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Зыгмонт А. И. Насилие и сакральное в философии Жоржа Батая // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия I: Богословие. Философия. 2015. Вып. 3 (59). С. 23-38. DOI: 10.15382/sturI201559.23-38
The article considers the concepts of violence and the sacred in the work of the French philosopher Georges Bataille. The author traces back the transformations of the concept of violence throughout the thinker’s carrier, namely in his early literary and philosophical experiences of the late 20s — early 30s, his reports for the College of Sociology (1937–1939) and his «systematic» postwar writings (1945–1962). The author also puts forward the hypothesis of the connection between the concept violence and the concept the sacred and demonstrates that it is most thoroughly represented in the last period of his work, although it may have been noted before. Diachronic consideration of the formation of these concepts allows the author to trace their correlation from the more or less random links mediated by artistic images and the other notions (sacrifi ce, for example) to their explicit identification with each other and the systematic development in relation to such concepts as nature, life, being, intimacy, the animal state, expenditure, sacrifice, war and eroticism
G. Bataille, the College of Sociology, violence, the sacred, intimacy, life, sacrifice, war, eroticism.

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Зыгмонт А. И. Война и философия сакрального у Жоржа Батая // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия I: Богословие. Философия. 2017. Вып. 70. С. 63-81. DOI: 10.15382/sturI201770.63-81
The paper considers various conceptualisations of war in works by the French philosopher Georges Bataille as well as their relationship with the notion of the sacred. It is suggested that this philosopher was the first to propose such formulation of the problem that emerged at the intersection of two interrelated views, namely the one about the decline of the sacred in the modern world and about the essential difference between World War ΙΙ and all previous wars. The latter view had made possible speculations as to the “sacred” character of this war. Tracing the development of the philosopher’s views on this subject from the 1930s to 1960s, the paper suggests that he consistently condemns war as an armed political conflict and contrasted it with religious perception of life and with free movement of violence in the forms of revolution, tragedy, and sacrifi ce, thus denying the sacred character of the war. Nevertheless, arguing against the so-called “modern” war, which appears pragmatic, mechanised, profane and threatening humankind with complete devastation, he contrasts it with two other — sacred — types of war. The first is “archaic” war. Its significance is much closer to that of sacrifi ce. It transfigures the human being by putting the latter in the proximity to death. The second is “spiritual fight”, the battle against his or her own subjectivity. Bataille borrowed this conception from Catholic mysticism of the Middle Ages. These different views on war arise from the multifaceted personal experience of the philosopher himself.
Georges Bataille, war, the sacred, sacrifice, mysticism, modern war, archaic war, “spiritual fight”

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A ceux qui n’ont pas oublie la guerre du droit et de la liberte // Ibid. P. 399–401.
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Bataille G. La conjuration sacree // Ibid. P. 442–446.
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Zygmont Aleksei
Academic Degree: graduate student;
Place of work: School of Philosophy, Higher School of Economics 21/4 Staraia Basmannaia, Moscow 105066, Russian Federation;
Email: email: az09@mail.ru.