmonization of old singsongs which were presented in the competition of the Society of church singing lovers in Moscow. The results of the competition were published in the journal “The experience of transposition of old church hymns for chorus” in 1887. The special transpositions by Weichental and Komarov, which were awarded a prize in the competition, and also the works by Kashperov were studied as a part of the Society’s work, whose primary aim was to rejuvenate the old traditional Russian singing and establish the right view on Church singing and spiritual music development. In order to meet the competition’s requirements and fi nd the most appropriate way of harmonization for Old church singsongs, the composers used special approaches of chorus elaboration for their transpositions which were diff erent from common choral style of harmonization of Church singsongs which was based on classical tonality. The common feature of all the competition’s transpositions was the desire of the composers to make the intonation-rhythmical and harmonized nature of choral score similar to the old singing. As a result, the individual voices sounded freer, softer and more agile and their combination ended in formation of uncommon accords which appeared within the harmony basis on Diatonic scale, namely, on church scale. Despite the opinions of the Society’s members that these compositions were not regarded as an excellent example of harmonized old church singsongs, they became an important milestone on the way to creating the Russian style of spiritual music.
Society of church singing lovers, harmonization, traditional style, competition, znamenny chant.

1. Bogomolova L. M. 1990 “Istoriografija izuchenija ustnoj tradicii v kul'tovom pevcheskom iskusstve” (Historiography of Study of Oral Tradition in Cult Singing Art), in Iz istorii muzykal'noj zhizni Rossii XVIII–XIX vekov, Moscow, 1990, pp. 97–107.
2. Gardner I. A. Bogosluzhebnoe penie Russkoj Pravoslavnoj Cerkvi (Service Singing of Russian Orthodox Church), Moscow, 2004, vol. 2.
3. Plotnikova N. Ju. 1992 “Voskreshenie drevnosti” (Resurrection of Antiquity), in Moskovskij zhurnal, 1992, vol. 6, pp. 33–36.
4. Plotnikova N. Ju. 2005 “Vsenoshhnoe bdenie” (Pannychis), in Pravoslavnaja jenciklopedija, Moscow, 2005. T. IX. S. 679.
5. Potemkina N. A. Bogosluzhebnoe penie v nachale i konce XX veka (Service Singin in Begin and End of XX Century), Moscow, 1999.
6. Rahmanova M. P. 2002 “Obshhestvo ljubitelej cerkovnogo penija: Vstup. stat'ja”, in Russkaja duhovnaja muzyka v dokumentah i materialah, Moscow, 2002, vol. 3, pp. 190–231.
Рыбакова Н. Э. Духовно-музыкальные сочинения П. Д. Самарина // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия V: Вопросы истории и теории христианского искусства. 2018. Вып. 32. С. 161-187. DOI: 10.15382/sturV201832.161-187
The purpose of this article is to draw attention to the harmonisations of church chants carried out by P.D. Samarin, who belonged to a famous Moscow noble family and was an active participant of Moscow Society for Church Singing (Russ. Московское общество любителей церковного пения). One of his spheres of work in this Society was just the harmonisation of church chants. Samarin devoted almost all his life to this work. Being a modest person, he never published his harmonisations, but a range of samples which, in my opinion, deserve attention has been preserved in manuscript form. In this article, the object of study is manuscripts that are now kept in Glinka National Museum of Musical Culture, namely Приидите поклонимся (Church Slavonic ‘Let us Come and Worship’), Слава… Единородный Сыне (‘Glory... Only Begotten Son’), Свете тихий (‘O Quiet Light’) and Хвалите Имя Господне (‘Praise the Name of Lord’). All the samples have transparent texture, clear harmony, and demonstrate stylistic features, typical of Russian church-service chants. The melodies are ususally close in terms of intonation to various church chants (Concise, Znamenny, Kievan), though they are not accompanied by any specifi c guidelines. Triads and triad sounds predominate in the harmonic vertical, the modal variability is widespread. P. D. Samarin’s manuscripts dealt with in this article expand our knowledge about one of the signifi cant sides of his work, while the identifi cation of stylistic distinctiveness of harmonisations of church chants that he carried out characterise him as a connoisseur of everyday church singing.
Moscow Society for Church Singing, harmonisation, Petr Dmitrievich Samarin, ‘Let us Come and Worship’, ‘Glory... Only Begotten Son’, ‘O Quiet Light’, ‘Praise the Name of Lord’
  1. Chernyshova-Samarina E. A. (2001) “Aleksandr Dmitrievich Samarin”, in Samariny. Mansurovy. Vospominaniia rodnykh [The Samarin Family, The Mansurov Family. Memoirs of the Relatives]. Moscow, pp. 119‒204 (in Russian).
  2. Nikol'skii A. V. (2002) “Pamiati P. D. Samarina” [“In Memoriam P. D. Samarin”], in Russkaia dukhovnaia muzyka v dokumentakh i materialakh. T. 3. Tserkovnoe penie poreformennoi Rossii v osmyslenii sovremennikov (1861-1918) [Russian Spiritual Music in Documents and Materials. Vol. 3. Church Singing of Post-Reform Russia in Interpretation of Contemporaries (1861‒1918)]. Moscow, pp. 321‒326 (in Russian).
  3. Plotnikova N. Iu. (2007) “Liubitel' tserkovnogo peniia” [“Lover of Church Singing”], in Russkaia dukhovnaia muzyka XIX — nachala XX veka: stranitsy istorii [Russian Spiritual Music of the 19th — early 20th centuries: Pages of the History]. Moscow, pp. 164‒168 (in Russian).
  4. Rakhmanova M. P. (2002) “Petr Dmitrievich Samarin. Vstupitel'naia stat'ia” [“Petr Dmitrievich Samarin. Introductory Article”], in Russkaia dukhovnaia muzyka v dokumentakh i materialakh. T. 3. Tserkovnoe penie poreformennoi Rossii v osmyslenii sovremennikov (1861–1918) [Russian Spiritual Music in Documents and Materials. Vol. 3. Church Singing of Post-Reform Russia in Interpretation of Contemporaries (1861‒1918)]. Moscow, pp. 290‒292 (in Russian).
  5. Samariny. Mansurovy. Vospominaniia rodnykh (2001) [The Samarin Family, The Mansurov Family. Memoirs of the Relatives]. Moscow (in Russian).
Rybakova Nadezhda
Academic Degree: Candidate of Sciences* in Art Criticism;
Place of work: St. Tikhon’s Orthodox University for the Humanities; 6/1 Likhov Pereulok, Moscow, 127051, Russian Federation;
ORCID: 0000-0002-4940-9937;
Email: r.nadezda2109@mail.ru. *According to the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) 2011, the degree of Candidate of Sciences (Cand.Sc.) belongs to ISCED level 8 — "doctoral or equivalent", together with PhD, DPhil, D.Lit, D.Sc, LL.D, Doctorate or similar.