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Небольсин А. Г., Матерова Е. В. Тихоний Африканский — толкователь Апокалипсиса // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия III: Филология. 2016. Вып. 3 (48). С. 102-117. DOI: 10.15382/sturIII201648.102-117
This paper presents a translation of the commentary of donatist theologian Tychonius on the first chapter of the Book of Revelation with introduction and notes. This work of Tychonius did not survive as a whole text, but recently was reconstructed on the basis of the numerous quotations in the works of later authors. The commentary is of great interest because of its original ecclesiological ideas. Its influence on the later Latin tradition of interpretation of the Apocalypse was enormous. The work is translated into Russian for the fi rst time.
Tychonius, Augustine of Hippo, Apocalypse, Revelation of John, eschatology, chiliasm, donatism, early Christian exegesis.
Nyebolszin Antal
Materova Elizaveta
Небольсин А. Г., Матерова Е. В. Тихоний Африканский. Комментарий на Апокалипсис (Откр 2-3) // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия III: Филология. 2017. Вып. 50. С. 98-118. DOI: 10.15382/sturIII201750.98-118
The paper contains a translation of the commentary by the donatist theologian Tyconius on the second and third chapters of the Book of Revelation with introduction and notes. This work of Tyconius has not survived as a whole text, but was recently reconstructed on the basis of numerous quotations in works of later authors. The commentary is of great interest because of its original ecclesiological ideas. Its influence on the later Latin tradition of interpretation of the Apocalypse was enormous. The work is translated into Russian for the fi rst time.
Tyconius, Apocalypse, Revelation of John, eschatology, ecclesiology, donatism, early Christian exegesis

Beda, Bedae presbyteri Expositio Apocalypseos, in: Ad fi dem codicum manuscriptorum edididt Roger Gryson. Corpus Christianorum. Series Latina; CXXIa. Turnhout; Brepols, 2001.
Biguzzi G., I settenari nella struttura dell’Apocalisse. Bologna: Dehoniane, 1996.
Nebol’sin A. S., Metodi interpretatsii, eshatologia I struktura Otkrovenia Ioanna Bogoslova, in: Vestnik PSTGU. Ser. I: Theology. Philosophy. 3 (31), 2010, 55-74.
Tyconius. Le Livre des Règles, in: Intr., trad. et notes par Jean-Marc Vercruysse. Sources Chrétiennes; 488. Paris: Cerf, 2004.
Tyconius. Commentaire de l’Apocalypse. Introduction, traduction et notes par Roger Gryson. Corpus Christianorum in Translation; 10. Turnhout: Brepols, 2011.
Tyconius Tyconii Afri Expositio Apocalypseos. Accedunt eiusdem Expositionis a quodam retractatae Fragmenta Tauriniensa, in: Cura et studio Roger Gryson. Corpus Christianorum. Series Latina; CVII A. Turnhout, 2011.
Tyconius. Tihonia Afrikantsa kniga o semi pravilah dlya issledovania I naxogdenia smysla Svyashennogo Pisania, in: Adding one to the works of the Holy Fathers, 1892, 184-252, 333-373.
Vanni U. La struttura letteraria dell’Apocalisse. Brescia: Morcelliana, 1980.
Nyebolszin Antal Gergely
Materova Elizaveta
Небольсин А., Матерова Е. В. Тихоний Африканский. Комментарий на Апокалипсис (Откр 4-5) // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия III: Филология. 2017. Вып. 52. С. 115-130. DOI: 10.15382/sturIII201752.115-130
This paper presents a translation of the commentary of donatist theologian Tyconius on the fourth and fifth chapter of the Book of Revelation with introduction and notes. This work of Tyconius did not survive as a whole text, but was recently reconstructed on the basis of the numerous quotations in the works of later authors. The commentary is of great interest because of its original ecclesiological ideas. Its influence on the later Latin tradition of interpretation of the Apocalypse was enormous. The work is translated into Russian for the first time.
Tyconius, Apocalypse, Revelation of John, eschatology, ecclesiology, donatism, early Christian exegesis
  1. Androsova V. “Kniga, zapechatannaia sem’iu pechatiami (Otkr 5. 1): tri iarkikh sviatootecheskikh tolkovaniia”, in: Vestnik PSTGU. I: Bogoslovie. Filosofiia, 1, 2013, 71–87.
  2. Androsova V. Nebesnye knigi v Apokalipsise Ioanna Bogoslova. Мoscow, 2013.
  3. Aune D. E. Revelation 1–5. Dallas, 1997.
  4. Bogaert P. M. “Les Quatre Vivants, l’Évangile et les évangiles”. Revue théologique de Louvain, 32, 2001, 457–478.
  5. Bogaert P. M. “Ordres anciens des évangiles et tétraévangile dans un seul codex”, in: Revue théologique de Louvain, 30, 1999, 297–314.
  6. Dulaey M. “La sixième Règle de Tyconius et son résumé dans le De doctrina Christiana”, in: Revue des études augustiniennes et patristiques, 35, 1989, 83–103.
  7. Schimanowski G. Die himmlische Liturgie in der Apokalypse des Johannes. Die frühjüdischen Traditionen in Offenbarung 4–5 unter Einschluß der Hekhalotliteratur. Tübingen, 2002.
  8. Tavo F. Woman, Mother and Bride. An Exegetical Investigation into the “Ecclesial” Notions of the Apocalypse. Leuven, 2007.
  9. Tavo F. “The Outer Court and Holy City in Rev 11:1–2: Arguing for a Positive Appraisal”, in: Australian Biblical Review, 54, 2006, 56–72.
Nyebolszin Antal Gergely
Academic Degree: Doctor of Theology;
Place of work: St. Tikhon’s Orthodox University for the Humanities; 6/1 Likhov pereulok, Moscow 127051, Russian Federation;
ORCID: 0000-0002-0037-8674;
Email: gyula@mail.ru.
Materova Elizaveta
Academic Degree: Candidate of Sciences* in Philology;
Place of work: St. Tikhon’s Orthodox University; 6 Likhov per., Moscow 127051, Russian Federation;
ORCID: 0000-0003-0776-0515;
Email: materowa@mail.ru. *According to the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) 2011, the degree of Candidate of Sciences (Cand.Sc.) belongs to ISCED level 8 — "doctoral or equivalent", together with PhD, DPhil, D.Lit, D.Sc, LL.D, Doctorate or similar.
The article is written within the framework of the project "Latin commentaries on Revelation in patristic period. Annotated translation" supported by PSTGU Development Foundation
Матерова Е. В. Образ лягушки в Комментарии на Апокалипсис Тихония Африканского (Откр.16.13-14) // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия III: Филология. 2020. Вып. 64. С. 82-94. DOI: 10.15382/sturIII202064.82-94
This paper deals with the image of frog in the Commentary on the Book of Revelation by Tyconius the African (Tyconius Africanus), the Christian exegete of the 4thcentury. In his Commentary on Rev 16. 13–14, Tyconius, following the Scriptures, speaks about frogs as a symbol of mud, related to the “Satanic Trinity”, i.e. the Dragon, the Beast and the False Prophet. Such demonisation was not known to Ancient Greek, Roman, and Jewish cultures, where the frogs had other connotations, rather comic than horrifi c. There is only one culture, Zoroastrianism, which had eschatological conception similar to Christianity, and which attributed a demonic nature to frogs. Tyconius comments this place, though he is not satisfi ed with a generalized statement which equalizes frogs and evil spirits. He makes this image more specifi c and it serves as an allegory of hypocrisy. Comparing this episode from Tyconius’ Commentary to the description of a frog in the Late Antiquity text Physiologus (2nd — 3rd centuries AD) allows one to identify certain similarities, i.e. a twofold composition (description of the habits and a subsequent allegorical explanation), an opposition of the righteous and the sinful presented in the Physiologus as the two types of frog, χερσα´ος (living on the ground) and Ëνυδρος (living in water). In Tyconius’ Commentary it is an opposition credentes (believers) — hypocritae (hypocrites). The symbol of water is very important in the two texts because of its connotation of the Baptism. These similarities indicate that the Physiologus, originated in Alexandria, was known to Tyconius, who was a native of North Africa, and perhaps made use of the Physiologus. Tyconius’ interpretation of the frog correlates with his idea of the Church, where the body of Christ is divided into the right (i.e. true) and left (i.e. false, hypocritical) parts. These parts are spiritually opposite but have to remain together till the Last Judgment when the fi nal separation will happen explicitly. Thus, the frog as a symbol of the false part of the Church is in accordance with Tyconius’ system of ideas.
Tyconius, Apocalypse, Book of Revelation, Early Christian exegesis, Physiologus, frog as symbol, Zoroastrianism, allegory
  1. Beale G., McDonough S. (2013) “Otkrovenie Ioanna Bogoslova”, in G. Beale, D. Carson (eds) Commentaryon the New Testament Use of the Old Testament, vol. 3. Cherkasy. P. 459–590 (in Russian).
  2. Blumenthal A., Blumenthal E. (eds) (2018) Tyconius und Apringius. Zwei alte lateinische Kommentare zur Off enbarung des Johannes. Berlin.
  3. Frenschkowski M. (2004) “Parthica Apocalyptica: Mythologie und Militärwesen iranicher Völker in ihrer Rezeption durch die Off enbarung des Johannes”. Jahrbuch fur Antike und Christentum, 47, p. 16–57.
  4. Gabra G. (1993) Cairo, the Coptic museum, Old Churches. Cairo.
  5. Gumerlock F., Robinson D. (eds) (2017) Tyconius. Exposition of the Apocalypse. Washington (D. C.): The Catholic University of America Press. The Fathers of the Church. A New Translation, vol. 134.
  6. Loubser J. (1997) “Gathering jewels: Biblical Hermeneutics in the Coptic Orthodox Church of Egypt”. Journal for the Study of Religion, 10, 1, p. 41–75.
  7. Löw I. (1969) Fauna und Mineralen der Juden. Hildesheim.
  8. Materova E., Nyebolszin A. (eds) (2017) “Tikhonii Afrikanskii. Kommentarii na Apokalipsis (Otkr 2–3)” [Tyconius the African. Commentary on Apocalypse (Rev. 2‒3)]. Vestnik PSTGU. Ser. 3: Filologiia, 1 (50), p. 98–118 (in Russian). doi:10.15382/sturIII201750.98–118.
  9. Materova E., Nyebolszin A. (eds) (2017) “Tikhonii Afrikanskii. Kommentarii na Apokalipsis (Otkr 4–5)” [Tyconius the African. Commentary on Apocalypse (Rev. 4‒5)]. Vestnik PSTGU. Ser. 3: Filologiia, 3 (52), p. 115–130 (in Russian). doi:10.15382/sturIII201752.115–130 (in Russian).
  10. Materova E. (ed.) (2016) “Tikhonii Afrikanskii. Kommentarii na Apokalipsis (Otkr 1)” [Tyconius an African. Commentary on Apocalypse (Rev. 1)]. Vestnik PSTGU. Ser. 3: Filologiia, 2016, 3 (48), p. 108–117 (in Russian). doi:10.15382/sturIII201648.102–117.
  11. Nyebolszin A. (2016) “Tikhonii Afrikanskii — tolkovatel’ Apokalipsisa” [Tyconius the African, the interpreter of the Apocalypse]. Vestnik PSTGU. Ser. 3: Filologiia, 3 (48), p. 102–107 (in Russian). doi:10.15382/sturIII201648.102–117.
  12. Russel J. (1987) Zoroastrianism in Armenia. Cambridge (Mass.).
  13. Sarianidi V. (2010) Zadolgo do Zaratushtry: Arkheologicheskie dokazatel’stva protozoroastrizma v Baktrii i Margiane. Moscow (in Russian).
  14. Steinhauser K. (1993) “Tyconius: was he Greek?” Studia Patristica, 27, p. 394–399.
  15. Tyconius (2004) Le Livre des Règles, introd., trad. et not. par. Paris: Cerf. Sources Chrétiennes, t. 488.
  16. Vercruysse J.-M. (ed.) (2004) Tyconii Afri Expositio Apocalypseos: Accedunt eiusdem Expositionis a quodam retractatae Fragmenta Tauriniensa, cura et studio Roger Gryson. Turnhout. Corpus Christianorum. Series Latina, t. 107 A.
  17. Witetschek St. (2008) “The Dragon Spitting Frogs: On the Imagery of Revelation 16. 13–14”. New Testament Studies, 54, p. 557–572.
Materova Elizaveta
Academic Degree: Candidate of Sciences* in Philology;
Place of work: St. Tikhon’s Orthodox University for the Humanities; 6/1 Likhov pereulok, Moscow 127051, Russian Federation;
Post: Associate Professor;
ORCID: 0000-0003-0776-0515;
Email: materowa@mail.ru. *According to the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) 2011, the degree of Candidate of Sciences (Cand.Sc.) belongs to ISCED level 8 — "doctoral or equivalent", together with PhD, DPhil, D.Lit, D.Sc, LL.D, Doctorate or similar.
Матерова Е. В. Экклезиологические аспекты образа саранчи (Откр 9) в толковании латинских экзегетов IV–VI вв. // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия I: Богословие. Философия. Религиоведение. 2021. Вып. 98. С. 11-24. DOI: 10.15382/sturI202198.11-24
The paper deals with the interpretation of the image of locusts, which belongs to the so-called demonic bestiary in the Apocalypse, and its interpretation in the Latin patristic commentaries by Ticonius the African (4th c.) and his two successors, Caesarius of Arles (5th c.) and Primasius of Hadrumetum (6th c.). The interpretation of locusts by Ticonius as cruel persecutors, who pretend to be the true Church, fully correlates with his idea of the ‘bipartite Church,’ divided into the right (i.e. true) and left (false, hypocritical) sides, while the parallel between the fi ve months of power given to the locusts and the fi ve years of persecution againts Donatists in Africa is in accordance with Ticonius’ perception of the Apocalypse as the book not only about the future, but also about the present, abouth the earthly Church. Using the Commentary of Ticonius, his two above-mentioned successors follow his ecclesiology and characterise the locusts as a symbol of the heretics; however, they create rather dissimilar commentaries. Caesarius of Arles, surpassing Ticonius in the style of his homilies, is clearly inferior in terms of the originality of his ideas. Primasius’ commentary is based on Ticonius but contains original ideas; his interpretation is, on the whole, no less vivid and colourful than that of his predecessor Ticonius the African.
locusts, ecclesiology, Ticonius, Caesarius of Arles, Primasius of Hadrumetum, Apocalypse, Revelation of John, early Christian exegesis, Physiologus
  1. Adams A. W. (ed.) (1985) Primasius episcopus Hadrumetinus. Commentarius in Apocalypsin. Cura et studio A. W. Adams. Turnhout; Brepols (Corpus Christianorum. Series Latina; XCII).
  2. Beal G.K., McDonough S. (2013) “Revelation of John”, in Commentary on the New Testament use of the Old Testament, vol. 3, Chercasy, pp. 459–590 (Russian translation).
  3. Dittmann S. (2018) “Skorpione als Bild des Schreckens in der Johannesapokalypse”, in Apollon, Artemis, Asteria und die Apokalypse des Johannes, Leipzig: Evangelishe Verlagsanstalt, pp. 213–228.
  4. Gryson R. (ed.) (2011) Tyconii Afri Expositio Apocalypseos. Accedunt eiusdem Expositionis a quodam retractatae Fragmenta Tauriniensa. Cura et studio Roger Gryson. Turnhout (Corpus Christianorum. Series Latina; CVII A).
  5. Gryson R. (ed.) (2011) Tyconius. Commentaire de l’Apocalypse. Turnhout.
  6. Gryson R. (ed.) (2019) Caesarii Arelatensis Expositio de Apocalypsi Sancti Iohannis. Cura et studio Roger Gryson. Turnhout; Brepols (Corpus Christianorum. Series Latina; CV).
  7. Kaimakis D. (ed.) (1974) Der Physiologus nach der ersten Redaction. Meisenheim am Glan.
  8. Ley W. (1959) Exotic zoology. New York.
  9. Materova E. (2020) “Оbraz liagushki v ″Kommentarii na Apokalipsis″ Tikhoniia Afrikanskogo (Otkr. 16. 13–14)” [Frog as a symbol in the Commentary on the Book of Revelation by Ticonius the African (Rev. 16. 13–14)]. Vestnik PSTGU. Seriia III. Filologiia, no. 64, pp. 82–94 (in Russian).
  10. Materova E. (ed.) (2016) “Tikhonii Afrikanskii. Kommentarii na Apokalipsis (Otkr. 1)” [Tyconii Afri Expositio Apocalypseos. Rev 1]. Vestnik PSTGU. Seriia III. Filologiia, no. 48, pp. 108–117 (in Russian).
  11. Nebol′sin A. (2016) “Tikhonii Afrikanskii — tolkovatel′ Apokalipsisa” [Ticonius Africanus as an exegete of the Apocalypse]. Vestnik PSTGU. Seriia III. Filologiia, no. 48, pp. 102–107 (in Russian).
  12. Pakis V. A. (2010) “Contextual Duplicity and Textual Variation: The Siren and Onocentaur in the Physiologus Tradition”. Mediaevististik, vol. 23, pp. 115–186.
  13. Portalatin A. (2020) “The Apocalyptic Lamb and Dragon: from symbols to ugly images”. Biblica, vol. 101 (2), pp. 248–271.
  14. Vanni U. (1988) Apocalisse: ermeneutica, esegesi, teologia. Bologna.
Materova Elizaveta
Academic Degree: Candidate of Sciences* in Philology;
Place of work: St. Tikhon’s Orthodox University; 6 Likhov per., Moscow 127051, Russian Federation;
ORCID: 0000-0003-0776-0515;
Email: materowa@mail.ru. *According to the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) 2011, the degree of Candidate of Sciences (Cand.Sc.) belongs to ISCED level 8 — "doctoral or equivalent", together with PhD, DPhil, D.Lit, D.Sc, LL.D, Doctorate or similar.
Acknowledgments: The reported study was funded by RFBR, project number 21-011-44125\21).
Небольсин А., Матерова Е. В. Тихоний Африканский. Комментарий на Апокалипсис (Откр 6) // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия III: Филология. 2022. Вып. 71. С. 87-105. DOI: 10.15382/sturIII202271.87-105
This paper presents a translation of the commentary of donatist theologian Tyconius on the sixth chapter of the Book of Revelation with introduction and commentary. The text of this work was not saved completely, but has recently been reconstructed on the basis of numerous quotations in works of later authors. The Commentary is of great interest because of its original ecclesiological ideas. Its influence on the later Latin tradition of interpretation of the Apocalypse was enormous. The work is translated into Russian for the first time. This paper presents a translation of the commentary of donatist theologian Tyconius on the sixth chapter of the Book of Revelation with introduction and commentary. The text of this work was not saved completely, but has recently been reconstructed on the basis of numerous quotations in works of later authors. The Commentary is of great interest because of its original ecclesiological ideas. Its influence on the later Latin tradition of interpretation of the Apocalypse was enormous. The work is translated into Russian for the first time. This paper presents a translation of the commentary of donatist theologian Tyconius on the sixth chapter of the Book of Revelation with introduction and commentary. The text of this work was not saved completely, but has recently been reconstructed on the basis of numerous quotations in works of later authors. The Commentary is of great interest because of its original ecclesiological ideas. Its influence on the later Latin tradition of interpretation of the Apocalypse was enormous. The work is translated into Russian for the first time.
Tyconius, Apocalypse, Revelation of John, eschatology, ecclesiology, donatism, early Christian exegesis
  1. Adams A.W. (ed.) (1985) Primasius Hadrumetinus. Commentarius in Apocalypsin. Turnhout: Brepols. (Corpus Christianorum. Series Latina; t. 92).
  2. Bachmann M. (1989) “Die apokalyptischen Reiter: Dürers Holzschnitt und die Auslegungsgeschichte von Apk 6.1–8”. Zeitschrift fuer Theologie und Kirche, 1989, vol. 86, pp. 33–58.
  3. Blumenthal A. von, Blumenthal E. von (eds) (2018) Tyconius und Apringius. Zwei alte lateinische Kommentare zur Off enbarung des Johannes. Berlin: Logos.
  4. Dulaey M. (ed.) (1997) Victorin de Poetovio. Sur l’Apocalypse. Suivi du Fragment chronologique et de La construction du monde. Paris. (Sources Chrétiennes; t. 423).
  5. Gryson R. (1997) “Fragments inédits du commentaire de Tyconius sur l’Apocalypse”. Revue Bénédictine, 1997, vol. 107, pp. 189–226.
  6. Gryson R. (ed.) (2011) Tyconii Afri Expositio Apocalypseos: Accedunt eiusdem Expositionis a quodam retractatae Fragmenta Tauriniensa. Turnhout. (Corpus Christianorum. Series Latina; t. 107A).
  7. Gryson R. (ed.) (2011) Tyconius. Commentaire de l’Apocalypse. Turnhout: Brepols. (Corpus Christianorum in Translation; t. 10).
  8. Gryson R. (ed.) (2019) Caesarii Arelatensis Expositio de Apocalypsi Sancti Iohannis. Turnhout: Brepols. (Corpus Christianorum. Series Latina; t. 105).
  9. Gumerlock F.X. (transl.), Robinson D. S. (ed.) (2017) Tyconius. Exposition of the Apocalypse. Washington, D.C.: The Catholic University of America Press. (The Fathers of the Church. A new translation; vol. 134).
  10. Nyebolszin A.G. (2016) Rev. of Witulski T. Die vier “apokalyptischen Reiter” Apk 6. 1–8. Ein Versuch ihrer zeitgeschichtlichen (Neu-)Interpretation. Neukirchen, 2015, Vestnik PSTGU. Seriia I: Teologiia. Filosofiia, 2016, vol. 1 (63), pp. 126–128 (in Russian).
  11. Nyebolszin A.G. (2016) “Tikhonii Afrikanskii — tolkovatel′ Apokalipsisa”. Vestnik PSTGU. Seriia III: Filologiia, 2016, vol. 3 (48), pp. 102–107 (in Russian).
  12. Vercruysse J.-M. (ed.) (2004) Tyconius. Le Livre des Règles. Paris: Cerf. (Sources Chrétiennes; t. 488).
  13. Witulski T. (2015) Die vier “apokalyptischen Reiter” Apk 6.1–8: Ein Versuch ihrer zeitgeschichtlichen (Neu-)Interpretation. Neukirchen.
Nyebolszin Antal Gergely
Academic Degree: Doctor of Theology;
Place of work: St. Tikhon’s Orthodox University for the Humanities; 6/1 Likhov pereulok, Moscow 127051, Russian Federation;
ORCID: 0000-0002-0037-8674;
Email: gyula@mail.ru.
Materova Elizaveta
Academic Degree: Candidate of Sciences* in Philology;
Place of work: St. Tikhon’s Orthodox University for the Humanities; 6/1 Likhov pereulok, Moscow 127051, Russian Federation;
Post: Associate Professor;
ORCID: 0000-0003-0776-0515;
Email: materowa@mail.ru. *According to the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) 2011, the degree of Candidate of Sciences (Cand.Sc.) belongs to ISCED level 8 — "doctoral or equivalent", together with PhD, DPhil, D.Lit, D.Sc, LL.D, Doctorate or similar.
The reported study was funded by RFBR, project number 21-011-44125\21.