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Непочатова М. И. Церковно-государственные отношения в Эстонии в 1944-1953 гг // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия II: История. История Русской Православной Церкви. 2014. Вып. 5 (60). С. 18-33. DOI: 10.15382/sturII201460.18-33
The article features an analysis of the nature and dynamic of church-state relations in Estonia during the first years following its integration into the USSR. In 1944 the religious situation in the republic was characterized by a number of distinctive attributes. The local population, which had lived prior to the accession of the Baltics to the USSR in 1944 in an atmosphere of relative religious freedom, presented the Soviet authorities with a new phenomenon that would have to be reckoned with. The Plenipotentiaries for Estonia appointed by the Council on ROC Affairs at the USSR Council of Ministers were able to convince their superiors of the need to tread carefully in light of the local specifics. The article deals with an analysis of the distinctive features of the Estonian Orthodox Church. As a secondary denomination in the region, it felt the powerful influence of Lutheran customs and rites. The ethnic heterogeneity of the fold and pronounced language barrier determined the choice of candidacy for the ruling eparchy. The Estonian diocese was rather well endowed with cathedrals, meaning that the main problem of church life in the USSR since the easing of persecution in 1944-1947 - the opening of new parishes - was not an issue in Estonia. On the whole, the church-state relations that dominated the republic in 1944-1947 were quite stable, just as they were around the country; moreover, they were typified by a cautious policy on the part of the Soviet authorities. In 1948-1949 the situation began to deteriorate across the country and Estonia was no exception. The difference was in the methods used: in Estonia, the decision was made to fight the Church and its clergy primarily through collectivization, which was actively pursued in the Baltics beginning in the early 1950s. Collectivization left rural parishes and their clergy in dire straits, and religious life in the countryside began to wane. Yet, the arrival from the central regions of the USSR of a Russian-speaking population tasked with elevating the republic’s industrial base resulted in a revitalization of church life in the cities where it was stationed, causing tremendous alarm at the Council on ROC Affairs. As a consequence, Estonian orthodoxy began to gradually change its ethic composition. The nationwide trend towards the ramping-up of religious persecution, begun in the early 1950s, made its way to Estonia. The crackdown included the arrest of clergy, the closure of cathedrals, and even a campaign to close Pühtitsa Convent. Religious pilgrims from neighboring USSR republics began converging on the monastery - to the great consternation of the central authorities. Thanks to their well-considered, systematic actions, the ruling Estonian eparchy managed to keep church life in the republic alive, yet, beginning in the early 1950s, church-state relations within the territory of Estonia were increasingly marked by nationwide trends.
state-church relations in Estonia, church-state relations in Estonia, the Orthodoxy in Estonia, the Council on ROC Aff airs, Estonian Orthodox Church, Estonian eparchy, the accession of the Baltics to the USSR

1. Aleksij II, Patriarh. Pravoslavie v Jestonii (Orthodoxy in Estonia), Moscow, 1999.
2. Vasil'eva O. Ju. Russkaja Pravoslavnaja Cerkov' v politike sovetskogo gosudarstva v 1943–1948 gg. (Russian Orthodox Church in Politics of Soviet State in 1943–1948), Moscow, 1999.
3. Zotova-Pecherskaja T. Kogda uvodjat v vechnost'. Zhizneopisanie episkopa Pecherskogo Ioanna (Bulina) (When One Goes to Eternity. Life of Bishop of Pechery Ioann (Bulin)), Moscow, 2006.
4. Nikolaj Balashov, prot., Igor' Prekup, prot. Problemy pravoslavija v Jestonii. O knige arhimandrita Grigorija Papatomasa «Neschast'e byt' malen'koj cerkov'ju v malen'koj strane)» (Problems of Orthodoxy in Estonia. About the Book of Archimandrite Grigorij Papatomas “Misfortune to be a Small Church in a Small Land”), Tallin, 2013.
5. Pravoslavie v Jestonii. Issledovanija i dokumenty (Orthodoxy in Estonia. Studies and Documents), Moscow, 2010, vol. 2.
6. Chumachenko T. A. Gosudarstvo, pravoslavnaja cerkov', verujushhie. 1941–1961 gg. (State, Orthodox Church, Belivers. 1941–1961), Moscow, 1999.
7. Russkaja Pravoslavnaja Cerkov' pri Staline i Hrushheve (Russian Orthodox Church by Stalin and Khrushchev), Moscow, 2005.

Непочатова М. И. К истории Пюхтицкого Успенского женского монастыря в 1944–1962 гг. // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия II: История. История Русской Православной Церкви. 2016. Вып. 2 (69). С. 66-79. DOI: 10.15382/sturII201669.66-79
The article discusses the post-war period in the history of the Pühtitsa Uspensky Convent (of Dormition). Founded in the late 19th century in the area where the icon of Dormition of Our Lady had traditionally been venerated, the convent stayed open through its entire history. The convent experienced many hardships during both World Wars, but the period discussed in the article was perhaps the most difficult of all for the convent. Years of 1944–1955 were for the sisters of the convent the years of deprivation and famine, and lack of bare necessities of life. Those difficulties have been deliberately brought on by the authorities.The Soviet leaders, trying to maintain the myth of there being no persecution of the faithful in Russia in the eyes of the international community, chose to destroy gradually all convents and monasteries in the USSR. Archival materials used to write this article show that high taxes and incredible amounts of agricultural products that the convent was forced to cede for the state, as well as appropriation of farmland and buildings and measures undertaken to prevent young novices from entering the convent made the existence of the convent extremely difficult. The government also prohibited pilgrims to stay at the convent for more than 1 or 2 days. These measures deprived the convent of most income and assistance that the sisters needed.A campaign was instigated by the authorities to discredit the convent, but their eff orts were in vain due to a diplomatic stand of the ruling bishop Roman (Tang) and Archimandrite Pimen (Izvekov), the future Patriarch Pimen.The convent survived despite all the measures undertaken by the authorities. The Church Relations Council under the Soviet Cabinet failed to merge the Pühtitsa convent with the convents in Riga or Vilnius, as had been originally intended. In these years of hardship, the ruling bishops Roman (Tang), Ioann (Alexeev) and Mother Superior Rafaila (Migacheva) provided any kind ofsupport for the convent. The convent received money; several dozens new novices were admitted, and the situation changed considerably for the better. It seemed that the most diffi cult period was over. However, in 1959 the USSR authorities decided to close down all the monasteries. Archival materials show how thoroughly planned and carefully carried out those activities were.In 1961 a decision was made to close down the Pühtitsa Convent. It was at that time that Bishop Alexey (Ridiger), the future Patriarch Alexey II, was appointed head of the Estonian eparchy. The bishop had had experience of working for the Department of External Church Relations (DECR) of the Moscow Patriarchate, and perhaps it was this experience, that suggested to him the way to save the convent. The bishop brought several foreign delegations to Pühtitsa, and some articles about the convent appeared in foreign press.In these circumstances, the authorities did not dare to close the convent. Subsequently, several sisters from the convent headed newly created convents all across Russia, passing them on the tradition of Orthodox monastic life.
the Orthodoxy in Estonia, the Pühtitsa Uspensky Convent (of Dormition), Patriarch Alexey II, Bishop Roman (Tang), Bishop Ioann (Alexeev), Archimandrite Pimen (Izvekov), Mother Superior Rafaila (Migacheva), the closure of the monasteries in the USSR

1. Aleksij II, Patr. Pravoslavie v Jestonii (Orthodoxy in Estonia), Moscow, 1999.
2. Gavrilin A. 2003 “Pochemu ne byl zakryt Rizhskij Svjato-Troickij Sergiev monastyr'?” (Why Rizhskij Svjato-Troickij Sergiev Monastery Was not Closed?), in Bogoslovskij sbornik PSTBI, 2003, vol. 11, pp. 394–407.
3. Nepochatova M. 2014 “Cerkovno-gosudarstvennye otnoshenija v Jestonii v 1944–1953 gg.” (Church-State Relations in Estonia in 1944–1953), in Vestnik PSTGU. Ser. II: Istorija. Istorija Russkoj Pravoslavnoj Cerkvi, 2014, vol. 5/60, pp. 18–33.
4. Pljuhanov B. D. RSHD v Latvii i Jestonii (RSCM in Latvia and Estonia), Paris, 1993.
5. Pjuhtica — Svjataja gora (Pjuhtica — Saint Mountain), Moscow, 2006.
6. Sorokin V., prot. Ioann Kronshtadtskij i Pjuhtickij monastyr': Neizvestnaja perepiska o. Ioanna Kronshtadtskogo s knjaginej E. D. Shahovskoj (John of Kronstadt and Pjuhtickij Monastery: Unknown Correspondence between John of Kronstadt and Princess E. D. Shahovskaja), in: http://www.Leushino.Ru.
7. Trofimov A. (ed.) Tri sud'by (Three Destinies), Moscow, 2008.
8. Russkaja Pravoslavnaja Cerkov' pri Staline i Hrushheve (Russian Orthodox Church by Stalin and Khrushchev), Moscow, 1999.
Непочатова М. И. Новая монография по истории Православия в Прибалтике // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия II: История. История Русской Православной Церкви. 2017. Вып. 79. С. 147-149. — Rev. op.: Петров И. В. Православная Балтия 1939–1952 гг.: Период войн, репрессий и межнациональных противоречий. СПб.: Бумажные книги, 2016. 376 с.
Nepochatova Marina
Student status: Graduate student;
Place of study: St. Tikhon’s Orthodox University for the Humanities; 6/1 Likhov pereulok, Moscow, 127051, Russian Federation;
Email: m.nepochatova@mail.ru.
Непочатова М. И. К истории церковно-государственных отношений в Эстонии в 1948-1953 гг. // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия II: История. История Русской Православной Церкви. 2018. Вып. 81. С. 81-90. DOI: 10.15382/sturII201881.81-90
This article deals with a particularly diffi cult period in the history of the Russian Orthodox Church in Estonia, namely the years 1948–1952. The study is based on documents of the State Archive of the Russian Federation. The article analyses relations between the Soviet state and the Orthodox Church in Estonia, where the situation was rather different from other Soviet republics. The insuffi cient number of churches was the key problem of Orthodoxy in the USSR during this period. However, this problem was not relevant to Estonia, where in the 19th century the government of the Russian Empire builtca. 100 churches. Besides, the Orthodox Church in Estonia experienced serious financial diffi culties. Most of countryside parishes, which found themselves without any financial support from Moscow Patriarchate after the October Revolution of 1917, were actually unable to function. During the years 1948–1952, the authorities intended to close down those parishes, but bishops Isidor (Bogoiavlenskii) and Roman (Tang) supported by metropolitan of Leningrad Grigory (Chukov) tried to save most of them. The collectivisation of agriculture inspired by the authorities had an obvious negative influence on Orthodox countryside parishes in Estonia. Land plots that belonged to priests were confi scated by the authorities. Offi cials of the Communist Party exerted pressure on members of rural collective farms (kolkhoz) to prevent farmers from going to church. At the same time, the functionaries of Estonia were loyal to Lutheran Church and its pastors. Besides, during the years 1948–1952 several Orthodox priests were arrested in Estonia. The anti-religious propaganda was actively implemented by the authorities. As a consequence, some cases of vandalism against Orthodox churches occurred. At the same time, a signifi cant number of people moved by Soviet authorities from other regions of the USSR to Estonia in order to increase its economic potential resulted in increasing the number of Orthodox parishioners in the main cities of the republic. The bishops managed to sustain the greater part of the parishes in Estonia, the most signifi cant churches, cathedrals and the monastery despite aggressive antireligious policy conducted by Soviet authorities in the country in general and in Estonia in particular.
Orthodoxy in Estonia, history of Orthodoxy in Estonia, metropolitan Isidor (Bogoyavlenskii), archbishop Roman (Tang), metropolitan Grigory (Chukov), Orthodox parishes of Estonia, Estonian Orthodox Church, relations between state and church in USSR
  1. Alexij (Ridiger), Patriarkh, Pravoslavije v Estonii, Moscow, 1999.
  2. Zaretskij V., “Dukhovenstvo i cerkovnij e truzheniki repressirovannie v godi sovetskoy vlasti v Estonii”, in: Мir Pravoslaviya, 8 (161), 2011. URL: http://www.baltwillinfo.com/mp2011-08/mp-14.html (17.11.2017).
  3. Myannik S., “Arhiepiskop Pavel (Dmitrovskii)”, in: Pravoslavie v Baltii, 2 (11), 2014, 81–93.
  4. Prekup I., prot., Pravoslavie v Estonii, Tallin, 1998.
  5. Petrov I., Pravoslavnaya Baltiya 1939–1952 gg. Period voin, repressii I mezhnatsionalnih protivorechii, St. Petersburg, 2016.
  6. “Pisma Patriarkha Aleksija I v Soviet po delam Russkoj pravoslavnoj cerkvi kak istochnik po istorii vzaimootnoshenii sovetskogo gosudarstva I Tserkvi”, in: N. A. Krivova, red., U. G. Orlova, publ., sost. Pisma Patriarkha Aleksija I v Soviet po delam Russkoj pravoslavnoj cerkvi pri Soviete narodnykh komissarov — Sovete ministrov SSSR. 1945–1970, Moscow, 2009
Nepochatova Marina
Student status: Graduate student;
Place of study: St. Tikhon’s Orthodox University for the Humanities; 6/1 Likhov pereulok, Moscow, 127051, Russian Federation;
Email: m.nepochatova@mail.ru.