/
Search results


Лавринович М. Б. Модернизация системы призрения в России: в поисках «достойных бедных» в Странноприимном доме графа Шереметева (1800-е гг.) // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия II: История. История Русской Православной Церкви. 2019. Вып. 91. С. 28-46. DOI: 10.15382/sturII201991.28-46
At the turn of the 18th and 19th centuries, the new ideas on poor relief began to find their way into Russia. On the one hand, they were based on the assessment of need, and on the other hand, on the moral qualities of the potential recipient. N. P. Sheremetev and A.F. Malinovskiy, who managed the construction of the Almshouse and developed its system of in- and outdoor relief, drew their attention to the “Rumford system” and the related practice of Hamburg Patriotic Society that developed the principles of selection of the recipients of outdoor relief. These systems focused on the “new poor”, i.e. working people whose earnings were not suffi cient to provide for themselves and their families. The adherents of this system did not consider poverty to be a consequence of personal immorality, as the British social reformers insisted. Still, these systems complemented each other. The Hamburg society applied the assessment of need and an individual approach when granting assistance; B. Thompson Rumford taught the inmates of the workhouse labor skills and fed the poor on the regular basis. Sheremetev and Malinovskiy decided to cut off “parasites” and “vagabonds”, because they did not aim to reeducate them, thus having excluded the lower urban strata. They also abandoned the idea of “Rumford soup” but did not abandon the idea of selecting the needy who would be “worth” to be granted allowances. They took into account not only the objective criteria (large family or illness) but also the years of “immaculate” service, one’s industry and “decency”. As a result, the Moscow middle-ranking offi cials and officers, who belonged to Malinovskii’s milieu and had obtained recommendations from the well-known persons, prevailed as the perspective recipients of the outdoor poor relief, and social status turned to be the main criterion of selection.
institutions of poor relief, social status, «worthy poor», Sheremetev’s Almshouse, Nikolai Sheremetev, Aleksei Malinovskii, Benjamin Thompson Rumford, Alexander I, Hamburg Patriotic Society
  1. Barlova Yuliya E. (2010) “‘Nadzor i pribyl’. Obshchestvennoe prizrenie i sotsial’naya pomoshch v teoreticheskikh konstruktakh Ieremii Bentama” [“‘Surveillance and Profi t.’ Social Relief and Social Assistance in the Theoretical Constructions of Jeremiah Bentham”] in Dialog so vremenem. Al’manakh intellektual’noy istorii, vol. 33, Moscow: Institut vseobshchei istorii, p. 166–186 (in Russian).
  2. Barlova Yuliya E. (2010) “Bednost’, nishcheta i sotsial’noye prizreniye v obshchestvenno-politicheskoy mysli Rossii XVIII — XIX vv.” [“Poverty, Indigence and Social Relief in the Socio-Political Thought in Russia in the 18th and 19th Centuries”]. Nauka i shkola, 2010, #2, pp. 118–121 (in Russian).
  3. Barlova Yuliya E. (2018) “Kartofel’ i sup v bor’be s bednost’yu: propaganda ‘ekonomnoy kulinarii’ v istorii Anglii novogo vremeni” [“Potatoes and Soup in the Fight against Poverty: the Advocacy of ‘Economical Cooking’ in the History of Modern England”], in Sokolov A.B. (ed.) Britaniya: Istoriya, kul’tura, obrazovaniye, vyp. 4, Yaroslavl’: Yaroslavskii gosudarstvennyy pedagogicheskiy universitet, p. 454–459 (in Russian).
  4. Baudus Florence de, Somov Vladimir A. (2015) “Amabl’ de Bodyus, Monsieur ‘Le Spectateur du Nord’, i ego russkie znakomstva” [“Amable de Baudus, Monsieur ‘Le Spectateur du Nord’, and His Russian Connections”], in Kochetkova Natal’ya Dmitrievna (ed.) XVIII vek: Sbornik statey, vol. 28, Moscow; St. Petersburg, p. 236–287 (in Russian).
  5. Cavallo Sandra (1991) “Conceptions of Poverty and Poor Relief in Turin in the Second Half of the Eighteenth Century”, in S. Woolf (ed.) Domestic Strategies: Work and Family in France and Italy, 1600–1800, Cambridge; Paris: Cambridge University Press and Editions de la Maison des Sciences de l’Homme, p. 148–199.
  6. Dolgova Svetlana R. (1992) “Aleksey Fedorovich Malinovskii”, in Маlinovskiy Aleksei F. Obozrenie Moskvy, Moscow: Moskovskiy rabochiy, p. 176–234 (in Russian).
  7. Gorski Philipp S. (2003) The Disciplinary Revolution: Calvinism and the Rise of the State in Early Modern Europe. Сhicago: University of Chicago Press.
  8. Hartley Janet (1990) “Philanthropy in the Reign of Catherine the Great”, in R. Bartlett, J. Hartley (eds.) Russia in the Age of Enlightenment. Essays for Isabel de Madariaga, London: Palgrave Macmillan, p. 167–202.
  9. Hartley Janet (1994) Alexander I. London, New York: Longman.
  10. Kiselev Nikolay P. (2005) Iz istorii russkogo rozenkreitserstva [From the History of the Russian Rosencrucianity]. St. Petersburg: Izdatel’stvo imeni N.I. Novikova (in Russian).
  11. Kozlova Nataliya V. (2010) Lyudi dryakhlye, bol’nye, ubogie v Moskve XVIII veka [The Decrepit, Sick, and Miserable People in Moscow of the XVIII Century]. Moscow: ROSSPEN (in Russian).
  12. Lavrinovich Maya B. (2016) “Kak possorilis’ Nikolay Petrovich i Aleksei Fedorovich” [How Nikolay Petrovich Quarreled with Aleksei Fedorovich: Patron-Client Relations in the Russian Society at the Turn of the 18th – 19th centuries]. Rossiyskaya istoriya, #3, p. 91–110 (in Russian).
  13. Lavrinovich Maya B. (2018) “A servant of two masters? The role of patronage and clientage in the career strategies of a Moscow official in the late 18th and early 19th centuries”. Cahiers du Monde Russe, vol. 59 (1), p. 7–36.
  14. Lavrinovich Maya B. [Lavrinovič, Maja] (2009) Social Capital vs. Social Discipline: Sheremetev’s Almshouse and Its Residents in 1810–1811, available at: http://www.perspectivia.net/content/publikationen/vortraege-moskau/Lavrinovic_Seremetev-Armenhaus (30.07.2019) (in Russian).
  15. Lindemann Mary (1990) Patriots and Paupers: Hamburg, 1712–1830, New York, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  16. Lindenmeyr Adele (1996) Poverty Is Not a Vice: Charity, Society, and the State in Imperial Russia, Princeton: Princeton University Press.
  17. Martin Аlexander М. (2008) «Sewage and the City: Filth, Smell, and Representations of Urban Life in Moscow, 1770-1880”. Russian Review, vol. 67 (2), p. 243–274.
  18. Martin Аlexander М. (2014) Enlightened Metropolis: Constructing Imperial Moscow, 1762–1855. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  19. Otto H. (1999) “Kirchliche Armenpfl ege in Norddeutschen Städten zwischen Aufklärung und Erweckung”, in C. Butterweck (Hg.) Pietismus und Neuzeit. Ein Jahrbuch zur Geschichte des neueren Protestantismus, Bd. 25, Göttingen.
  20. Redlich Fritz (1971) “Science and Charity: Count Rumford and His Followers”. International Review of Social History, vol. 16 (2), p. 184–216.
  21. Rosslyn Wendy (2007) Deeds, Not Words: The Origins of Women’s Philanthropy in the Russian Empire, Birmingham: University of Birmingham.
  22. Ul’yanova Galina N. (2005) Blagotvoritel’nost’ v Rossiyskoy imperii, XIX – nachalo XX veka, Moscow: Nauka (in Russian).
Lavrinovich Maya
Academic Degree: Candidate of Sciences* in History;
Place of work: National Research University “Higher School of Economics”; 21/4-3 Staraya Basmanaya Str., Moscow 105066, Russian Federation;
ORCID: 0000-0002-1071-1469;
Email: mlavrinovich@hse.ru. *According to the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) 2011, the degree of Candidate of Sciences (Cand.Sc.) belongs to ISCED level 8 — "doctoral or equivalent", together with PhD, DPhil, D.Lit, D.Sc, LL.D, Doctorate or similar.