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Захарьина Н. Б. О нотации стихиры «Благовествует Гавриил» // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия V: Вопросы истории и теории христианского искусства. 2019. Вып. 36. С. 66-79. DOI: 10.15382/sturV201936.66-79
The sticheron for the Annunciation Blagovestvuet Gavriil (Church Slavonic Благовествует Гавриил ‘Gabriel Announceth’) has been preserved in Old Russian notated manuscripts of the mid-15th century (previously, it existed without notation). The text is a translation of the Byzantine sticheron E´αγγελίζεται Γαβριήλ, but the chant is diff erent. The copies of the mid-15th — early 16th centuries are notatied in an unknown notation of the palaiobyzantine type (probably Chartres). In chant manuscripts of the 16th century Znamennaya notation is used, the hook line consists completely of litsa. Probably, the shape of litsa implied variability of writing. In copies of the 17th century, the litsa are almost always given as a split znamya. Several versions of the chants are being created, each of them is marked with a remark about a local or an author’s chant. Most Old Russian church chants have gone through the same stages, but the sticheron Blagovestvuet Gavriil shows some unique features. All changes of the musical text occur non-synchronically with commonly known versions of books of singing. The unique chant and unknown notation of the early copies were infl uenced by Znamenny chant and Znamennaya notation in the later copies.
Znamennaya notation, palaiobyzantine notation, Chartres notation, neumatic notation, Znamenny chant, stichera, hook line, litsa, methods of combinatorial analysis
  1. Brazhnikov M. (1984) Litsa i fity znamennogo raspeva. Leningrad (in Russian).
  2. Drozdetskaia N. (2005) “Opekalovskii raspev: Imenovanie i bytovanie” [Opekalovskiy Chant: Naming and Occurrence]. Drevniaia Rus': Voprosy medievistiki, 1(19), pp. 80–91 (in Russian).
  3. Gertsman E. (1988) Vizantiiskoe muzykoznanie [Byzantine Musical Science]. Leningrad (in Russian).
  4. Guseinova Z. (1990) “Rukovodstva po teorii znamennogo peniia 15 veka (istochniki i redaktsii)” [Manuals in the Theory of Znammenoe Singing of the 15th Century (Sources and Editions), in: Drevnerusskaia pevcheskaia kul'tura i knizhnost' [Old Russian Singing Culture and Booklore]. Leningrad. Pp. 20–46 (in Russian).
  5. Guseinova Z. (1999) Russkie muzykal'nye azbuki 15–16 vekov [Russian Musical ABC-Books of the 15th — 16th Centuries]. St Petersburg (in Russian).
  6. Guseinova Z. (2008) “Notirovannye rukopisi Kirillo-Belozerskogo monastyria XV veka” [Notated Manuscripts of Kirillo-Belozerskiy Monastery of the 15th Century], in Ustnaia i pis'mennaia transmissiia tserkovno-pevcheskoi traditsii: Vostok–Rus'–Zapad [Oral and Written Transmission of Church Singing Tradition: East — Rus’ — West]. Moscow. Pp. 85–97 (in Russian).
  7. Lebedev S. (ed.) Istoricheskii atlas srednevekovoi muzyki [Historical Atlas of Medieval Music]. Moscow (Russian translation).
  8. Lozovaia I. (1999) “Vizantiiskie prototipy drevnerusskoi pevcheskoi terminologii” [Byzantine Prototypes of Old Russian Singing Terminology], in: Keldyshevskii sbornik: Muzykal'noistoricheskie chteniia pamiati Iu. V. Keldysha 1997 [Keldysh’s Collection. Musical and Historical Readings in Memory of Iu. V. Keldysh]. Moscow. Pp. 62–72 (in Russian).
  9. Parfent'ev N. (1991) Drevnerusskoe pevcheskoe iskusstvo v dukhovnoi kul'ture Rossiiskogo gosudarstva XVI–XVII vv.: Shkoly. Tsentry. Mastera [Old Russian Art of Singing in Spiritual Culture of the Russian State of the 16th — 17th Centuries: Schools, Centres, Masters]. Sverdlovsk (in Russian).
  10. Pletneva E. (2003) “Notatsiia v pesnopeniiakh drevnerusskikh Oktoikhov Izbornykh i Shestodnevov Sluzhebnykh (XIII–XV vv.)” [Notation in Chants of Old Russian Oсtoechoi and Hexaemeroi (13th — 15th Centuries). XIII Ezhegodnaia Bogoslovskaia Konferentsiia Pravoslavnogo Sviato- Tikhonovskogo Bogoslovskogo Instituta: Materialy 2003 [13th Annual Theological Conference of St. Tikhon Theological Institute]. Moscow. Pp. 443–451 (in Russian).
  11. Russkaia dukhovnaia muzyka v dokumentakh i materialakh [Russian Spiritual Music in Documents and Materials]. Vol. 7: Afonskaia ekspeditsiia Obshchestva liubitelei drevnei pis'mennosti, 1906 [Athos Expedition of the Society for Ancient Manuscripts, 1906]. Book 2: Afonskaia kollektsiia [Athonite Collection]. Moscow, 2012 (in Russian).
  12. Troelsgård Ch. (2011) Byzantine Neumes. Copenhagen.
  13. Uspenskii B. (2013) “Bukva E v drevnerusskikh pevcheskikh tekstakh i v spiskakh bibleiskoi knigi Iskhod” [The Letter E in Old Russian Singing Tests and in Copies of the Book of Exodus]. Voprosy iazykoznaniia, 6, pp. 79–114 (in Russian).
  14. Wolfram G. (ed.) (1987) Codex Vindobonensis theol. gr. 136 (Sticherarium antiquum Vindobonense). Reproduction integrale. Pars Principalis. Wien.
  15. Zabolotnaia N. (2001) Tserkovno-pevcheskie rukopisi Drevnei Rusi XI–XIV vekov: Osnovnye tipy knig v istoriko-funktsional'nom aspekte [Church Singing Manuscripts in Ancient Rus’ of the 11th — 14th Centuries: Main Types of Books in Historical and Functional Aspect]. Moscow (in Russian).
Zakharina Nina
Academic Degree: Doctor of Sciences* in Art Criticism;
Place of work: St. Petersburg State Conservatory; 3 Teatral’naya Sq., St. Petersburg 190000, Russian Federation;
ORCID: 0000-0001-9511-7794;
Email: zakharina@rambler.ru. *According to ISCED 2011, a post-doctoral degree called Doctor of Sciences (D.Sc.) is given to reflect second advanced research qualifications or higher doctorates.
This research was supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (RFBR) grant № 17-34-00023 (Monodic hymns to the Mother of God on the Great Feasts of the 11th-17th centuries: Greek-Slavonic parallels). I thank I.Geraimova for provided materials.
Захарьина Н. Б. О музыкальной композиции канона Успению Богородицы «Преукрашенная Божественною славою» // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия V: Вопросы истории и теории христианского искусства. 2020. Вып. 38. С. 9-22. DOI: 10.15382/sturV202038.9-22
Church hymns of Eastern Christian tradition have some common musical forms constructed with intonation formulae. The use of these forms is connected with the system of podobie (‘similarity’). Musical composition of the canon to the Dormition of Theotokos The one adorned by divine glory (Church Slav. Преукрашенная Божественною славою) is made of intonation formulae of Znamenny chant. Two formulae have the same beginning and diff erent endings, thus forming the intrigue of the hearer’s expectation. The canon is preseved in Byzantine, Old Russian and Kievan chant books. It is written with Paleobyzantine, Middle Byzantine (round) and fi ve-line (Kievan) notation. The Paleobyzantine version is a basis of the Znamenny version, and the Kievan copies (both neumatic and fi ve-line) are based on the Znamenny version. Comparison of manuscripts of the three traditions shows stability in the musical form. Manuscripts with the Middle Byzantine notation and printed chant books are additional sources which were used for the reconstruction of the melodic line. Comparison of the melodies demonstrates certain diff erences in the three traditions. The composition based on two intonation formulae is also used in Slavonic copies of the automelon O wonderful miracle (O дивное чудо, sticheron to the Dormition). The automelon is preserved in the same manuscripts as the canon. The structure of the sticheron was changed over the centuries, which may be due to the infl uence of the canon.
comparative studies, Znamenny chant, canon, automelon, musical structure, intonation formula
  1. Brazhnikov M. (1984) Litsa i fity znavennogo raspeva [‘Litsa’ i ‘fi ty’ of Znamenny chant]. Leningrad (in Russian).
  2. Guseinova Z. (2009) “Rannie Irmologii Troitse-Sergievoi lavry” [Early Heirmologions of Trinity Lavra of St. Sergius]. Vestnik Pravoslavnogo Sviato-Tikhonovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Seriia V: Voprosy istorii i teorii khristianskogo iskusstva, 1 (4), pp. 7‒16 (in Russian).
  3. Jakobson R. (ed.) (1957) Fragmenta Chilandarica palaeoslavica: B.: Hirmologium: Codex monasterii Chilandarici 308: Phototypice depictus. Copengagen.
  4. Krysko V. (ed.) (2005) Il’ina kniga: Rukopis RGADA, Typ. 131 [Il’ina kniga: Manuscript of RGADA, 131]. Moscow (in Russian).
  5. Kruchinina A. (2002) “Popevka znamennogo rospeva v russkoi muzykalnoi teorii XVII veka” [‘Popevka’ of Znamenny chant in Russian music theory of the 17th century], in Pevcheskoe nasledie Drevnei Rusi [Legacy of the art of singing of Ancient Rus’]. St. Petersburg (in Russian).
  6. Parfentieva N., Parfentiev N. (2015) “Stikhiry ‘na podoben’ tsaria Ivana Groznogo v chest’ Vladimirskoi ikony presviatoi Bogoroditsy” [Ivan’s the Terrible Stichera “on automelon” dedicated to Vladimir icon of Theotokos]. Bulletin of the South Ural State University. Series Social Sciences and the Humanities, 15 (4), pp. 83–99. (in Russian)
  7. Popov A. (2000) “Tekhnika kompozitsii drevnerusskikh rospevshchikov (Na primere Irmologia kontsa XVII v.” [Technique of composition of Old Russian chanters, with Heirmologion of the late 17th c. as an example]. Gimnologiia, 1 (1), pp. 281‒290 (in Russian).
  8. Ramazanova N. (1992) “Ob ierarkhii zhanrov v drevnerusskoi sluzhbe” [On the hierarchy of genres in Old Russian church service], in A. Kruchinina, N. Ramazanova (eds) Istochnikovedcheskoe izuchenie pamiatnikov pis'mennoi kul'tury: Poetika drevnerusskogo pevcheskogo iskusstva [Study of sources of literary monuments. Poetics of Old Russian art of singing]. St Petersburg. Pp. 150–160 (in Russian).
  9. Rakhmanova M., Borisovets E., Shekhovtsova I., Tutolmina S. (eds) (2012) Russkaia dukhovnaia muzyka v dokumentakh i materialakh [Russian spiritual music in documents and materials]. Vol. 7: Afonskaia ekspeditsiia Obshchestva liubitelei drevnei pis'mennosti (1906) [Athos expedition of the Ancient Texts Society (1906)]. Book 2: Afonskaia kollektsiia [Athos collection]. Moscow (in Russian).
  10. Starikova I. (2017) “Kanon” [Canon], in Pravoslavnaia encyklopedia [Orthodox Encyclopaedia], vol. 30. Moscow. Pp. 204–212 (in Russian).
  11. Strunk O. (1977) Essays on Music in the Byzantine World. New York.
  12. Troelsgard Ch. (2000) The Repertories of Model Melodies (Automela) in Byzantine Musical Manuscripts. Cahiers de l'Institut du Moyen-Âge Grec et Latin, 71. Copenhagen. Pp. 3–27.
  13. Uspenskii B. (ed.) (2006) Tipografskii Ustav: Ustav s kondakarem kontsa XI — nachala XII veka. Moscow (in Russian).
Zakharina Nina
Academic Degree: Doctor of Sciences* in Art Criticism;
Place of work: St. Petersburg State Conservatory; 3 Teatral’naya Sq., St. Petersburg 190000, Russian Federation;
ORCID: 0000-0001-9511-7794;
Email: zakharina@rambler.ru. *According to ISCED 2011, a post-doctoral degree called Doctor of Sciences (D.Sc.) is given to reflect second advanced research qualifications or higher doctorates.
This research was supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (RFBR) grant № 17-34-00023 (Monodichymns to the Mother of God on the Great Feasts of the 11th-17th centuries: Greek-Slavonic parallels)My thanks to N. A. Shchepkina for consulting on the Greek copies of hymns.My thanks to I. V. Gerasimova for the materials provided by the Kiev-Lithuanian tradition