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Карпов К. В., Шохин В. К. [Review] // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия I: Богословие. Философия. 2012. Вып. 6 (44). С. 129-137. — Rev. op.: Философия религии: альманах 2006–2007 / Отв. ред. В. К. Шохин. М.: Наука, 2007. 498 с. Философия религии: Альманах 2008–2009 / Отв. ред. В. К. Шохин. М.: Языки славянских культур, 2010. 528 с. Философия религии: Альманах 2010–2011 / Отв. ред
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Karpov Kirill
Shokhin Vladimir
Шохин В. К. Философская теология и основное богословие // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия I: Богословие. Философия. 2014. Вып. 1 (51). С. 57-79. DOI: 10.15382/sturI201451.57-79
Two theological disciplines are contrasted in this article: philosophical theology and fundamental theology. The former evolved in Great Britain and the United States and may be considered a type of philosophical and inter-cultural deepening of natural theology. The latter was developed principally in Western Europe and especially in German Roman Catholic schools as Fudamental-Theologie and deals mostly with theology from the standpoint of Christian apologetics. The contrast between the two types is based on the fact that each of them presents differing ways of theologia naturalis (with apology of theism at its heart), both entering the area of theologia revelata. This article is an attempt at mapping out the beginnings of an Eastern Orthodox philosophical theology as an innovative theological program. The author is therefore interested in examining exactly what constitutes such a philosophical theology and in defining the limits which Eastern Orthodox tradition necessarily places upon the evolution of such a system. He also tries to learn what past methodological discussions occurring in the environment of the Russian Orthodox theological schools can contribute to the development of such a system. The author argues that these contributions need to be confined merely to the courses offered by theological schools during the synodal period. Finally, the author wishes to define how philosophical theology and fundamental theology can relate to each other in spite of their theoretical differences. The fields of apologetics and hermeneutics would certainly profit from the development of the school of philosophical theology but exactly in what way remains a question for further research.
Theology, Rational Theology, Revealed Theology, Natural Theology, Philosophical Theology, Fundamental Theology, Methodology, Apologetics, Hermeneutics, Argumentatio

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28. Smirnov S. Istorija Moskovskoj duhovnoj akademii do ee preobrazovanija (1814–1870) (History of Moscow Theological Academy before Its Foundation (1814–1870)), Moscow, 1879.
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30. Hlebnikov G. V. Filosofskaja teologija antichnosti: analiticheskij obzor (Philosophical Theology of the Ancient World: Analysis), Moscow, 2005.
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32. Shohin V. K. Vvedenie v filosofiju religii (Introduction into Philosophy of Religion), Moscow, 2010.
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Шохин В. К. Новационна ли «кульпабилизация»? // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия I: Богословие. Философия. 2014. Вып. 3 (53). С. 167-169.
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Шохин В. К. Об архетипах, фундаментализме, теодицее, религиозном сознании и классиках марксизма: комментарии к реплике К. М. Антонова // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия I: Богословие. Философия. 2014. Вып. 4 (54). С. 152-157.
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Шохин В. К. Философская теология и библейская герменевтика: дискурс о постструктуралистском вызове // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия I: Богословие. Философия. 2014. Вып. 6 (56). С. 41-57. DOI: 10.15382/sturI201456.41-51
Given that philosophical theology has two basic missions, i.e. apologetic and hermeneutic, the author avows that it is because of its philosophical nature that it realizes the first task via critical analysis of not only antitheistic but also theistic propositions and the second one by exegesis of the exegesis itself. The paper deals with the exegesis of the contemporary Christian (both Roman Catholic and Orthodox) concern conditioned by the intervention into Biblical studies of a very fashionable trend, i.e. reader-response criticism whose extreme (readers are virtually regarded as the authors of the text) corresponds to Roland Barth’s postmodernist conception of the death of the author. The paper detects not only the logical self-refutation of this theory, but also its profound inconsistency. Indeed, while positioning their liberation of a text from an author as an antitheological revolution, the champions of deconstructivism don’t realize that in the historical perspective they only parody one of the very ancient and infl uential trends of theological Biblical hermeneutics, which the author of the paper designates as “Alexandrism” and whose origins he tries to discover.
philosophical theology, apologetics, hermeneutics, exegesis, Biblical studies, reader-response criticism, post-structuralism, the death of the author, Alexandrism, allegorical method

1. Bart R. Izbrannye raboty: Semiotika. Pojetika (Selected Works: Semiotics, Poetics), Moscow, 1994.
2. Brek I., prot. 2006 “Pravoslavie i Biblija segodnja” (Orthodoxy and Bible Today), in Pravoslavie i Biblija segodnja: Sb statej, Kiev, 2006. pp. 250–290.
3. Djevis S. T. 2013 “Otkrovenie i bogoduhnovennost'” (Revelation and God Inspiration), in Flint T. P., Rej M. K. (eds.) Oksfordskoe rukovodstvo po filosofskoj teologii, Moscow, 2013, pp. 66–98.
4. Karavidopulos I. Vvedenie v Novyj Zavet (Introduction to New Testament), Moscow, 2010.
5. Shohin V. K. 2014 “Filosofskaja teologija i osnovnoe bogoslovie” (Philosophical Theology and Fundamental Theology), in Vestnik PSTGU. Serija I. Bogoslovie. Filosofija, 2014, vol. 1/51, pp. 57–79.
6. Breck J. The Power of the Word in the Worshipping Church. N. Y., 1986.
7. Fiedrowicz M. Prinzipien der Schriftauslegung in der Alten Kirche, Bern; Berlin, 1998.
8. McKnight E. V. Postmodern Use of the Bible. The Emergence of Reader-Oriented Criticism, Nashville, 1988.
9. Montague G. T. Understanding the Bible. A Basic Introduction to Biblical Interpretation, Mahwah, 1997.
10. Montague G. T. 2003 “Hermeneutics, Biblical”, in New Catholic Encyclopedia, Detroit, 2003, vol. 6, pp. 791–797.
11. Tompkins J. P. (ed.) Reader-Response Criticism: From Formalism to Post-Structuralism, [Baltimore], 1980.
Шохин В. К. Теология, богословие и музееведение: рассуждение о суждениях П. Б. Михайлова // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия I: Богословие. Философия. 2015. Вып. 2 (58). С. 143-155.
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Шохин В. К. Как была сделана классическая метафизика? // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия I: Богословие. Философия. 2015. Вып. 5 (61). С. 41-58. DOI: 10.15382/sturI201561.41-58
It is true that the Western metaphysics could be described as a continual tradition, which up to these days has been working on the issues and challenges coming from the Academy and Liceum, but its history has also undergone the shifts of paradigms linked with changes in its self-consciousness. The article deals with the passage from the traditional metaphysics, which covered two millenniums, to the classical stage dating from the early Modernity to the early Enlightenment wherein not the most notorious “great philosophers” but the scarcely known German “school philosophers” of the latest sixteenth — earliest seventeenth centuries played key roles. The research is concluded by reflections on the significance of the classical metaphysics for the later periods of the Continental philosophy and on the relevance of Clemens Timpler’s and Jacob Lorhard’s postulate that not so much the real as the intelligible should be the subject matter of metaphysics for contemporary theology.
metaphysics, the first philosophy, ontology, cosmology, psychology, theology, the real, the intelligible, Aristotelianism, “school philosophy”

1. Kruglov A. N. 2013 “I. N. Tetens i ego sochinenie «O vseobshhej spekuljativnoj filosofii»” (I. N. Tetens and His Work “About General Speculative Philosophy”), in Tetens I. N. O vseobshhej spekuljativnoj filosofii, Moscow, 2013.
2. Cuares F. 1987 “Predislovie k knige «Metafizicheskie rassuzhdenija» i 1-j razdel pervogo rassuzhdenija «O prirode pervoj filosofii, metafizike»” (Introduction to Book “Metaphysical Considerations” and First Part of First Consideration “About Nature of First Philosophy, Metaphysics”), in Istoriko-filosofskij ezhegodnik, Moscow, 1987, pp. 218–241.
3. Shohin V. K. Agatologija: sovremennost' i klassika (Agathology: Modernity and Classics), Moscow, 2014.
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6. Kobusch T. 1980 “Metaphysik III: Antike bis Hochmittelalter“, in Gründer K. (ed.) Historisches Wörterbuch der Philosophie, Basel; Stuttgart, 1980, vol. 5, pp. 1196–1217.
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8. Lorhard J. Diagraph of Metaphysic or Ontology, in www.illc.uva.nl/Research/ Publications/Reports/X-2008 04.text.pdf/ (Date: 22.07.2015)
9. Øhrstrøm P., Schärfe H., Uckelman S.L. 2008 “Jacob Lorhard’s Ontology: a 17th Century Hypertext on the Reality and Temporality of the World of Intelligibles”, in Ecklund P., Haemmerle O. (eds.) Conceptual Structures: Knowledge, Visualization and Reasoning, Berlin, 2008, pp. 74–87.
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Шохин В. К. [Review] // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия I: Богословие. Философия. 2015. Вып. 6 (62). С. 127-134. — Rev. op.: Plantinga A. Knowledge and Christian Belief. Eerdmans, 2015
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Шохин В. К. [Review] // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия I: Богословие. Философия. 2016. Вып. 2 (64). С. 133-142. — Rev. op.: Сhristian Philosophy of Religion: Essays in Honor of Stephen Davis / C. P. Ruloff , ed. University of Notre Dame Press, 2014
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Шохин В. К. В чем все-таки новизна "нового атеизма"? // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия I: Богословие. Философия. 2016. Вып. 3 (65). С. 149-157.
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Shokhin Vladimir
Academic Degree: Doctor of Sciences* in Philosophy;
Academic Rank: Professor;
Place of work: Institute of Philosophy of the Russian Academy of Sciences; St. Tikhon Orthodox University;
Email: vladshokhin@yandex.ru. *According to ISCED 2011, a post-doctoral degree called Doctor of Sciences (D.Sc.) is given to reflect second advanced research qualifications or higher doctorates.
Шохин В. К. Проблема зла: теодицея и апология // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия I: Богословие. Философия. 2016. Вып. 5 (67). С. 47-58. DOI: 10.15382/sturI201667.47-58
The paper departs from differing of two modalities of the attitude of the theistic reason to the problem of evil, i.e. building of universally valid explanatonary models (theodicy) and apologies in the particular contexts (defense). The first one contradicts to the foundations of theistic world-view inasmuch as the biblical texts persuade one that causes of evil are particular and not universal and are far sometimes to be in the scope of a finite reason. In addition, logical problems with mutual correlation of the main theodicies are demonstrated. The modality of defense seems much more epistemically justified and actual, but here by no means all persuasive resources of controversy are used. The author suggests his own answers to some atheistic challenges, in the fi rst place unmasking double standards in the corresponding argumentation unavoidable for any wishful thinking and contraposes to the idea of multitude of gratuitous evils that of infinite profusion of undeserved boons.
evil, boons, sufferings, freewill, metaphysics, theodicy, defense, argumentation, wishful thinking, gratitude.

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Shokhin Vladimir
Academic Degree: Doctor of Sciences* in Philosophy;
Place of work: Professor;
Email: email: vladshokhin@yandex.ru. *According to ISCED 2011, a post-doctoral degree called Doctor of Sciences (D.Sc.) is given to reflect second advanced research qualifications or higher doctorates.
Работа выполнена при финансовой поддержке РГНФ, грант No 15-03-00211 «Метафизи- ка в интеркультурном пространстве: история и современность»
Шохин В. К. Cтоит ли философии религии быть чем угодно? // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия I: Богословие. Философия. 2017. Вып. 70. С. 146-157. — Rev. op.: Философия религии: учебник для академического бакалавриата / М. М. Шахнович, ред. Юрайт, 2016
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Shokhin Vladimir
Academic Degree: Doctor of Sciences* in Philosophy;
Place of work: Professor;
Email: email: vladshokhin@yandex.ru. *According to ISCED 2011, a post-doctoral degree called Doctor of Sciences (D.Sc.) is given to reflect second advanced research qualifications or higher doctorates.
Шохин В. К. Обоснования существования Бога: новый опыт классификационного анализа // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия I: Богословие. Философия. 2017. Вып. 73. С. 13-29. DOI: 10.15382/sturI201773.13-29
This article gives a critical analysis of old-established stereotypes about substantiations of the existence of God. The attention is focused on their identifi cation as “proofs” and, in more detail, on their formal division into the a priori and a posteriori types and the “material” division into primary and secondary (and, correspondingly, into primary and secondary within both groups as well). The article suggests their defi nition as dialectical abductive conclusions (from the better explanation) and proposes the division into the arguments from the common sense, from metaphysical principles and from “spiritual recognition”. The article also demonstrates that most actual and persuasive substantiations are located in the fi rst group of arguments, which were developed and are developing in topical polemical dialogue with real-life opponents (this also enforces the position of the proponent). As for the arguments from metaphysical principles, they, not being justifi cations of the existence of God in the proper sense, disclose His attributes, having been established in the theology of the perfect Being (one may also call it Anselmian theology) that provides foundation for the entire rational theology of the classical theism that follows the substantiation of the existence of God but cannot replace these substantiations. The reason why analytical theology neglects to elaborate the substantiation of the existence of God is its present-day bias caused by the shift of focus from subjects that natural theology (theologia naturalis) had lawfully been dealing with for centuries to trespassing the territory of revelational theology (theologia revelata), which violates the boundaries of the competence of the religious mind.
analytic philosophy, philosophical theology, intercultural theology, naturala theology, abductive conclusions, dialectical controversy, illustrative arguments, metaphysical presuppositions, a priori and aposteriori, spiritual intuitions, a paradox of atheism
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Shokhin Vladimir
Academic Degree: Doctor of Sciences* in Philosophy;
Academic Rank: Professor;
Place of work: Institute of Philosophy, Russian Academy of Sciences; Goncharnaya Str. 12/1, Moscow 109240, Russian Federation;
Post: Head of the Sector of Philosophy of Religion;
ORCID: 0000-0002-2111-8740;
Email: vladshokhin@yandex.ru. *According to ISCED 2011, a post-doctoral degree called Doctor of Sciences (D.Sc.) is given to reflect second advanced research qualifications or higher doctorates.
The article is written within the framework of the project № 15-03-00211 "Metaphysics in the intercultural space" supported by RFBR Foundation
Шохин В. К. Легко ли брать крепость рациональной теологии? // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия I: Богословие. Философия. 2018. Вып. 79. С. 117-131. DOI: 10.15382/sturI201879.117-131
This paper deals with a certain new attempt to dismantle rational theology, which is in line with innumerable exercises of this kind after Heideggerean criticism of “ontotheology” with addition of “household arguments”. The author of the paper carries out a detailed analysis of this attempt from historical and logical points of view, demonstrating its weakness and outlining further topics in this fi eld of knowledge.
rational theology, revelation, analytic philosophy, postmodernism, “ontotheology”, Eastern Christianity, God
  1. Afonasin E. V. (ed., transl.) (2014). Kliment Aleksandriiskii. Stromaty. Kn. 4–7 [Clement of Alexandria. Stromata. Books 4‒7]. St. Petersburg, 2014.
  2. Barth K. (1934) Nein! Antwort an Emil Brunner. München.
  3. Brunner E. (2009) “Priroda i blagodat’” [“Nature and Grace”], in K. Gestrikh (ed.), K. I. Ukolov (ed., transl.) Sravnitel’noe bogoslovie: nemetskii protestantizm XX veka: Teksty s kommentariiami [Comparative Theology: German Protestantism of the 20th Century: Texts with Commentary]. Moscow, p. 276–316 (Russian translation).
  4. Crisp O. (ed.) (2009) A Reader in Contemporary Philosophical Theology. London; New York.
  5. Flint Th. P., Rea M. C. (eds.) Oxford Handbook of Philosophical Theology. Oxford, 2011 (Russian translation 2013).
  6. Gaginskii A. M. (2018) “Skrytye predposylki ratsional’noi teologii” [“Hidden Prerequisites of Rational Theology”]. Filosofskii zhurnal. 2018, vol. 11/1, pp. 111–124.
  7. Gestrikh K. (2009) “Problema nepreodolennoi estestvennoi teologii” [“Problem of the Overcome Natural Theology”], in K. Gestrikh (ed.), K. I. Ukolov (ed., transl.) Sravnitel’noe bogoslovie: nemetskii protestantizm XX veka: Teksty s kommentariiami [Comparative Theology: German Protestantism of the 20th Century: Texts with Commentary]. Moscow, pp. 322–364.
  8. Gumerov A., priest (ed.) (2014) Saint Athanasius of Alexandria. Select Works. Moscow.
  9. Konacheva S. A. (2010) Bytie. Sviashchennoe. Bog. Khaidegger i filosofskaia teologiia XX veka [Being. Sacred. God. Heidegger and Philosophical Theology of the 20th Century]. Moscow.
  10. Kryshtop L. E. (ed., transl.) (2016) Immanuel Kant. Lektsii o filosofskom uchenii o religii (redaktsiia K. G. L. Pelitsa) [Immanuel Kant. Lectures on Philosophical Theology]. Moscow.
  11. Mikhailov P. B. (2007) “Estestvennoe bogopoznanie v grecheskoi patristike” [“Natural Theosophy in Greek Patrisrics”]. Filosofiia religii: Al’manakh 2006–2007. Moscow, pp. 247–263.
  12. Plantinga A. (1980) Does God Have a Nature? Milwaukee (WI).
  13. Rea M. (ed.) (2009) Oxford Readings in Philosophical Theology. Oxford.
  14. Shokhin V. K. (2015) “Teizm ili deizm? Razmyshleniia nad metafi zicheskoi teologiei Richarda Suinberna” [“Theism or Deism? Refl ections on Richard Suinburne’s Metaphysical Theology”]. Voprosy filosofii, 2015, vol. 2, pp. 64–76.
  15. Suinburne R. (1991) The Existence of God. Clarendon Press (Russian translation 2014).
  16. Taliaferro C., Meister C. (eds.) (2010) The Cambridge Companion to Christian Philosophical Theology. Cambridge.
  17. Turner D. (2004) Faith, Reason and the Existence of God. Cambridge.
  18. Ubaghs G. C. (ed.) (2006) Heidegger M. Gesamtausgabe. Bd. 11: Identität und Differenz. Frankfurt am Main.
Shokhin Vladimir
Academic Degree: Doctor of Sciences* in Philosophy;
Academic Rank: Professor;
Place of work: Institute of Philosophy, Russian Academy of Sciences; Goncharnaya Str. 12/1, Moscow 109240, Russian Federation;
Post: Head of the Sector of Philosophy of Religion;
ORCID: 0000-0002-2111-8740;
Email: vladshokhin@yandex.ru. *According to ISCED 2011, a post-doctoral degree called Doctor of Sciences (D.Sc.) is given to reflect second advanced research qualifications or higher doctorates.
Мусхелишвили Н. Л., Антоненко А. К. О структурном изоморфизме концепций ноэмы и образа-организатора // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия I: Богословие. Философия. 2019. Вып. 81. С. 89-101. DOI: 10.15382/sturI201981.89-101
This paper examines the relationship between the E. Husserl’s theory of noema and N. L. Muskhelishivili’s and Yu. A. Schreider’s concept of the organising image (image-sprout) which was proposed in the paper “Meaning of Text as an Inner Image”. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate isomorphism of these two concepts. It can serve as a methodological and ideological basis for combining phenomenological, psychological and semiotic methodologies for analysing diff erent phenomena including altered states of consciousness, especially in religious studies. The main elements of the methodology of this paper are text analysis of Husserl’s and Muskhelishivili’s papers, their interpretation, structural comparison of their semantic aspects and the subsequent synthesis of the results obtained. The paper has a structure of step-by-step comparison of these concepts in the framework of meaning, signifi cance, object and intelligibility, with a subsequent synthecising conclusion. Drawing on the results of this study, the authors of the paper have discovered a similarity of noema and the organising image (image-sprout) in all signifi cant structural aspects. The similarity both in terms of signifi cance and meaning and in terms of the inner structure of noema and the organising image (image-sprout) is shown both on the conceptual level and using several examples. The study also shows signifi cant affi nity of the principle of contemplating both phenomena in the acts of consciousness of the individual. The only difference between noema and organising image is made up by the methodological system into which these theories are incorporated. However, the conceptual base of similar theories of intentionality of consciousness demonstrates a possibility of uniting the phenomenological and semiotico-psychological methodologies, which was earlier outlined by G. Shpet in his project of positive philosophy.
Husserl, noema, phenomenology, phenomenological psychology, noematic meaning, organising image, image-sprout, reference, consciousness
  1. Føllesdal D. (1969). “Husserl’s Notion of Noema”. Journal of Philosophy, vol. 66, pp. 680–687.
  2. Husserl E. (1950). Ideen zu einer reinen Phanomenologie und phanomenologischen Philosophie. Hague.
  3. Ignatiy Loyola. (2006). Dukhovnyye uprazhneniya. Dukhovnyy dnevnik [Spiritual exercises. Spiritual diary]. Moscow (In Rusian)
  4. Muskhelishvili N., Shreider Iu. (1997) “Znachenie teksta kak vnutrennii obraz” [Meaning of Text as an Internal Image”]. Voprosy psikhologii, vol. 3, pp. 79–91 (in Russian).
  5. Muskhelishvili N., Shreider Iu. (1999). “Molitva: semiotika teksta i psikhologiia deianiia” [Prayer: Semiotics of the Text and Psychology of the Act]. Logos, vol. 3, pp. 379–402 (in Russian).
  6. Muskhelishvili N., Bazlev M. (2018) “O videniiakh v “Dukhovnom Dnevnike” Ignatiia Loioly” [On Visions in the Spiritual Exercises by Loyola]. Religiovedenie, vol. 3, pp. 128–139 (in Russian).
  7. Muskhelishvili N. (2014). “Traditsiia lectio divina: kognitivno-psikhologicheskoe prochtenie” [Tradition of lectio divina: Cognitive and Psychological Interpretation]. Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Series I: Bogoslovie. Filosofiia, vol. 51, pp. 99–120 (in Russian).
  8. Shpet G. (1997). “Pis’mo k E. Gusserlyu ot 14.XII.1913” [“Letter to E. Husserl from 14.12.1913”]. Logos, vol. 7, pp. 123–128.
Muskhelishvili Nikolay
Academic Degree: Doctor of Sciences* in Psychological Sciences;
Academic Rank: Professor;
Place of work: Russian State University for the Humanities; 6 Miusskaya Sq., Moscow, 125993, GSP-3, Russian Federation;
Post: Professor, Educational and Resear ch Centr e of Religious Studies;
ORCID: 0000-0002-6253-6244;
Email: muskh.symbol@mail.ru. *According to ISCED 2011, a post-doctoral degree called Doctor of Sciences (D.Sc.) is given to reflect second advanced research qualifications or higher doctorates.
Antonenko Andrey
Student status: Graduate student;
Place of study: Russian State University for the Humanities; 6 Miusskaya Sq., Moscow, 125993, GSP-3, Russian Federation;
ORCID: 0000-0001-9800-1252;
Email: akantonenko1145@gmail.com.
Шохин В. К. Философско-теологический дискурс и определения догматов в духовно-академической школе синодального периода // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия I: Богословие. Философия. 2019. Вып. 82. С. 11-33. DOI: 10.15382/sturI201982.11-33
This article outlines the defi nitions of the dogmata in the most infl uential and mainstream tradition in Russian theology of the Synodal period, beginning from the “Dogmatic Theology” (Russ. Догматическое богословие) by archimandrite (future archbishop) Antony (Amfi teatrov) (1848) and concluding with the benchmarking article by Alexey Vvedensky “The Issue of Methodological Reform of Orthodox Dogmatics” (1904; Russ. К вопросу о методологической реформе православной догматики). The article shows that certain well-known modern handbooks in dogmatics render synodal interpretations. The article also reconstructs three aspects in understanding of the dogmata in the academic spiritual school. These are termed aletheological, institutional, and soteriological; attention is paid to discording opinions of spiritual and academic experts which manifested themselves most vividly at the end of the 19th — beginning of the 20th centuries. Besides, the “synodal defi nitions” and understandings of the dogmata come to be an object of critical analysis, particularly with regard to the lack of both historism and attention to the humanistic side of the synergetic nature of the “matter” of the dogmata on the whole.
philosophical theology, Christian dogmata, dogmatics, theological academies, Synodal period, theory of doctrinal development, Pope’s infallibility, inerrancy of Bible, caesaropapism
  1. Achtemeier P. (1999) Inspiration and Authority: Nature and Function of Christian Scripture. Massachusetts.
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  3. Antonii (Amfi teatrov), archbishop (2006) Dogmaticheskoe bogoslovie pravoslavnoi kafolicheskoi vostochnoi tserkvi [Dogmatic Theology of the Orthodox Catholic Eastern Church]. St Petersburg (in Russian).
  4. Bradshaw D. (2012) Aristotel’ na Vostoke i Zapade: metafi zika i razdelenie khristianskogo mira [Aristotle East and West: Metaphysics and the Division of Christendom]. Russ. translation. Moscow.
  5. Davydenkov O., archpriest (2014) Dogmaticheskoe bogoslovie. Uchebnoe posobie [Dogmatic Theology. A Handbook]. Moscow (in Russian).
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  7. Dolenc B. (2011) “Newman’s Essay on the Development of Christian Doctrine: its Genesis and its Enduring Relevance”. Bogoslovni vestnik, vol. 71, pp. 525–541.
  8. Dvoretskii I. (1958) Drevnegrechesko-russkii slovar’ [Ancient Greek-Russian Dictionary]. Мoscow (in Russian).
  9. Glubokovskii N. (2002) Russkaia bogoslovskaia nauka v ee istoricheskom razvitii i noveishem sostoianii [Russian Theological Science in its Historical Development and Modern State]. Мoscow (in Russian).
  10. Lattier D. (2011) “The Orthodox Rejection of Doctrinal Development”. Pro Ecclesia, vol. XX, no 4, pp. 389‒410.
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  12. Lindsell H. (1981) The Battle for the Bible. Grand Rapids.
  13. Lisovoi N. “Obzor osnovnykh napravlenii russkoi bogoslovskoi akademicheskoi nauki v XIX — nachale XX stoletiia” [Overview of the Main Directions of Russian Theological Academic Science in the 19th — Early 20th Centuries]. Bogoslovskie trudy, vol. 37, pp. 6–126 (in Russian).
  14. Mikhailov P. (2013) “Problema razvitiia v bogoslovii i dogmatike” [Problem of Development in Theology and in Dogmatics]. Vestnik PSTGU. Seriia 1: Bogoslovie. Filosofi ia. Religiovedenie, vol. 6 (50), pp. 9‒23 (in Russian).
  15. Newman J. (1989) Essay on the Development of Christian Doctrine. Notre Dame University.
  16. Newman J. (1997) Fifteen Sermons Preached before the University of Oxford. University of Notre Dame.
  17. Shokhin V. (2016) Filosofskaia teologiia: dizainerskie fasety [Philosophical Theology: Designers’ Facets]. Moscow (in Russian).
  18. Shokhin V. (2018) Filosofskaia teologiia: kanon i variativnost’ [Philosophical Theology: the Canon and the Variability]. Moscow (in Russian).
  19. Wolterstorff N. (1995) Divine Discourse: Philosophical Refl ections on the Claim that God Speaks. New York.
Shokhin Vladimir
Academic Degree: Doctor of Sciences* in Philosophy;
Academic Rank: Professor;
Place of work: Institute of Philosophy, Russian Academy of Sciences; Goncharnaya Str. 12/1, Moscow 109240, Russian Federation;
Post: Head of the Sector of Philosophy of Religion;
ORCID: 0000-0002-2111-8740;
Email: vladshokhin@yandex.ru. *According to ISCED 2011, a post-doctoral degree called Doctor of Sciences (D.Sc.) is given to reflect second advanced research qualifications or higher doctorates.
Мусхелишвили Н. Л., Антоненко А. К. О духовной практике Игнатия Лойолы и видении в Ла Сторте // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия I: Богословие. Философия. 2019. Вып. 86. С. 95-109. DOI: 10.15382/sturI201986.95-109
This article studies the problem of comprehension of Ignatius’ of Loyola spiritual method. The fi rst part of the article outlines the basic principles that are necessary to carry out the study as to the functioning of the inner speech as the language of mind; it also pays special attention to N.I. Zhinkin’s conception of the twofold structure of the inner speech. The second part analyses Ignatius’ methodology of prayer described in the Spiritual Exercises and compares it with the tradition of lectio divina on the base of Guigo’s II text. The article studies in more detail the refl ection of the priciple of transitivity in the Spiritual Exercises, thanks to which principle the one who practises it acquires the objective of the possibility of communication with God. The transitivity is clearly implemented in the event placed in the title of the article which happened to Loyola in the shrine of La Storta, the analysis of which continues the aticle. The autocommunicative nature of this event — it had happened to Ignatius before writing the Spiritual Diary, — and those visual and auditive components that are present in it allow one to make a conclusion about the interrelationship of the visions and the gift of the “discourse” as constituent elements of Loyola’s religious method of spiritual self-cognition in the Spiritual Diary.
Ignatius of Loyola, autocommunication, inner voice, practice of prayer, religious method, lectio divina, transitivity
  1. Bakhtin M. (1972) Problemy poetiki Dostoevskogo [Problems of Dostoevsky’s Poetics]. Moscow (in Russian).
  2. Guigo II Cartusiensis (2011) “Scala claustralium”, in Opera. Moscow, pp. 5–48 (Russian translation).
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  10. Muskhelishvili N. (2014) “Traditsiia lectio divina: kognitivno-psikhologicheskoe prochtenie” [Tradition of lectio divina: Cognitive and Psychological Interpretation]. Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia I: Bogoslovie. Filosofiia. Religiovedenie, 1, pp. 99–101 (in Russian).
  11. Muskhelishvili N., Bazlev M. (2019) “Vnutrenniaia rech’ i dar govora (loqüela)” [Inner Speech and the Gift of Speaking (loqüela)]. Voprosy psikhologii, 2, pp. 59–68 (in Russian).
  12. Muskhelishvili N., Shreider Yu. (1997) “Avtokommunikatsiia, kak neobkhodimyi komponent kommunikatsii” [Autocommunication as a Necessary Component of Communication]. Nauchno-tekhnicheskaia informatsiia, 5, pp. 1–10 (in Russian).
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Muskhelishvili Nikolay
Academic Degree: Doctor of Sciences* in Psychological Sciences;
Academic Rank: Professor;
Place of work: Russian State University for the Humanities; 6 Miusskaya Sq., Moscow, 125993, GSP-3, Russian Federation;
Post: Professor, Educational and Resear ch Centr e of Religious Studies;
ORCID: 0000-0002-6253-6244;
Email: muskh.symbol@mail.ru. *According to ISCED 2011, a post-doctoral degree called Doctor of Sciences (D.Sc.) is given to reflect second advanced research qualifications or higher doctorates.
Antonenko Andrey
Student status: Graduate student;
Place of study: Russian State University for the Humanities; 6 Miusskaya Sq., Moscow, 125993, GSP-3, Russian Federation;
ORCID: 0000-0001-9800-1252;
Email: akantonenko1145@gmail.com.
Шохин В. К. Почему бы Богу не существовать вне времени? К одной большой дискуссии в аналитической метафизике // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия I: Богословие. Философия. 2020. Вып. 89. С. 88-109. DOI: 10.15382/sturI202089.88-109
It was not up to the mid-20th century that timelessness of God had been a topic of discussions, bit now it is a hot issue in analytical metaphysics in which you can even distinguish “strong”, “moderate”, and “weak” positions of its proponents and opponents, the latter positions becoming more and more prevalent. Arguments proposed by both sides demonstrate strong sides of the analytical method, but the participants of this discussion are united by the circumstance that they believe to have access to God’s nature itself and not only to our opinions about it, thus exhibiting features of pre-Kantian thinking. This article, by contrast, proposes a solution to a more humble problem, i.e. the defi nition of which solution to the discussed question is coherent in the concrete religious world outlook, and the author puts forward logical (primarily, traditional from God’s inalterability) and illustrative arguments in favour of the assumption that the idea of Divine temporality accords well with pantheist world outlook, whereas it can be incorporated in the theistic only with a destructive eff ect for the latter. The article concludes with the assumption that the most coherent idea of God is Anselm’s identifi cation of God as something “more than which nothing can be thought of”, including the attribute of non-temporality, corresponding to classical theism, and the argument as to fact why despite this fact apanentheistic ideas become more and more popular in present-day Western philosophical theology.
metaphysics, philosophical theology, temporality, timelessness, theism, panentheism, creationism, Scripture, logical reasons, illustrative arguments, coherence
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  2. Brei D. (ed.) (2008) Bibleiskie kommentarii ottsov Tserkvi i drugikh avtorov I–VIII vekov. Novyi Zavet XI. Kafolicheskie poslaniia [Biblical commentaries of Church Fathers and other authors of the 1st — 8th centuries. New Testament XI. Catholic epistles]. Tver’ (in Russian).
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  20. Shokhin V. (2018) “Novyi fenomen: strasti po analiticheskoi fi losofi i” [New phenomenon: Battle arond analytical philosophy]. Filosofskii zhurnal, 11, 4, pp. 106–114 (in Russian).
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Shokhin Vladimir
Academic Degree: Doctor of Sciences* in Philosophy;
Academic Rank: Professor;
Place of work: Institute of Philosophy, Russian Academy of Sciences; Goncharnaya Str. 12/1, Moscow 109240, Russian Federation;
Post: Head of the Sector of Philosophy of Religion;
ORCID: 0000-0002-2111-8740;
Email: vladshokhin@yandex.ru. *According to ISCED 2011, a post-doctoral degree called Doctor of Sciences (D.Sc.) is given to reflect second advanced research qualifications or higher doctorates.
Шохин В. К. Представления о секулярности и религия Просвещения // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия I: Богословие. Философия. 2021. Вып. 96. С. 61-76. — Rev. op.: Крыштоп Л.Э. Мораль и религия в философии немецкого Просвещения: от Хр. Томазия до И.Канта. М.: Канон+, 2020. DOI: 10.15382/sturI202196.61-76
It is a wide spectrum of the interrelations between philosophy and religion in Germany during the Enlightenment as disclosed in the newest book by Ludmila Kryshtop Morality and Religion in the Philosophy of German Enlightenment — from Thomasius to Kant regarded in the lenses of German studies whrerefrom those of Konrad Feiereis and Albrecht Beutel could be selected, that makes up the subject-matter of this article. The author highly estimates both Kryshtop’s successful endeavour to uproot the cliché of the enlightenment secularism (based on the pattern of French Enlightenment) and introducing of numerous philosophers to the Russian reader hardly familiar to him. In many details the author of the paper concerns himself with exposition of Christian August Crusius’ and Moses Mendelssohn’s philosophical ideas and approves Kryshtop’s exposition of deepening the movement to the left in German religious thought of the eighteenth century. Nevertheless, the author of the paper comes also to disagreement with the author of the book because of her underrating of the spread and influence of deism in “the age of reason” and refers to several signifi cant avenues whereby deism came from England to Germany. As to how to identify deism itself the author refers to a typological approach of Christoph Gestrich, which he considers as highly productive. The question is about 13 essences of deism whereby any thinker can be judged as one capable of being enlisted into the deists, the fi rst of them being negation of any religion’s claim at absoluteness, the last one infi delity to the doctrines of the Holy Trinity and Incarnation.
Enlightenment, Germany, religion, philosophy, pietism. Wolffianism, the Neologians, theology, ontology, Ludmila Kryshtop
  1. Beutel A. (2006) Aufklärung in Deutschland. Göttingen.
  2. Cottret D. (2010) Histoire de la Reforme protestante. Paris.
  3. Feiereis K. (1965) Die Umprägnung der natürlichen Theologie in Religionsphilosophie. Ein Beitrag zur deutschen Geistesgeschichte des 18. Jahrhunderts. Leipzig.
  4. Gestrich Chr. (1981) “Deismus”, in Theologische Realencyclopedie, Bd. 8, Berlin / New York, pp. 392–406.
  5. Kant I. (1994) Kritik der reinen Vernunft. Moscow (Russian translation).
  6. Kryshtop L. E. (2020) “Kant o moral’noi religii razuma i religioznom pliuralizme” [“Kant on Moral Religion of Reason and Religious Pluralism”]. Filosofiia religii: analiticheskie issledovaniia, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 42–63 (in Russian).
  7. Kryshtop L. E. (2019) Moral’ i religiia v filosofii nemetskogo Prosveshcheniia: ot Khr. Tomaziia do I. Kanta [Moral and Religion in Philosophy of German Enlightenment: from Chr. Thomasius to I. Kant]. Moscow: Kanon+ (in Russian).
  8. Kryshtop L. E. (2019) “Nemetskie prosvetiteli o Bozhestvennom Otkrovenii i Sviashchennom Pisanii” [“German Enlightenment on Divine Revelation and Holy Scripture”]. Filosofiia religii: analiticheskie issledovaniia, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 39–56 (in Russian).
  9. Lalor S. (2006) Matthew Tindal, Freethinker. An Enlightenment–Century on Religion. London-New York.
  10. Orr J. (1934) English Deism: Its Roots and Its Fruits. Grand Rapids, Mich.
  11. Schröder W. (1992) “Religion bzw. Theologie, natürliche bzw. vernünftige”, in Ritter J., Gründer K. (eds) Historisches Wörterbuch der Philosophie, Bd. VIII, Basel, pp. 714–727.
  12. Shokhin V. K. (2020) “Epistemologicheskii i religioznyi fundamentalizm v kontekste interkul’turnosti” [“Epistemological and Religious Fundamentalism in Intercultural Context”]. Filosofiia religii: analiticheskie issledovaniia, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 5-26 (in Russian).
  13. Shokhin V. K. (2016) Filosofskaia teologiia: dizainerskie fasety [Philosophical Theology: Design Facets]. Moscow (in Russian).
  14. Zhuchkov V. A. (1996) Iz istorii nemetskoi filosofii XVIII v. Predklassicheskii period (ot vol’fovskoi shkoly do rannego Kanta) [From the History of German 18th Century Philosophy. Preclassical Period (from Wolffi an School to Early Kant]. Moscow (in Russian).
  15. Zhuchkov V. A. (1989) Nemetskaia filosofiia rannego Prosveshcheniia (konets XVII — nachalo XVIII v.) [German Philosophy of Early Enlightenment (End of the 17th — Beginning of the 18th Centuries]. Moscow (in Russian).
Shokhin Vladimir
Academic Degree: Doctor of Sciences* in Philosophy;
Academic Rank: Professor;
Place of work: Institute of Philosophy, Russian Academy of Sciences; Goncharnaya Str. 12/1, Moscow 109240, Russian Federation;
Post: Head of the Sector of Philosophy of Religion;
ORCID: 0000-0002-2111-8740;
Email: vladshokhin@yandex.ru. *According to ISCED 2011, a post-doctoral degree called Doctor of Sciences (D.Sc.) is given to reflect second advanced research qualifications or higher doctorates.
Шохин В. К. Вакцинофобия, «фундаментализм» и тонкая настройка современной пандемии // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия I: Богословие. Философия. 2021. Вып. 97. С. 123-137. DOI: 10.15382/sturI202197.123-137
This article is a response to the paper that discloses the unwillingness to get vaccination against Covid-19 as based on the apocalyptic mentality. This topic is extended so that I analyse not only subjective but also objective reasons for the phenomenon which in the above-mentioned paper is termed vaccinophobia. I go even further and examine not only the consequences but also the cause, i.e. the pandemic itself and the various aspects of its impact on society and religion. I argue that the understanding of Covid is possible not only in the domain of doctors, sociologists, politologists, but also of theologians. I study the following main directions of its impact, i.e. being the instument used to destroy the traditional historical, cultural, and even biological identity of present-day Westerners; abnormal control over society on the pretext of caring for people, and extreme pressure on church life under the same pretext. My conclusion is that it is possible to see analogies between the fi ne tuning of Creation and coordination of the factors listed above in the context of the pervading purposeful set of objectives which are initially oppossed to the divine plan and are becoming more and more sophisticated. I cite opinions of prominent virusologists about the artifi cial origin of Covid as well as the arguments in favour of the view that the Christian teaching about hell can no longer be seen as a remnant of Middle Ages but constitutes an integral part of the Christian doctrine and fully retains validity in the present day.
COVID, vaccinophobia, fundamentalism, alarmism, conspiracy theory, church life, teleology, rational plan, fi ne tuning, Christian teaching about hell
  1. Agadzhanian A. S. (2021) “Soprotivlenie i pokornost′. Vyzovy pandemii, pozdnemodernye epistemy i russkii pravoslavnyi etos” [Resistance and submission. Pandemic’s challanges, epistemes of late modernity and Russian Orthodox ethos]. Gosudarstvo, religiia, tserkov′ v Rossii i za rubezhom, vol. 39 (1), pp. 12–38 (in Russian).
  2. Collins R. (2009) “The Teleological Argument: An Exploration of the Fine-tuning of the Cosmos”, in W. L. Craig, J. P. Moreland (eds) The Blackwell Companion to Natural Theology, Oxford: Blackwell, pp. 202–281.
  3. Collins R. (2010) “Evidences for Fine-Tuning”, in V. K. Shokhin (ed.) Filosofiia religii: Al′manakh 2008–2009 [Philosophy of religion. Almanac of 2008–2009], Moscow: Iazyki slavianskikh kul′tur, pp. 136–160 (in Russian).
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  7. Shokhin V. K. (2016) “Natural Theology, Philosophical Theology and Illustrative Argumentation”. De Gryuter Open Theology, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 804–817.
  8. Shokhin V. K. (2018) “Fenomen ateisticheskogo fi deizma” [The phenomenon of atheist fideism]. Trudy kafedry bogosloviia SPB DA, vol. 2, pp. 6–18 (in Russian).
  9. Shokhin V. K. (2020) “Epistemologicheskii i religioznyi fundmamentalizm v perspektive interkul′turnosti” [Epistemological and religious fundamentalism in intercultural perspective]. Filosofiia religii: analiticheskie issledovaniia, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 5–26 (in Russian).
  10. Swinburne R., Kedrova M. O. (transl.) (2014) The Existence of God. Moscow: Iazyki slavianskoi kul’tury (Russian translation).
Shokhin Vladimir
Academic Degree: Doctor of Sciences* in Philosophy;
Academic Rank: Professor;
Place of work: Institute of Philosophy, Russian Academy of Sciences; Goncharnaya Str. 12/1, Moscow 109240, Russian Federation;
Post: Head of the Sector of Philosophy of Religion;
ORCID: 0000-0002-2111-8740;
Email: vladshokhin@yandex.ru. *According to ISCED 2011, a post-doctoral degree called Doctor of Sciences (D.Sc.) is given to reflect second advanced research qualifications or higher doctorates.
Кириллов В. Л. Элементы мировоззрения шестидесятников – участников русского революционного сообщества 1860-х гг. // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия II: История. История Русской Православной Церкви. 2022. Вып. 107. С. 25-47. DOI: 10.15382/sturII2022107.25-47
The article analyzes the ideology of the Sixties – members of the Russian revolutionary community of the late 1850s – 1860s. A revolutionary community means a set of ideologically close personalities and associations with revolutionary views; it makes possible to examine members of the revolutionary underground and people sympathizing with revolutionary views as one community. Due to the fact that definitions of the Sixties as revolutionary democrats, Narodniks, nihilists, etc. are common in historiography, the article proposes to look at their ideology as a non-hierarchical, eclectic combination of different views, concepts and ideas, among which there were no main ideas. The author of the article identifies six main elements of the ideology of the Sixties: the denial of the old regime (which presupposed anti-conservative views, as well as the prevalence of the nihilism subculture), socialist orientation (from the strict theory of “Russian socialism” to abstract sympathies for the very idea of socialism), “craving for the people” (which foreshadowed the ideology of revolutionary Narodnichestvo of the 1870s), democratic ideals (which mainly assumed egalitarianism, the idea of equality of all members of society, which resulted in interest and support for the women’s movement, the creation of communes for living together and everyday life), enlightenment (expressed in the cult of science and knowledge, educational work among the intelligentsia), faith in the proximity of the revolution (a specific feature of the Sixties, which manifested itself in anticipation of an imminent mass popular uprising). The research is based on a complex of various sources (memoirs, journalism, investigative testimony), according to which it is possible to identify the views of both well-known publicists of democratic magazines and the emigrant press, as well as members of underground revolutionary circles.
Russian revolutionary movement, Narodnichestvo, the Sixties, nihilism, socialism, women’s movement, enlightenment
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  10. Kirillov V. (2016) Revoliutsionnyi terrorizm, kotorogo ne bylo: Tainoe obshchestvo +Smorgonskaia akademiia″ v russkom revoliutsionnom dvizhenii 1860-kh gg. [The revolutionary terrorism that did not exist: the secret society “Smorgonskaya Academy” in the Russian revolutionary movement of the 1860s]. Moscow (in Russian).
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Kirillov Victor
Place of work: State Historical Museum;
Post: methodologist;
ORCID: 0000-0003-4960-4692;
Email: me@kirillov-msu.ru.
Кнорре Е. Ю., Кнорре Б. К. «Принести исцеление нашей израненной планете»: от экотеологии к метаэтике // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия I: Богословие. Философия. 2022. Вып. 104. С. 157-162. — Rev. op.: Ecotheology: A Christian Conversation / Kiara A. Jorgenson, Alan G. Padgett, ed. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2020. 240 p.
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Knorre Elena
Academic Degree: Candidate of Sciences* in Philology;
Academic Degree: Candidate of Sciences* in Philology;
Place of work: А.M. Gorky Institute of World Literature of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Russian Federation,Moscow, 121069, Povarskaya 25 а, Senior Researcher; Orthodox St. Tikhon University for the Humanities, Russian Federation, Moscow, 127051, Likhov pereulok, 6, building 1, Senior Lecturer;
Post: Senior Researcher; Senior Lecturer;
ORCID: 0000-0002-3272-8659;
Email: Lena12pk@yandex.ru. *According to the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) 2011, the degree of Candidate of Sciences (Cand.Sc.) belongs to ISCED level 8 — "doctoral or equivalent", together with PhD, DPhil, D.Lit, D.Sc, LL.D, Doctorate or similar.
Knorre Boris
Academic Degree: Candidate of Sciences* in Philosophy;
Place of work: National Research University 'Higher School of Economics';
Post: 101000, Москва, ул.Мясницкая, 20;
ORCID: 0000-0001-7490-8474;
Email: bknorre@hse.ru. *According to the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) 2011, the degree of Candidate of Sciences (Cand.Sc.) belongs to ISCED level 8 — "doctoral or equivalent", together with PhD, DPhil, D.Lit, D.Sc, LL.D, Doctorate or similar.