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Гречушкин Д. В. Духовное образование в годы великих реформ на примере Воронежского женского епархиального училища // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия II: История. История Русской Православной Церкви. 2019. Вып. 91. С. 47-60. DOI: 10.15382/sturII201991.47-60
The issue of improving education of the clergy by the mid-19th century was raised not only in state and synodal institutions, but was also vividly discussed in secular and church-related press. The great reforms undertaken by emperor Alexander II implied qualitative changes in the system of education of the clergy and their children. The new statute of theological seminaries and colleges of 1867 was very positively evaluated by the clergy and teachers, the main reason for which was the increased funding of educational institutions. However, despite the eff orts of the state to strengthen and modernise religious education, seminaries and colleges were in the acute need of suffi cient fi nancial support, whereas the state was not able to provide it under the current circumstances. This article aims to show how religious education was developing in the period of domestic reforms with Voronezh diocesan girls’ college. It studies the work of priests and laymen of Voronezh diocese in organising the diocesan college for girls in 1865 as well as the education process and everyday life of the fi rst dicesan educational institution for daughters of the clergy in the 1860s and 1870s. Using archival data, periodicals and published sources, the article describes the performance of the students, regulations of their everyday life, traits of their religious and moral state. A prominent event which demonstrated positive material change in the girls’ college was the construction and consecration of the house church with the acquisition of all necessary utensils. The article concludes that the changes that took place in religious education in the course of the reforms had undoubtedly positive results, but the liberal character of the changes had created grounds for the future systemic problems.
Russian Orthodox Church, Russian Empire, Great Reforms, Voronezh and Zadonsk diocese, diocesan school for girls, religious education
  1. Dneprov E., Usacheva R. (2009) Zhenskoe obrazovanie v Rossii [Women’s Education in Russia]. Moscow (in Russian).
  2. Ikonnikov S. (2014) Prikhodskoe dukhovenstvo Voronezhskoi eparkhii (vtoraia polovina XIX — nachalo XX veka) [Parish Clergy of Voronezh Diocese (2nd Half of the 19th — Early 20th Centuries)]. Voronezh (in Russian).
  3. Mramornov A. (2007) Dukhovnaia seminariia Rossii nachala XX veka: krizis i vozmozhnosti ego preodoleniia (na saratovskikh materialakh) [Theological Seminary in Russia of the Early 20th Century: the Crisis and Means to Overcome it (with materials from Saratov as an example)]. Saratov (in Russian).
  4. Nikol’skii P. (2011) Istoriia Voronezhskoi dukhovnoi seminarii [History of Voronezh Theological Seminary]. Voronezh (in Russian).
  5. Pyl’nev Iu., Rogachev S. (1999) Istoriia shkoly i narodnogo prosveshcheniia Voronezhskogo kraia. XVIII — nachalo XX veka [History of School and People’s Education of Voronezh Region 18th — Early 18th Centuries)]. Voronezh (in Russian).
  6. Rimskii S. (1999) Rossiiskaia Tserkov’ v epokhu Velikikh reform. Tserkovnye reformy v Rossii 1860‒1870-kh godov [Russian Church in the Epoch of the Great Reforms. Church Reforms in Russia in the 1860s — 1870s]. Moskva (in Russian).
  7. Smirnov V. (1954) Reforma nachal’noi i srednei shkoly v 60-kh godakh XIX v. [Reform of the Elementary and Secondary School in the 1860s]. Moscow (in Russian).
  8. Sushko A. (2010) Dukhovnye seminarii v poreformennoi Rossii [Theological Seminaries in Post- Reform Russia]. St. Petersburg (in Russian).
  9. Vessel’ N. (1959) Ocherki ob obshchem obrazovanii i sisteme narodnogo obrazovaniia v Rossii [Essays on Compulsory Education in the System of People’s Education in Russia]. Moscow (in Russian).
Grechushkin Dmitriy, priest
Student status: Graduate student;
Student status: Graduate student;
Place of study: SS Cyril and Methodius theological institute of post-graduate studies; 4/2 Pyatnitskaya Str., Moscow 115035, Russian Federation;
ORCID: 0000-0002-3724-926X;
Email: dmitry-ministr@rambler.ru.
Гречушкина Н. А. Марфо-Мариинская обитель милосердия в 1918—1926 годы: состав общины и мотивы поступления в сестричество // Вестник ПСТГУ. Серия II: История. История Русской Православной Церкви. 2020. Вып. 92. С. 130-143. DOI: 10.15382/sturII202092.130-143
This paper is devoted to the lives of the sisters of Martha and Mary Convent (Moscow) who lived there since 1918, i.e. after the arrest of the founder of the Convent, Grand Duchess Elizabeth. The sisters stayed in the Convent till 1926, the year when the Convent was closed by the government. The article briefl y describes the Convent’s activities during the period in question. It shows the main challenges which the sisters faced; these challenges were rooted in the Bolsheviks’ policy. The paper also reveals the attitude of authorities of the Convent towards the Soviet government, as well as the methods that the sisters used to preserve church way of life in the Convent amidst the newly emerged political situation. Drawing on archival data, the article analyses social backgrounds, age-related strata of the sisterhood, the level of the sisters’ education and the motives that encouraged them to become nuns. While analysing biographical details of the sisters and female employees of the Convent, the article takes into consideration the fact that their personal data were obtained from them during interrogations in the investigating agencies of United Governmental Political Administration (Russ. ОГПУ). The article emphasises that the main merit in preserving Martha and Mary Convent after the coup of October 1917 belongs to the second abbess Valentina Sergeyevna Gordeeva and her main assistants. The author of the article claims that the sisters’ ideological motivation in becoming nuns could play a positive role in the life of the Convent, because this religious organisation remained open for a comparatively long period, notwithstanding the anti-religious legislation of the state.
Martha and Mary Convent, members of sisterhood community, sisters’ motivation, anti-religious policy, preserving church community, female monasticism, monasteries of Moscow
  1. Gorinov M., Ivanova E., Sharipov A., Voitikov S. (2009) Marfo-Mariinskaia obitel’ miloserdiia. 1909‒2009. K 100-letiiu sozdaniia Obiteli [Martha and Mary Convent, 1909‒2009. The 100th Anniversary of Establishing the Monastery]. Moscow (in Russian).
  2. Khristoforov V. (2008) “O zakrytii Marfo-Mariinskoi obiteli miloserdiia” [On the Dissoultion of Martha and Mary Convent]. Vestnik tserkovnoi istorii, 1 (9), pp. 130‒152 (in Russian).
  3. Medvednikov G. (1991) “Sestra miloserdiia: ob Aleksandre Vladimirovne Medvednikovoi” [Sister of Mercy: Alexandra Vladimirovna Medvednikova]. Moskovskii zhurnal, 2, pp. 57‒58 (in Russian).
  4. Pereslegin N. (2014) “Marfo-Mariinskaia obitel’ miloserdiia v Moskve v kontekste okhrany pamiatnikov arkhitektury (1917‒1991)” [Martha and Mary Convent in Moscow in Context of Protection of Architectural Monuments (1917‒1991)]. Vestnik Moskovskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta kul’tury i iskusstv, 3, pp. 83‒87 (in Russian).
  5. Ul’ianovskii V. (ed.) (2014) Biografi cheskii slovar’ vypusknikov Kievskoi dukhovnoi akademii: 1819‒1920e gg.: Materialy iz sobraniia prof. protoiereia F. I. Titova i arkhiva KDA [Biographical Dictionary of Graduates of Kiev Theological Academy: 1819‒1920s: Materials from the Collection of Prof. Archpriest F. I. Titov and Archive of Kiev Theological Academy], vol. 2. Kiev (in Russian).
  6. Zotova L. (2012) “Sistema zhenskogo obrazovaniia v Rossii v nachale XX veka v sviazi s problemoi vostrebovannosti i perspektiv zhenskogo truda: istoriko-sotsial’nyi aspect” [The System of Female Education in Russia at the Beginning of the 20th Century in Connection with the Problem of Demand and Prospects for Female Labour: A Historical and Social Aspect]. Professional’noe obrazovanie v Rossii i za rubezhom, 1 (5), pp. 11‒15 (in Russian).
Grechushkina Natalia
Academic Degree: Candidate of Sciences* in Biology;
Place of work: St. Tikhon’s Orthodox University for Humanities; 6/1 Likhov per., Moscow, 127051, Russian Federation;
Post: Student, Faculty of Theology;
ORCID: 0000-0003-2257-4470;
Email: grenat2013@yandex.ru. *According to the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) 2011, the degree of Candidate of Sciences (Cand.Sc.) belongs to ISCED level 8 — "doctoral or equivalent", together with PhD, DPhil, D.Lit, D.Sc, LL.D, Doctorate or similar.
I express my gratitude to the abbess of the Martha and Mary Convent of Mercy Mother Superior Elisaveta (Pozdnyakova) for the idea to write the article and its creative discussion, to her scientific adviser, professor, church. History, Ph.D., Fr. Alexander Mazyrin for a scientific discussion of the work and valuable comments, as well as to the management and employees of the Central Archive of the FSB of Russia for the opportunity to work with archival materials.