Search results

Майофис М. Л. «Решающий рецепт»: проект автономизации школьной системы в позднесталинском СССР // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия IV: Педагогика. Психология. 2014. Вып. 2 (33). С. 65-82. DOI: 10.15382/sturIV201433.65-82
The main purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that special place the secondary school held in the Soviet social and educational politics of the late 1940s, as well as to introduce a very interesting and rather underinvestigated type of primary source, the so-called verbatim shorthand records of the Boards of the Soviet People's Commissariat and Ministry of Public Education. These sources help to reconstruct the history of decision-making and the struggle of the elites within the Soviet administrative machine. The paper explores the premises and contradictions of the Soviet school politics in the 1948–1949 when Alexander Voznesensky, an administrator and an academic economist, became the Minister of Public Education. Voznesensky undertook an attempt (that was uncharacteristic for the Stalinist period) to minimize the infl uence of the political and social organizations onto the school life. While trying to implement this idea, he obviously expected to find a social basis for his project in the directors’ corps, as the school directors had enjoyed considerable independence during the WWII. One of the regulatory instruments that was supposed to launch a new trend in the school politics was a “Resolution on the school students being overburdened with social and other extra-curricular activities.” In order to discuss the draft of this Resolution a special conference of the ministerial board was convened. However, the directors’ corps was not ready to support Voznesensky in its entirety. Some directors happened to think that overcoming the acute crisis within the secondary education system would only become possible after a cardinal revision of the school curriculum was performed and an 11-year term of school training was introduced, and that just by cutting down social activities one could not hope to achieve the desired result. At the same time, there were several directors who immediately caught up on his idea. Thus, a director of the Moscow school № 446 Ekaterina Chernysheva performed a real “public confession” and admitted that she had been systematically violating the Charters of both the Komsomol and Pioneer organizations to lighten the unsustainable burden of social activities her students had been suffering under. This “confession” did not have any consequences, as Chernysheva demonstrated the very model that Voznesensky considered to be the only acceptable one under the existing conditions. All in all, Voznesensky’s policy can be interpreted as an attempt to make the Soviet school autonomous from the other Soviet institutions. This attempt was blocked by the Komsomol and party officials, but the traces of the attendant discussion were preserved in the verbatim shorthand records of the Board meetings. The author bases her research on the previously unpublished materials as well as on the recent studies by the Russian and foreign historians that provide a new context for the history of the Soviet school policy. The data presented here can be used both in the academic research and as part of the university courses on the history of education.
history of Stalinism, autonomy, history of secondary school education, genres of Soviet publicity, A. A. Voznesensky, A. G. Kalashnikov, I. K. Novikov, E. A. Chernysheva, “Leningrad affair”, struggle with cosmopolitism, struggle with “overcharges

1. Fürst J. 2008 “Between Salvation and Liquidation: Homeless and Vagrant Children and the Reconstruction of Soviet Society”, in The Slavonic and East European Review, 2008, vol. 86/2: The Relaunch of the Soviet Project, 1945–1964.
2. Livshiz Ann. 2006 “Pre-Revolutionary in Form, Soviet in Content? Wartime Educational Reforms and the Postwar Quest for Normality”, in History of Education, 2006, vol. 4–5, p. 553.
3. Brandenberger D. L. Nacional-bol'shevizm: Stalinskaja massovaja kul'tura i formirovanie russkogo nacional'nogo samosoznanija (1931–1936) (National-Bolshevism: Stalin Mass Culture and Forming of Russian National Self-Consciousness (1931–1936)), Saint-Petersburg, 2009.
4. Davitnidze I. L. Kollegii ministerstv: pravovoe polozhenie i organizacija raboty (Ministery Collegiums: Law Regulations and Work Organization), Moscow, 1972.
5. Druzhinin P. M. Ideologija i filologija. Leningrad, 40-e gody: Dokumental'noe issledovanie (Ideology and Philology. Leningrad, 40-s Years: Documental Study), Moscow, 2012.
6. Esakov V. D., Levina E. S. Delo KR. Sudy chesti v ideologii i praktike poslevoennogo stalinizma (KR Case. Honor Courts in Ideology and Practice of After-War Stalinism), Moscow, 2001.
7. 1985 “Zhizn', nauchnaja i obshhestvenno-politicheskaja dejatel'nost' A. A. Voznesenskogo” (Life, Scientific and Social-Political Activity of A. A. Voznesenskij), in Voznesenskij A. A. Izbrannye jekonomicheskie sochinenija (1923–1941), Moscow, 1985.
8. Kolotov V. V. Nikolaj Alekseevich Voznesenskij, Moscow, 1976.
9. Lejbovich O. L. V gorode M: Ocherki social'noj povsednevnosti rossijskoj provincii (In City M: Essays on Social Every Day Life of Russian Province), Moscow, 2008.
10. Loginov V. M. Teni Stalina: General Vlasik i ego soratniki (Shadows of Stalin: General Vlasik and His Brothers-in-Arms), Moscow, 2000.
11. Majofis M. L. 2014 “Predvestija «ottepeli» v sovetskoj shkol'noj politike pozdnestalinskogo vremeni” (Presages of “Thaw” in Soviet School Politics of Post-Stalin Epoch), in Kukulin I., Majofis M., Safronov P. (eds.) Ostrova utopii: poslevoennaja shkola, pedagogicheskie jeksperimenty i obrazovatel'naja politika, Moscow, 2014.
12. Simonov K. Glazami cheloveka moego pokolenija: Razmyshlenija o I. V. Staline (Through Eyes of Man of My Generation: Thoughts about I. V. Stalin), Moscow, 1989.
13. Sojma V. M. Zapreshhennyj Stalin (Forbidden Stalin), Moscow, 2005.
14. Harhordin O. Oblichat' i licemerit': genealogija rossijskoj lichnosti (To Condemn and Dissemble: Genealogy of Russian Person), Saint-Petersburg, 2002.
15. 1998 “«Papa» Voznesenskij” (“Daddy” Voznesenskij), in Neva, 1998, vol. 10, pp. 147–159.