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Оськин М. В. Российские дезертиры Первой мировой войны // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия II: История. История Русской Православной Церкви. 2014. Вып. 5 (60). С. 46-60. DOI: 10.15382/sturII201460.46-60
Desertion is one of the most active forms of ordinary resistance of the people to the state pressure during the low-popular war which is conducting for the purposes unclear for the people. At the same time, mass desertion is a manifestation of «total» war in the world conflicts of the XX century. During World War I in all armies of the world there was the desertion often accepting mass character. In the Russian army, as well as in other, deserters appeared from the war beginning. Desertion scales in the Russian army explained as objective factors - diffi cult fights, shortage of supply, defeat at the front, and subjective - unwillingness to participate in war, melancholy for the house, desire to help a family the work. Desertion in different years of war had various forms. If at the beginning of war there were mainly «self-arrows», in 1915, during defeats at the front - evasion from entrenchments. By the end of 1916, because of the general fatigue from war, desertion takes the real form - flight from the front to the back. After February revolution desertion becomes mass in which hundreds thousands military personnel take part already. Disorder of army and development of revolutionary process extremely strengthen desertion scales that is explained by the actual lack of punishment for this crime. Destruction of the Russian state during revolution became the main reason of coming to power of Bolsheviks, an exit of Russia from war and the army demobilization which essential part in 1917 already deserted from the front.
desertion, ≪self-arrows≫, military criminal prosecution, capital punishment, military oath, escape, vagrancy, military police, rural guards, ordinary resistance

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Оськин М. В. Поддержка беднейших слоев населения Центральной России в годы Первой мировой войны (1914–1916) (на примере Елизаветинского комитета). // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия II: История. История Русской Православной Церкви. 2018. Вып. 80. С. 107-120. DOI: 10.15382/sturII201880.107-120
The First World War became a deadly trial for all the peoples involved in it. The fate of the war was decided not only in battlefi elds but also in the rear. Among other tasks, before the Russian state and society arose the problem of succour to the needy. A prominent role in this played Елизаветинский комитет (“Elizabethan Committee”), the statesupported public organisation. Head of the Committee, Grand Duchess Elizaveta Fedorovna, made great eff orts in the area of support for the poor. The state and society did not refrain from this support. Diverse state institutions, e.g. the Ministry of Domestic Aff airs and Ministry of Agriculture, participated in the initiative. The public involvement focused on fi nancial charity, practical work and organisational side. In provincial cities, fundraising initiatives for the poor were organised, canteens for the poor, nurseries for babies, orphanages were built. In rural areas, farmers also helped their neighbours and families of soldiers. As the war became prolonged, the size of support gradually decreased. On the one hand, the population became poorer; on the other hand, there appeared more and more those who needed support. Underpinned by state resources, Elizabethan Committee coordinated eff orts of the regions and provincial communities that were involved in the help for the poor in general and for soldiers’ families in particular. The main task was to overcome the food crisis and to provide victuals to people. Despite many real-life problems, in 1914 — early 1917 the tasks of supporting the poorest population strata was generally accomplished. The most vulnerable groups received the necessary assistance of society and the state. This assistance contributed to self-preservation of Russian society in the dismal wartime.
First World War, Elizabethan Committee, help for the poor, canteens, food supply, food crisis, charity, children’s shelter, soldiers’ families
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Maxim Os’kin
Academic Degree: Candidate of Sciences* in History;
Place of work: Institute of Law and Management, All-Russian Police Association; 98 Boldina str., Tula 300028, Russian Federation;
Post: Assistant Professor;
ORCID: 0000-0003-1112-8715;
Email: maxozv@yandex.ru. *According to the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) 2011, the degree of Candidate of Sciences (Cand.Sc.) belongs to ISCED level 8 — "doctoral or equivalent", together with PhD, DPhil, D.Lit, D.Sc, LL.D, Doctorate or similar.