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Поло де Болье Сборники exempla на народных языках: новая публика? новые функции? // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия III: Филология. 2013. Вып. 3 (33). С. 75-95.
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The paper addresses various issues related to the shift from Latin to vernacular languages in the domain of medieval exempla. It gives analysis of translations of Latin monastic and mendicant collections as well as their early medieval sources (such as Vitae Patrum, Dialogus miraculorum by Caesarius of Heisterbach, and Alphabetum Narrationum by Arnold of Liege). The paper also examines exempla collections initially composed in various vernacular languages in different milieus, mainly secular and clerical, but also monastic (for instance, Le Pelerinage de la Vie Humaine by the French Cistercian Guillaume de Deguileville, La Somme le Roy by the Dominican Frere Laurent, confessor of Philippe le Hardi, and Castigos attributed to King Sancho IV). Retrieving textual and codicological evidence on their purpose and readership, the author concludes that the exempla collections in vernacular languages were generally meant for private reading or recitation in public, and not for preaching, which is reflected in changes in structure and style. Paradoxically, they apparently reached only a very limited audience of literate lay devotees, whereas Latin exempla were brought to a much wider circles thanks to bilingual popular preachers who provided their uneducated listeners with an oral translation.
Medieval Translation, Translation Studies, Latin, Vernacular Languages, Preaching, Exempla
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Смирнова В. В., Поло де Болье Цистерцианское искусство убеждения (XIII–XVI вв.). «Диалог о чудесах» Цезария Гейстербахского и его рецепция // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия III: Филология. 2013. Вып. 4 (34). С. 152-160.
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The article contains detailed summaries of two presentations made at a Paris conference on the Dialogus miraculorum by Caesarius of Heisterbach. The fi rst presentation, «Dialogus miraculorum as an initial source of Scala coeli by Jean Gobi the Younger (1323–1330)» puts forward a thesis that by the 1320s Caesarius had become an auctoritas for the mendicant orders, to which Jean Gobi, the author of Scala coeli belonged. The main problem discussed in the presentation is the contradiction between Jean Gobi’s statement that he borrows his examples from Caesarius and clear stylistic difference between Caesariuss and Jean Gobi’s rendering of the same exempla. M. A. Polo de Beaulieu compares cases of Jean Gobi uninterrupted quoting of the Alphabetum by Arnold of Liege and points out that the rubrication in Scala coeli is the same as in Alphabetum. This leads to the conclusion that Jean Gobi takes his material not directly from Caesarius but through the agency of his Dominican brother, Arnold. In doing this, Jean Gobi prefers to cite the original source and not to mention Arnold, which shows the trustworthiness of a Cistercian author for a Dominican friar. The second presentation, «Accessit abbatis mei imperium... Belief and theology in Caesarius’ of Heisterbach stories», demonstrates (within the framework of the «narrative theology») that in the 9th Section of the Dialogus by Caesarius the narrative structure reinforced by the dialogue epitomises distinctive features of the Cistercian «aff ective theology»: the emphasis on the idea that the cause of the incarnation of God and of the entire divine activity in the world is love; the idea of the personal union of the Christian and God in the Communion when the heart of the faithful, in which Christ is born anew, is likened to Virgin Mary; the attention to the representation of Christ as an infant and to the human nature of Christ. The significance of personal activity in Cistercian theology is expressed on the level of narration in the fact that Caesar’s characters are not passive bearers of faith but actively aspire to the efficient participation in the Sacrament. The narration helps embody the Cistercian creed, nonetheless the Dialogue contain the doctrine of the scholastic Peter of Poitier.
«Scala coeli», Арнольд Льежский, «Alphabetum narrationum»
Smirnova Viktoriia
Polo de Beaulieu
Поло де Больё Жак Ле Гофф и история становления Группы исторической антропологии средневекового Запада // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия III: Филология. 2014. Вып. 3 (38). С. 133-142.
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Поло де Больё Визуальные образы средневековой проповеди // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия III: Филология. 2014. Вып. 3 (38). С. 151-160.
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Полозова И. В. Музыкальная культура барокко в России: общее и специфическое // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия V: Вопросы истории и теории христианского искусства. 2016. Вып. 3 (23). С. 48-64. DOI: 10.15382/sturV201623.48-64
This article is focused upon the specific features of Russian Baroque in musical art. The study centres around the issue of the adaptation of the Baroque style norms in Russian music in the second half of the 17th century — the beginning of the 18th century. The article looks more closely at three elements that constitute key points as far as studying Russian Baroque is concerned. 1. The evolution of Russian culture sees a direct transition from the Middle Ages to the Baroque; therefore, on the one hand, some aesthetic ideals of the Middle Ages are preserved, but on the other hand, the absence of the Renaissance period contributes to the implementation of some separate aesthetical norms of this epoch in the Baroque — the fact that indicates the features of the Pre-rennaissance. 2. The stylistic pluralism of the epoch reflects the combination of the peculiarities of the Middle Ages, the Renaissance and the Baroque as such; the late 18th century sees the appearance of the stylistic features of Classicism. 3. The specifi city of genre palette of Russian Baroque is characterized by the reduction of that of the West-European music. As a result, Russian Baroque experiences the domination of choral genres — the fact that can be explained by its deep roots in Russian musical art; as a result, instrumental music remains on the periphery during the Baroque period.
the Baroque, Russian musical culture of the second half of the 17th century — the first half of the 18th century, stylistic features of the Baroque, specifi c features of Russian Baroque, system of genres

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Апполонов А. В. «Etsi Deus non daretur» («как если бы Бога не было»): Гуго Гроций и схоластическая теология // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия I: Богословие. Философия. Религиоведение. 2018. Вып. 77. С. 63-71. DOI: 10.15382/sturI201877.63-71
In modern Western theology, there is a widespread idea that the formula etsi Deus non daretur (“as if God did not exist”) appears for the fi rst time in works of Hugo Grotius (1583–1645) and marks the advent of a new secular worldview, according to which the world and man are autonomous and independent from the transcendental God. Nevertheless, historical facts show that this formula was in use as early as the 14th century and repeatedly occurred in works of Catholic scholastics (such as Gabriel Biel, Domingo de Soto, Francisco Suarez, etc.). The author’s opinion is that this formula is nothing more than a mental experiment which was employed in the dispute about the nature of the natural moral law between Christian objectivists and voluntarists. The objectivists who used this experiment defended the idea that the principles of morality (in the form of the natural law) are rooted in human nature itself so fi rmly that their existence and validity do not depend on the presence or absence of any divine commandments and prohibitions. It is in this sense that the aforementioned formula should be understood; even if per impossibile there was no God, the principles of morality would exist in man and would be expressed in the dictates of common sense (recta ratio). This, however, does not in any way imply a denial of the existence of God or even a doubt about it: the mental experiment remains just a mental experiment; as for the rest, the objectivists (including Grotius) emphasised that the nature of man together with the natural moral law embedded in it are what they are only because such was the will of God the Creator.
Hugo Grotius, Gregory of Rimini, Francisco Suarez, Dietrich Bonhoeffer, scholasticism, natural law, Christian theology, secularism, theism
  1. Bonhoeff er D. (1994) Soprotivlenie i pokornost’ [Resistance and Obedience]. Moscow (in Russian).
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  9. McGrath, A. E. (ed.) (2016) The Christian Theology Reader. Malden (MA).
  10. Milbank J. (2008) “Politicheskaja teologij a i novaja nauka politiki” [“Political Theology and New Political Science”]. Logos, 2008, vol. 4 (67), pp. 33–54 (in Russian).
  11. Uzlaner D. (2008), “Raskoldovyvanie diskursa: Religioznoe i svetskoe v jazike novogo vremeni” [“Disenchantment of Discourse: the Religious and the Secular in Language of New Time]. Logos, 2008, vol. 4 (67), pp. 140–159.
Appolonov Alexey
Academic Degree: Candidate of Sciences* in Philosophy;
Academic Rank: Associate Professor;
Place of work: Lomonosov Moscow State University; GSP-1, Leninskie Gory, Moscow, 119991, Russian Federation;
Post: Associate Professor;
ORCID: 0000-0002-8140-1206;
Email: alexeyapp@yandex.ru. *According to the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) 2011, the degree of Candidate of Sciences (Cand.Sc.) belongs to ISCED level 8 — "doctoral or equivalent", together with PhD, DPhil, D.Lit, D.Sc, LL.D, Doctorate or similar.
Апполонов А. В. О понятиях «светское» и «религия» у Бенедикта Спинозы в контексте гипотезы Джона Милбанка о «конструировании» светского // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия I: Богословие. Философия. Религиоведение. 2019. Вып. 86. С. 50-64. DOI: 10.15382/sturI201986.50-64
According to the English theologian John Milbank, “once there was no secular”. “The secular”, he believes, came into being due to the fact that thinkers such as Benedict de Spinoza, Thomas Hobbes and Hugo Grotius “constructed” it along with the creation of “modern politics”, and in doing this they employed the new biblical hermeneutics. This new hermeneutics was to supersede the old (the “Catholic lectio”, as it is termed by Milbank) because it posed a permanent threat to secular authorities in the Early Modern Time. This article examines this hypothesis on the material of Benedict Spinoza’s texts and comes to the following conclusions. Firstly, there is no clear evidence that Spinoza had been planning to supersede the “Catholic lectio” with some new “«scientifi c» reading of the Bible” with the aim of creating a “specific sphere of the secular” or a “space of the pure power”. Moreover, there are serious doubts that this “lectio” bothered Spinoza, because in the Netherlands of the mid-17th century the traditional scholastic theology had already given way to Calvinism. Secondly, the analysis of Spinoza’s use of the terms saeculum and religio allows one to state that the Dutch philosopher depended on the traditional (going back to the classical ancient Stoicism) interpretations of these terms much more than it would seem. Besides, it should be noted that Spinoza’s conception of political virtues taken from classical ancient (in the fi rst hand, Stoical) philosophy makes extremely problematic the statement of Milbank that the Dutch philosopher was among those who created the antimoral “modern policy” of “pure power”, whose foundations are tyranny and abuse. Thirdly, it is possible to say that Spinoza’s main aim in his political studies was not an apology of the secular principle in any form, but the sacralisation of the state.
Benedict de Spinoza, John Milbank, secularism, concept of “religio”, philosophy of Modernity, Stoicism, natural theology, Christian theology
  1. Appolonov A. (2018) “«Etsi Deus non daretur» («Kak esli by Boga ne bylo»): Gugo Grotsii i skholasticheskaia teologiia” [“Etsi Deus non daretur” (As if God did not Exist). Hugo Grotius and Scholastic Theology”]. Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia I: Bogoslovie. Filosofiia. Religiovedenie, 77, pp. 63–71 (in Russian).
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  7. Israel J. (2014) “«Radical Enlightenment» — Peripheral, Substantial, or the Main Face of the Trans-Atlantic Enlightenment (1650–1850)”. Diametros, 40, pp. 73–98.
  8. Israel J. (2018) “Spinoza and Spinozism in the Western Enlightenment: The Latest Turns in the Controversy”. Araucaria, 20 (40), pp. 41–57.
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Appolonov Alexey
Academic Degree: Candidate of Sciences* in Philosophy;
Academic Rank: Associate Professor;
Place of work: Lomonosov Moscow State University; GSP-1, Leninskie Gory, Moscow, 119991, Russian Federation;
Post: Associate Professor;
ORCID: 0000-0002-8140-1206;
Email: alexeyapp@yandex.ru. *According to the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) 2011, the degree of Candidate of Sciences (Cand.Sc.) belongs to ISCED level 8 — "doctoral or equivalent", together with PhD, DPhil, D.Lit, D.Sc, LL.D, Doctorate or similar.
Тюрякова Ю. В., Полозова И. В. Концерты духовной музыки в российской провинции начала ХХ века (на примере городов Среднего и Нижнего Поволжья) // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия V: Вопросы истории и теории христианского искусства. 2022. Вып. 45. С. 112-125. DOI: 10.15382/sturV202245.112-125
The article examines some aspects of the musical and educational activities carried out at the turn of the XIX-XX centuries. provincial church-singing communities of various Christian denominations. As an example, the cities of Saratov, Samara, Simbirsk and Syzran are covered - the largest economic and cultural centers of the Middle and Lower Volga regions. The authors analyze the concert activity of the represented provinces in several directions: concerts of pra-glorious liturgical chants, spiritual concerts with mixed programs, concerts of sacred music in Catholic and Protestant churches, and also separately highlight examples of the premiere performance of author's spiritual works in provincial temples. Thus, the work highlights the educational concert and educational work of the professor of the Saratov Conservatory I.V. Lipaev, the Saratov Bishops' Choir under the direction of N.M. Dmitriev, Simbirsk Bishop's Choir (choir director S.P. Yagodinsky). The authors provide examples of touring performances by leading choral groups of the Russian Empire in the Volga cities, in particular, the Moscow Synodal Choir (conducted by N.N. Tolstyakov) in Saratov and the choir of the St. Samara. In addition, the article touches on the problem of interaction between Orthodox and co-religion communities, the performance of joint services by them (possible within the framework of the same-faith Liturgical practice), as well as the preservation of the Volga region of a living tradition of using the znamenny chant. As a result of the research carried out, the article traces the idea of the continuity of the ideas of the New direction in Russian sacred music by the Volga choir directors, as well as the active inclusion of the latter in the general process of development of Russian church singing art.
spiritual concert, Saratov Old Believers, Syzran co-religionists, New direction in Russian sacred music, tours of church groups, Volga Catholics, Protestant Volga communities, Orthodox religious and moral readings, author's spiritual works, liturgical practice
  1. Glushkova O.R. Moscow Synodal School in the 1880-1990s. Questions of music education // Bulletin of PSTGU. Series V: Questions of the history and theory of Christian art. 2016. Issue. 2 (22). P. 105–114.
  2. Polozova I.V. Educational activity in the musical life of the province of the early twentieth century // Manuscript. T. 14. no. 6. S. 1235–1242.
Tyuryakova Juliya
Student status: Graduate student;
Place of study: Saratov State Conservatory; 1, Kirov Prosp., Saratov, 410012, Russian Federation;
ORCID: 0000-0001-9329-4009;
Email: dvt22974@yandex.ru.
Polozova Irina
Academic Degree: Doctor of Sciences* in Art Criticism;
Academic Rank: Professor;
Email: i.v.polozova@mail.ru. *According to ISCED 2011, a post-doctoral degree called Doctor of Sciences (D.Sc.) is given to reflect second advanced research qualifications or higher doctorates.