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Маиер П. В. Западноевропейские источники иконографии «Плоды страданий Христовых»: «Живой Крест» и «Древо Жизни» в русской иконописи // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия V: Вопросы истории и теории христианского искусства. 2015. Вып. 3 (19). С. 52-80. DOI: 10.15382/sturV201519.52-80
This article explores the problem of the iconographical borrowings in the late Russian icon painting. The study intends to reveal the sources of a rare iconography “Fruits of the Passion of Christ“, which emerged by the end of 17th century. Iconographical analysis confirmed the argument that two Western European iconographic types — “The Living Cross” and “The Tree of Life” — exercised a signifi cant influence on Russian type “Fruits of the Passion of Christ”. Using an iconological approach, the author analysed the Western European prototypes within their historical cultural and theological context. The article pays special attention to the mnemonic diagram “Lignum Vitae” which is closely related to the work of Benaventure by the same name. The practice of the Passion Meditations and the requirements for preaching defined the peculiarity in the constructions of the moralizing didactic diagrams, where the fruits of the Tree of Life were visually compared to the Saviour’s life and his Passion. The theme of Passion, the visual metaphor and the iconic effect connect the fruits symbols on the diagram “Lignum Vitae” with the fruit and flowers with the Passions emblems on the Russian icons. The author illuminates genesis and iconographic evolution of the two iconographic types, explores their semantic proximity and the notional invariance, and describes the degree of adaptation of those motifs in Russian art. As a result, it is concluded that the concept of visualisation of an abstract idea and of creating a picture as an allegory of the Cross by using a mnemonic scheme is what connects both iconographical types — “The Living Cross” and “The Tree of Life”. The principle of arranging thematic associations is the same in all examined works. The partial reception of the exegetic Western European tradition accounts for the iconographic transformations on the late Russian icons.
iconography “Fruits of the Passion of Christ”, “The Living Cross”, “The Tree of Life”, mnemotechnical diagram, engraving, conclusions, Western European iconographic borrowings, allegory of the Cross.

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